Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable
COOPER, Job Adams, governor of Colorado, was born near Greenville, Ill., Nov. 6, 1843; son of Charles and Maria (Hadley) Cooper. His father was born in Maidstown, Kent county, England, came to America and settled in Newark, N. J., in 1806, learned the trade of carriage making and in 1840 removed to Bond county, Illinois, where he engaged in farming and died in 1865. Job was graduated at Knox college, A.B. in 1865, and A.M. in 1868. He served in the civil war, 1864-65, with the 137th Illinois volunteers. He was admitted to the bar in 1867 and practised in Greenville, Ill. He was circuit clerk and recorder of Bond county, 1868-72; removed to Denver, Col., in 1872, where he practised law, engaged in insurance business, in banking and in stock raising. In 1888 he was elected governor of Colorado as a Republican, serving 1889-91. He was president of the National bank of commerce, 1891-99. He was married Sept. 17, 1867, to Jane O., daughter of the Rev. Romulus E. Barnes of Galesburg, Ill., and their son Charles J. (Knox college, 1897) succeeded to the management of the banking and mining business of his father who died in Denver, Col., Jan. 20, 1899.
CORWIN, Franklin, representative, was born in Lebanon, Ohio, Jan. 12, 1818; son of Matthias and Minerva (Brown) Corwin; grandson of Matthias and Patience (Halleck) Corwin, and a nephew of the Hon. Thomas Corwin. He attended the public schools, was admitted to the bar in 1839, represented the towns of Fayette and Clinton in the 45th general assembly of Ohio, 1846-47, and was a state senator, 1847-49. In 1857 he removed to Peru, Ill., and subsequently served in the 24th, 25th and 26th general assemblies of Illinois, acting as speaker during the last two terms. He represented his district as a Republican in the 43rd congress, 1873-75.
Crebs, John M., representative, was born in Middleburg, Loudoun county, Va., April 9, 1830. At the age of seven he was taken to Illinois where he was educated and in 1852 received admission to the White county bar, practising in Carmi, Ill. He entered the Federal army in 1862 as lieutenant-colonel of the 87th Illinois volunteer. He was promoted brigadier-general, served with distinction throughout the war, was mustered out June 16, 1865, and returned to his law practice. He was a Democratic representative in the 41st and 42d congresses, 1869-73. He died in Carmi, Ill., June 26, 1890.
Crittenden, John Jordan, statesman, was born near Versailles, Woodford county, Ky., Sept. 10, 1787; son of Maj. John. Crittenden, and a direct descendant of Thomas Jefferson. His father, an officer in the Continental army, removed from Virginia to Kentucky about 1784, became a successful planter and died in 1809. The son was graduated at William and Mary college, Williamsburg, Va., in 1806, studied law under the Hon. George M. Bibb and was licensed to practise. He was attorney-general of the territory of Illinois, 1809-10, and served in the war of 1819-13. He was married in 1811 to Sallie O., daughter of Maj. John Lee of Woodford county, Ky. He located at Russellville, Ky., where he practised law and represented Logan county in the state legislature, 1811-17, serving during the last term as speaker. In 1817 he was elected to the U.S. senate and served through the 15th congress, 1817-19, then resigned and was succeeded by Richard M. Johnson. In 1819 he removed to Frankfort in order to practise in the higher courts. He afterward represented Franklin county in the state legislature for several years during the time of the court controversy, and championed the old court. In 1827 he was U.S. district attorney, and in 1829 was removed by President Jackson. He was again elected to the U.S. senate in 1835, and was reflected in 1841, but resigned when he was appointed by President Harrison attorney-general in his cabinet, March 4, 1841. He resigned from the attorney-generalship upon the death of the President, and on March 31, 1842, upon the resignation of Henry Clay as U.S. senator, he became his successor by appointment of Governor Letcher, and in 1843 was elected for a full term. He resigned from the senate in 1848 upon being elected governor of Kentucky, and resigned the governorship in 1850 to accept the position of attorney-general in the cabinet of President Fillmore. As attorney-general he wrote an opinion on the constitutionality of the fugitive slave law. At the close of the administration the legislature of Kentucky again returned him to the U.S. senate and he served, 1855-61. He opposed the repeal of the Missouri compromise, took issue with the policy of Presidents Pierce and Buchanan, and in 1860 favored the election of Bell and Everett. He was then elected a representative from Kentucky to the 37th congress. He was opposed to the secession of the southern states and made strenuous efforts to effect a compromise that would avert civil war. In the 37th congress, July, 1861, he offered a resolution that was adopted with but two dissenting votes: declaring the war to be waged only to defend and maintain the supremacy of the constitution and preserve the Union and that when this was accomplished the war should cease. He opposed the admission of West Virginia as a separate state and the employment of colored men as soldiers. His last speech in congress was delivered when he was seventy-six years old. The state of Kentucky erected a monument to his memory. He received the degree of LL.D. from Centre college, Ky., in 1860. See his Life by Mrs. Chapman Coleman. He died near Frankfort, Ky., July 23, 1863.
Cullom, Shelby Moore, senator, was born in Monticello, Ky., Nov. 22, 1829; son of Richard Northcraft and Elizabeth (Coffey) Cullom. His father was a farmer, legislator and statesman and in 1830 removed to Tazewell county, Ill., where Shelby was brought up on the farm and inured to manual labor. He spent two years at Rock River seminary, Mount Morris, Ill., paying his tuition by teaching school. He located in Springfield, Ill., in 1853, studied law, and in 1855 was admitted to the bar, establishing himself at Springfield where he was elected city attorney. In 1856 he was presidential elector and the same year was elected to the Illinois house of representatives. In 1860 he was again elected a state representative and was chosen speaker in 1861. In 1862 President Lincoln appointed him a commissioner with George S. Boutwell and Charles A. Dana to pass upon the accounts of the U.S. quartermastermasters and commissary officers. He was a representative in the 39th, 40th and 41st congresses, 1865-71, and in his last term was chairman of the committee on territories, taking a prominent part in national legislation. In 1872 he was chairman of the Illinois delegation at the Republican national convention at Philadelphia and placed General Grant in nomination for the presidency. He was again a state representative in 1873 and 1874 and was speaker of the house in 1873. In 1876 he was elected governor of Illinois and was re-elected in 1880. In 1884 he was again chosen chairman of the Illinois delegation at the Republican national convention, at Chicago. In 1883 the legislature of the state elected him U.S. senator, re-electing him in 1889, 1895 and 1901. In 1892 he was a third time chosen chairman of the Illinois delegation to the Republican national convention, at Minneapolis. In the senate he was chairman of the committee on interstate commerce, a member of the committees on appropriations, census, foreign relations and additional accommodations for the library of congress and also a regent of the Smithsonian institution. He was married Dec. 12, 1855, to Hanna M. Fisher, who died in March, 1861, and on May 5, 1863, he was married to Julia Fisher.
Curtis, William Stanton, educator, was born in Burlington, Vt., Aug. 3, 1820; son of Lewis and Abigail (Camp) Curtis; grandson of Gabriel and Susanah (North) Curtis; and a descendant of Thomas Curtis (b. 1598, d. 1681), of Wethersfield, Conn. His father removed to Missouri in 1820 and subsequently to Wisconsin Territory. He was graduated at Illinois college in 1838, studied theology in New Haven, Conn., 1838-41; was stated supply in the First Congregational church, Rockford, Ill., 1841; pastor of the First Presbyterian church at Ann Arbor, Mich., 1842-55; acting professor of moral and intellectual philosophy in the University of Michigan, 1851-52; professor of moral philosophy and college pastor at Hamilton college, 1855-63; and president of Knox college, Galesburg, Ill., 1863-68. He resigned in 1868 and was pastor of Westminster Presbyterian church, Rockford, Ill., 1869-75; travelled in Europe, Palestine and Egypt, 1876-77, and on his return supplied vacant churches in the vicinity of his home. He was for many years director of the McCormick theological seminary. He received the degree of D.D. from Madison university, N.Y., in 1857. He died in Rockford, Ill., June 30, 1885.
Cutler, Hannah Maria Tracy (Conant), reformer, was born in Becket, Mass., Dec. 25, 1815; daughter of John and Orpha (Johnson) Conant. She was married in 1834 to the Rev. J.M. Tracy. After his death in 1843 she prepared herself as a teacher and was matron of the Columbus, Ohio, deaf and dumb asylum, 1848-49. In 1851 she visited England as a newspaper correspondent at the London World's fair and as a delegate from the United States to the peace congress. She was married to Samuel Cutler in 1852 and upon removing to Illinois became an advocate of woman's rights. In the civil war she was president of the Western Union aid commission. She was graduated at the Homoeopathic college, Cleveland, Ohio, in 1869, and practised medicine in Cobden, Ill. She accompanied her son, J. M. Tracy, an artist, to France and was there during the years 1873-75. She wrote: Woman as She Was, Is, and Should Be (1846); Phillipia, or a Woman's Question (1886); and The Fortunes of Michael Doyle (1886). She died in Ocean Springs, Miss., in February, 1896.
Davis, Charles Wilder, soldier, was born in Concord, Mass., Oct. 11, 1833. He was educated in the public school, became a member of the 5th Massachusetts militia, and removed to Chicago, Ill., where he was employed in a book store, and in 1862 entered the volunteer army as captain in the 51st Illinois infantry. He was made adjutant of the regiment and was promoted to the rank of major in September, 1862. His first battle was at Island No. 10, and his next at Corinth. He was wounded at Murfreesboro, Dec. 31, 1862, and again at Chickamauga, Sept. 19, 1863. He was promoted lieutenant-colonel and was severely wounded at Missionary Ridge, Nov. 25, 1863, and confined in hospital for several months. He received promotion to the rank of colonel in May, 1865, and in the same month received the surrender of Gen. M. Jeff Thompson's army of Missouri of 7978 men. He was mustered out of the volunteer service in June, 1865, and returned to Chicago, where he was active as a member of the G.A.R, and of the Loyal legion. He was commander of the Illinois commandery of the Loyal legion at the time of his death, which occurred at Chicago, Ill., Dec. 16, 1898.
Davis, David, jurist, was born at the Rounds, Sassafras Neck, Cecil county, Md., March 9, 1815; son of David Davis, a physician of Cecil county; and grandson of Naylor Davis of Prince George county. He attended the schools of his native county, an academy in Delaware, and Kenyon college, from which last he was graduated in 1832. He then studied law with Judge Henry W. Bishop at Lenox, Mass., and at the law school at New Haven, Conn., under Judges Daggett and Hitchcock, and was admitted to practice in 1835. He located in Pekin, Ill., but ill health soon led him to remove to Bloomington, Ill. In 1844 he was elected to the legislature of Illinois as a Henry Clay Whig, and in 1847 was a delegate to the state constitutional convention. Upon the adoption of the new constitution in 1848 he was elected judge of the eighth judicial district of Illinois, without opposition, and at a time when the circuit was strongly Democratic. He gained the friendship of Abraham Lincoln and for years they rode the circuit, which extended over fourteen counties. He was re-elected judge in 1855; supported Mr. Lincoln in his canvass against Judge Douglass for U.S. senator in 1858, and in 1860 was sent by the Republican state convention to Chicago as a delegate-at-large to the national convention, where his leadership brought about the nomination of Mr. Lincoln. After the election Judge Davis was a chief councillor of the President and accompanied him to Washington in February, 1861. After the inauguration he returned to his duties on the circuit and used his efforts toward a peaceable adjustment of the questions at issue between the states. He was re-elected a second time judge of the eighth circuit in 1861. President Lincoln appointed him with Hugh Campbell of St. Louis and Joseph Holt, former secretary of war in Buchanan's cabinet, as a committee to adjust the war claims against the department of Missouri and to investigate the conduct of General Frémont in the administration of the affairs of the department. In 1862 President Lincoln appointed Judge Davis a visitor to the U.S. military academy and the same year to the seat on the bench of the United States supreme court made vacant by the death of Mr. Justice McLean. He became a firm friend of Chief Justice Taney and this friendship was maintained up to the time of the death of the latter. He administered the estate of Abraham Lincoln in 1865. In 1870 he signed the minority report of the supreme court, giving as his opinion that the act of congress making government notes a legal tender for the payment of debts, was constitutional. At this time the ex parte Mulligan case, one of the most important cases of the period and one exciting wide public interest, was assigned to him. It involved the question of individual liberty and the power of the government in times of war. The leading thoughts of Mr. Justice Davis's decision are: "The Constitution of the United States is a law for rulers and people in war and in peace and covers with the shield of its protection all classes of men at all times and under all circumstances. The government within the constitution has all the powers granted to it which are necessary to preserve its existence, as has been happily proved by the result of the great effort to overthrow it." In 1872 he accepted the nomination of the Labor Reform party as its candidate for President, and his name was also presented at the Liberal Republican national convention at Cincinnati, where he received ninety-two and a half votes on the first ballot. On the nomination of Mr. Greeley, however, he withdrew from the field as the candidate of the Labor Reform party. It was in first accepting the nomination that Justice Davis made use of the oft-quoted expression: "The chief magistracy of the republic should neither be sought nor declined by any American citizen." In 1876 the Independents in the Illinois legislature united with the Democrats and elected Justice Davis to the United States senate. He resigned his seat on the bench of the U.S. supreme court and took his seat in the senate, March 4, 1877. He served on the committee of the judiciary and in 1881, on the reorganization of the senate, under the administration of President Garfield, he declined the chairmanship of the judiciary committee. Upon the accession of Vice-President Arthur to the presidency, Senator Davis was elected president of the senate at the convening of the 47th congress, Dec. 5, 1881, and accepted the position with the frank statement that "if the least party obligation had been made a condition, directly or indirectly, he would have declined the compliment." He resigned from the senate in 1883 and retired to his farm near Bloomington, Ill. He received the honorary degree of LL.D. from Beloit college in 1863; from the Illinois Wesleyan university in 1865; from Williams college in 1873; and from St. John's college in 1874. He was married, Oct. 30, 1838, to Sarah W., daughter of Judge William Perrin Walker of Lenox, Mass., and had one son, George Perrin, who was graduated from Williams in 1864 and from the University of Michigan law school in 1867, practising in Bloomington, Ill.; and one daughter, Mrs. Sarah D. Swayne. Mrs. Davis died Nov. 9, 1879, and on March 14, 1883, Judge Davis was married to Adeline E. Burr of Fayetteville, N.C. He died in Bloomington, Ill., June 26, 1886.
Davis, Hasbrouck, soldier, was born in Worcester, Mass., April 18, 1827; son of the Hon. John and Eliza (Bancroft) Davis; and a brother of John Chandler Bancroft Davis. He was graduated at Williams college in 1845; studied in Germany, 1846-47; taught in Worcester high school, 1847-48, and was pastor of the Unitarian society, Watertown, Mass. 1849-54. In 1854 he was admitted to the bar of Massachusetts, where he practised his profession, but soon removed to Chicago. In 1862 he joined the 11th Illinois cavalry as lieutenant-colonel. He was with the army of the Potomac under McClellan on the advance on Richmond in 1862 and his regiment made up a portion of Stoneman's command which pursued the Confederates on their retreat from Yorktown in April, 1862. He was in command of the cavalry operating against Martinsburg and Harper's Ferry; led his command through the Confederate lines to Greencastle, Pa., on the night of Sept. 14, 1862, and in the raid captured an ammunition train. He was promoted colonel, Jan. 5, 1864, and on March 13, 1865, was brevetted brigadier-general. He was elected city attorney of Chicago in 1866. In 1870 he sailed for Europe from New York city on board the steamer Cambria, and was lost at sea with that steamer, Oct. 19, 1870.
Davis, John, representative, was born in Sangamon county, Ill., Aug. 9, 1826; son of Joseph and Sarah (Myers) Davis, and grandson of James Davis of Virginia and of Henry Myers. He was brought up on his father's farm in Macon county, and was educated at Springfield academy, and Illinois college, Jacksonville. He opened a farm in Macon county, ten miles east of Decatur, in 1850, which he cultivated for many years. He was married in 1851 to Martha, daughter of the Rev. Joseph Powell of Wisconsin. He removed in 1872 to Kansas where he took up a large farm two miles west of Junction City, and immediataly became interested in the farmers' movement to secure a measure of protection from monopolies. In 1873 he was elected president of the first distinctive farmers' convention ever held in Kansas. He joined the grange movement and in February, 1874, was president of the convention that organized the new party. In 1875 he became proprietor and editorial writer on the Junction City Tribune. He also spoke and wrote extensively on economic subjects as correspondent of the journal of the Knights of Labor and other reform mediums. He was elected a representative from the 5th Kansas district in the 52d and 53d congresses by the People's party, serving 1891-95, and was defeated for the 54th congress with his party. In congress he made able speeches on finance, tariff reform, transportation and the income tax. He was the solitary representative before the senate and house committees, and on the floor of the house to advocate woman suffrage, and he introduced and supported the bill which placed two women on the school board in the District of Columbia. In the 52d congress the bill allowing to the state of Florida a claim amounting to over $567,000 for alleged services rendered by the Florida militia from 1849 to 1857, in the war against the Seminoles, had passed the senate and had been favorably reported by the house, when Mr. Davis attacked and defeatad the bill. It came up again in the 53d congress, with a favorable report from the majority of the committee, but Mr. Davis, in a speech delivered July 27, 1894, killed the bill by reciting the history of the Seminole troubles, the causes of the war, and the injustice of the claim. He published: Napoleon Bonaparte: a Sketch Written for a Purpose (1895); Public Ownership of Railroads; The Conquest of the Prairies; The Bank of Venice. He died in Topeka, Ks., in 1901.
Davis, Nathan Smith, physician, was born in the township of Greene, N.Y., Jan. 9, 1817; son of Dew and Eleanor (Smith) Davis. He was graduated in medicine from the College of physicians and surgeons of the western district of New York (Fairfield) in January, 1837, and practised at Binghamton, N.Y., 1837-47. He removed to New York city in 1847, and in addition to general practice, he was assistant demonstrator of anatomy and lecturer on medical jurisprudence in the College of physicians and surgeons of New York, and editor of the Annalist, 1847-49. He was professor of physiology and pathology in the Rush medical college, Chicago, Ill., 1849-50, and of principles and practice of medicine, 1850-59; and held a similar position in the Chicago medical college, afterward the Northwestern university medical school, 1889-92, officiating as dean of the faculty, 1865-98. He was one of the chief founders of the Mesey hospital of Chicago in 1850, and was one of the attending physicians and clinical instructors until 1892. He was also professor of medical jurisprudence in the Union college of law, afterward Northwestern university law school, 1875-96. He was one of the chief founders of the American medical association in 1846-47, of the Illinois state medical society, and of the Chicago medical society, both in 1850. He took an active part in the international medical congress in connection with the Centennial celebration at Philadelphia, 1876, giving the address on the progress of medical education during the first century of our national history. He also took a leading part in organizing the ninth international medical congress held in Washington, D.C., 1887, first as secretary-general and subsequently as president. He was one of the organizers and active supporters of the Chicago academy of sciences, the Northwestern university, the Chicago historical society, the Relief and aid society, and the American medical temperance association. He edited the Chicago Medical Journal, 1855-59; the Chicago Medical Examiner, 1860-73, and the Journal of the American Medical Association, 1883-89. He was married to Anna M., daughter of John and Alvira (Wadhams) Parker. He received the honorary degree of A.M. from the Northwestern university in 1871, and that of LL.D. from the Illinois Wesleyan university in 1878, and from the Northwestern university in 1897. Besides numerous contributions to medical periodicals, the transactions of medical societies and other medical works, he is the author of: A Textbook on Agricultural Chemistry Designed for use in the Public and High Schools (1848); A History of Medical Education and Institutions in the United States (1850); A History of the American Medical Association (1855); Clinical Lectures on Various Important Diseases (1878); and Lectures on the Principles and Practice of Medicine (1884, 2 ed., 1886).
Davis, Nathan Smith, physician, was born in Chicago, Ill., Sept. 5, 1858; son of Dr. Nathan Smith and Anna M. (Parker) Davis, and grandson of Dew and Eleanor (Smith) Davis, and of John and Alvira (Wadhams) Parker. He prepared for college at private schools in Chicago, and at the academy of Northwestern university; was graduated at Northwestern university in 1880, and at Chicago medical college in 1883; and studied medicine at hospitals and laboratories in Heidelberg and Vienna in 1885. He was associate professor of pathology in Northwestern university medical college, 1884-86; became professor of principles and practice of medicine and of clinical medicine there in 1886, and secretary of the faculty in 1895. He was appointed physician to Mercy hospital in 1884; was a member of the American medical association; of the 9th International medical congress; of the Pan-American medical congress; chairman of the section of practice, Illinois state medical society, 1893; trustee of Northwestern university; member of the board of management of the Y.M.C.A. of Chicago; of the American climatological society; the American academy of medicine; the Illinois state medical society; the Chicago medical society; the Chicago medico-legal society; the Chicago academy of sciences; the Illinois state microscopical society, and the Chicago literary club. He was married in 1884, to Jessie B., daughter of Judge James C. Hopkins of Madison, Wis. He is the author of: Consumption: How to Prevent It, and How to Live with It; Diseases of Lungs, Heart and Kidneys; and of numerous contributions to periodical medical literature.
De Garmo, Charles, educator, was born at Mukwanago, Wis., Jan. 7, 1849; son of Rufus and Laura (Wilbur) De Garmo; grandson of Elias De Garmo; and a descendant of Pierre De Garmo, who came to Poughkeepsie, N.Y., in 1680. He was graduated at the Illinois state normal school in 1873, was principal of a school in Naples, Ill., 1873-76, and had charge of a department in the Illinois state normal school, 1876-83, meanwhile, with Edmund J. James, establishing the lllinois School Journal, which afterward became the Public School Journal. He studied in the universities of Jena and Halle, Germany, 1883-86; was professor of modern languages in the Illinois state normal school, 1886-90; professor of psychology and pedagogy in the University of Illinois, 1890-91, and president of Swarthmore college, 1891-98. In 1898 he was elected professor of the science and art of education in Cornell university, to succeed Prof. S.G. Willtams, who resigned Feb. 23, 1898. In 1883 he became a member of the National educational association, and was elected one of its council and director for the state of Pennsylvania. In 1898 he served as president of the National council of education. He was also chosen president of the Herbartian society upon its foundation in 1892. He received the degree of Ph.D. from the University of Halle in 1886. His published writings include: The Essentials of Method (1889); and a translation of Lindner's Manual of Empirical Psychology as an Inductive Science (1889). He also edited several works, including Apperception by Carl Lange (1894); and Ufer's Introduction to the Pedagogy of Herbart (1896). He wrote Herbart and the Herbartians for the Great Educator series (1896); and prepared a series of Language Lessons for elementary schools (1897); besides contributing numerous articles to periodicals.
De Motte, Harvey Clelland, educator, was born in Greene county, Ill., July 17, 1838; son of John L. and Phebe Amanda (Curry) De Motte. He was prepared for college at Bloomington, Ill., and in 1861 was graduated at the Illinois Wesleyan university, where he was professor of mathematics, 1861-84, and vice-president of the university, 1866-84. In May, 1862, he enlisted in the Union army, under special call, for three months, going to the front as 1st lieutenant of Company G, 68th Illinois volunteers, and returned to his work as a teacher in October. In 1884 he was elected president of Chaddock college, Quincy, Ill., resigning in 1887 to become superintendent of the Soldiers' Orphans' home, at Normal, Ill. In September, 1896, he assumed the position of editor-in-chief of the Leader, published at Bloomington, Ill. He was married, July 26, 1864, to Sarah J. Kern of Atlanta, Ill. He received the degree of Ph.D. from Syracuse university in 1877 and that of LL.D. from Baker university in 1883.
De Motte, William Holman, educator, was born at Harrodsburg, Ky., July 17, 1830; son of Daniel and Mary (Brewer) De Motte; grandson of John and Anne (Cozine) De Motte, and of John and Jane (Van Arsdol) Brewer; and a descendant of Richard De Motte of Long Island, N.Y., a Huguenot, who came to America the latter part of the seventeenth century. He was graduated at De Pauw university in 1849 and was a teacher in the Indiana institution for the deaf, 1850-64. In 1864-65 he was Indiana state military and sanitary agent, stationed at Washington, D.C., and in the latter year was elected president of the Indiana female college. This office he resigned in 1868 to accept the presidency of the Illinois female college at Jacksonville, Ill. He was superintendent of the Wisconsin institution for the deaf, 1875-80, and superintendent of the Kansas institution for the deaf, 1880-82. In 1882 he was chosen president of Xenia college, Ohio, resigning in 1889 to become teacher in the Indiana institution for the deaf, Indianapolis, Ind. He was married in 1852 to Catharine Hoover, who died in 1872, and in 1874 to Anna A. Graves. He received from De Pauw university the degree of A.M. in 1852 and from Lawrence university that of LL.D. in 1877.
Dempster, John, educator, was born in Florida, Orange county, N.Y., Jan. 2, 1794; son of the Rev. James Dempster, a Scotchman by birth, educated at the University of Edinburgh and appointed by John Wesley missionary to America. The son entered the ministry in 1815, and was appointed to the Genesee conference. He held many of the more important appointments in New York city and elsewhere, was for some tinge presiding elder, and was missionary to Buenos Ayres, 1835-41. In 1847 he opened a biblical institute at Concord, N.H. He became chief instructor and remained there until 1852, when he was elected president of the Illinois Wesleyan university. He held this office nominally for two years, never, however, performing any of its duties, as he was engaged in rounding a school at Evanston, Ill., which became the Garrett biblical institute. He remained there as senior professor until his death. McKenzie college and Wesleyan university, Middletown, conferred upon him the degree of D.D. in 1848. He is the author of: Lectures and Addresses (1864). He died in Evanston, Ill., Nov. 28, 1863.
Douglas, Stephen Arnold, statesman, was born in Brandon, Vt., April 23, 1813; only son of Stephen Arnold and Sarah (Fisk) Douglas, and the fifth Stephen Arnold Douglas in direct line in the Doug!as family. His father died suddenly of heart failure when his son was two months old and while holding the infant in his arms. His mother removed with the family to a farm where Stephen attended the district school and was brought up after the manner of farmers' sons. When fifteen years old he apprenticed himself to a cabinet maker and with the money carried by eighteen months' work he attended the Brandon academy one year. His mother about this time was married to Hezekiah Granger, and his sister to a son of his stepfather and the two families removed to a farm near Clifton Springs, N.Y., where Stephen entered the Canandaigua academy and pursued his law studies. In 1833 he visited Cleveland, Cincinnati, Louisville, St. Louis, and other towns in the new west, seeking a desirable field to complete his law studies and practise his chosen profession. At Winchester, Ill., he opened a school which he conducted for three months, devoting his evenings to study. In March, 1834, he was licensed to practise law and opened an office in Jacksonville. He became well known as a political orator, and delivered an address, sustaining the administrative conduct of President Jackson, that commanded the attention of politicians. The legislature of Illinois elected him attorney-general of the state in 1835, which office he resigned in December, 1835, having been elected a state representative by the Democrats of Morgan county. In 1837 President Van Buren appointed him register of the land office at Springfield, Ill., and he held the office two years. He was an unsuccessful candidate for representative in the 25th congress in 1837, being defeated by five votes after fifty votes for him had been rejected, his name on the ballot being misspelled. At this time the state had but three representatives in congress. In 1840 he entered the presidential campaign as a supporter of Martin Van Buren, during which he addressed over two hundred public meetings, mostly in the open air, and as a result Van Buren carried the state. In December, 1840, he was appointed secretary of the state of Illinois and in February, 1841, was elected by the legislature a judge of the supreme court. In 1843 he resigned his seat on the bench to become the Democratic candidate for representative in congress and he was elected to the 28th and re-elected to the 29th congresses, serving 1843-47. He was re-elected to the 30th congress in 1846, but before that congress assembled, Dec. 6, 1847, he was elected by the state legislature a senator in congress for six years from March 4, 1847. He was re-elected in 1853 and again in 1859, after a memorable joint canvass of the state with Abraham Lincoln, the Republican candidate, serving in the United States senate, 1847-61. In the house of representatives he opposed the demands of Great Britain in the Oregon controversy, advocated the annexation of Texas, and sustained the administration of President Polk. He opposed the Clayton-Bulwer treaty and favored the annexation of Cuba if it could be accomplished lawfully and honorably. In 1854 Senator Douglas introduced and advocated the Kansas-Nebraska bill and incurred the bitter hatred of all abolitionists as well as extreme pro-slavery men by declaring slavery a question to be regulated by popular sovereignty and not by Federal legislation. In the debates on the compromise measures of 1850, which he supported, he stood the peer of Clay and Webster. In 1858 and again in 1860 he travelled through the southern states and encouraged the Union sentiment in every way, denying the right of secession and counselling moderation and constitutional measures for redressing wrongs. As early as 1852 his name had been prominent in the Democratic national convention of Baltimore for presidential candidate and in 1856 it was again presented to the national convention assembled at Cincinnati, but when the majority of the delegates declared their preference for James Buchanan, Senator Douglas telegraphed from Washington for his friends to withdraw his name and in no case to have it used in a contest under the two-thirds rule. The convention had adopted a platform that fully covered the principles always advocated by him and he came into the canvass of 1856 fully competent to give hearty support to the Democratic party. His triumphant re-election to the senate in 1860 had paved the way for his presidential aspirations and the national convention at Charleston stood ready to place him at the head of the ticket. The withdrawal of the delegates from the southern states prevented his nomination and resulted in the breaking up of the convention. When the convention reassembled at Baltimore he received the nomination of a factional ticket, John C. Breckenridge receiving the nomination of the southern Democrats and John Bell that of the so-called Union party, and the election in 1860 resulted in Breckenridge receiving 72 electoral votes, Bell 39, and Douglas 12. In the popular vote he stood next to Lincoln, receiving more than beth Breckenridge and Bell combined. After the election Senator Douglas used his influence in maintaining the Union sentiment and he counselled the upholding of all constitutional measures used by the President in putting down the rebellion. He was a zealous champion of President Lincoln and in his declining days he dictated messages to his constituents and to the Democrats of the entire country, counselling them to preserve the union of the states. He was a regent of the Smithsonian institution and received the honorary degree of LL.D. from Middlebury college, Vt., in 1851. He was married in 1847 to Martha, daughter of Col. Robert Martin of Rockingham county, N.C. She died, Jan. 19, 1853, and in November, 1856, he was married to Adele, daughter of James Madison Cutts of Washington, D.C., who survived him and who was married in 1863 to Gen. Robert Williams, U.S.A. His son, Stephen Arnold, the sixth in line, became a prominent Chicago lawyer and political orator, and his elder son, Robert Martin, became a supreme court judge in North Carolina. His Life was written by James W. Sheahan and by Henry M. Flint as campaign documents in 1860. He died in Chicago, Ill., June 3, 1861.
Drummond, Thomas, jurist, was born in Bristol Mills, Maine, Oct. 16, 1809; son of the Hon. James and Jane (Little) Drummond. He was graduated from Bowdoin college in 1830. He was admitted to the bar in 1833, practising in Philadelphia, Pa., 1833-35. He then removed to Galena, Ill., and in 1839 was married to Delia, daughter of John P. Sheldon of Willow Springs, Wis. He was a representative in the Illinois legislature, 1840-41; U.S. district judge, 1850-69; removed to Chicago, Ill., in 1854, and was judge of the 7th circuit, 1869-84. He lived in Galena, 1835-54; Chicago, 1854-84; Winfield, 1884-88, and Wheaton, 1888-90. He died in Wheaton, Ill., May 15, 1890.
Dubois, Fred Thomas, senator, was born in Crawford county, Ill., May 29, 1851; son of Jesse Kilgore and Delia (Morris) Dubois. He was prepared for college at Springfield, Ill., was graduated at Yale in 1872, became a clerk in a counting-house, and afterward obtained a position in the state auditor's office. In 1875 he was appointed secretary of the board of railway and warehouse commissioners in Illinois. In 1880 he removed to Blackfoot, Idaho, and was employed at the Fort Hall agency until 1882, when he was appointed U.S. marshal for the territory. He was a delegate to the 50th and 51st congresses, serving until the admission of Idaho as a state in 1890. On Dec. 18, 1890, he was elected U.S. senator from Idaho, serving until March 3, 1897. He was a delegate to the Republican national convention in 1892 and was selected to notify Whitelaw Reid of his nomination as vice-president. He was also a delegate to the Republican national convention at St. Louis in 1896 and left the convention and the Republican party. He was made chairman of the executive committee of the silver Republican party.
Ducat, Arthur Charles, soldier, was born in Dublin, Ireland, Feb. 24, 1830; youngest son of Mungo and Dorcas (Atkinson) Ducat. He was educated as a civil engineer, came to America in 1851 and settled in Chicago, Ill., where he was employed on important railroads and on public works. He was secretary and chief surveyor of the board of underwriters of Chicago, Ill., 1857-61, during which time he introduced the paid fire department system in Chicago. In April, 1861, he raised a corps of sappers and miners for service in the Union army, and on the government refusing to employ them he enlisted as a private in the 12th Illinois volunteers, served in Missouri, Illinois and Kentucky, under Lyon and Grant, and was rapidly promoted lieutenant, adjutant, captain and major. For bravery displayed at the capture of Forts Donelson and Henry he was promoted lieutenant-colonel and continued under Grant until August, 1862, participating in all the battles, including Pittsburg Landing. He served as outpost officer, commanding the grand guards and pickets of the army of the Tennessee, instituting that system afterward adopted by the war department. He was appointed inspector-general on the staff of General Rosecrans and his chief of staff when that general commanded the army of the Ohio. He fought in the battle of Corinth and was inspector-general of the 14th army corps and subsequently of the army of the Cumberland. He inaugurated the bureau of the inspector-general's department as used in the war department and also organized a signal service corps for the army of the Cumberland at Nashville. He served in all the battles up to and including Chickamauga, and when General Rosecrans was relieved he was made inspector-general on the staff of Gen. George H. Thomas and served as such until January, 1864, when he resigned on account of failing health, having declined to be transferred to the invalid corps with the rank of brigadier-general. Upon returning to Chicago he assumed charge of the business of the Home insurance company of New York city in Illinois and several adjacent states and subsequently added to his business the agency of four other New York companies. In 1875, by direction of Governor Beveridge, he reorganized the militia of Illinois. He framed the bill for the development of the national guard of the state, passed in 1877, and Governor Cullom appointed him major-general of the first division. He resigned this commission in 1879 and the state passed a law abolishing the office. He was elected to a companionship of the first class in the Military order of the Loyal Legion. He prepared and published: Ducat's Practice of Fire Underwriting. He died at Downer's Grove, Ill., Jan. 29, 1896.
Duncan, Joseph, governor of Illinois, was born in Paris, Ky., Feb. 22, 1789; son of David Duncan, an officer of the Revolutionary army, who migrated from Massachusetts to Pennsylvania, and thence to Kentucky soon after the close of the war. Joseph was admitted to the bar but entered the army before practising his profession, serving throughout the war of 1812. In 1818 he removed to Kaskaskia, Ill., where he served as major-general of militia and as state senator from Brownsville, 1824-26. He was a representative in the 20th, 21st, 22d and 23d congresses, 1827-31, and resigned his seat in congress in 1834, having been elected to the office of governor of Illinois, in which office he served, 1834-38. He died at Jacksonville, Ill., Jan. 15, 1844.
Duncan, Thomas, soldier, was born in Kaskaskia, Ill., April 14, 1819; son of Joseph Duncan, afterward governor of Illinois. He served in the Black Hawk war in the Illinois mounted infantry, 1832, and subsequently in various military expeditions, and in 1846 was promoted 1st lieutenant in the U.S. mounted rifles. He served in the Mexican war and was a participant in the siege and capture of Vera Cruz. He was then on recruiting duty and was promoted captain in 1848. He was stationed in New Mexico, 1856-62, were he commanded the forts and took part in the Navajo expedition of 1858, and against the Comanche Indians in 1861, being promoted major in June of that year. He commanded Fort Craig, N.M., led the cavalry at Valverde and his regiment at Albuquerque, where he was wounded by a spent cannon ball, losing a piece of his skull. He was on provost duty in Iowa, 1863-66, was made lieutenant-colonel of the 5th U.S. cavalry in July, 1866, and commanded the district of Nashville, 1866-68, when he was ordered to the department of the Platte. He was on sick leave, 1871-73, and was retired in January, 1873. He received brevets for gallantry in the civil war, including that of brigadier-general, March 13, 1865. He died in Washington, D.C., Jan. 7, 1887.
Eckels, James Herron, comptroller of the currency, U.S., 1893-97, was born in Princeton. Ill., Nov. 25, 1859. He was graduated at the Albany (N.Y) Law School, 1880, and practised law in Illinois until 1893, when he was appointed comptroller of the currency. He held the office until 1897, when he became president of the Commercial National Bank, Chicago, Ill.
Edwards, Ninian, senator, was born in Montgomery county, Md., in March, 1775. He was a son of Benjamin and Margaret (Beall) Edwards. He entered Dickinson college in the class of 1792, but did not complete the course. His father's family removed to Bairdstown, Ky., in 1795, and he was elected a representative in the state legislature before reaching his majority. He was admitted to the Kentucky bar in 1798 and to that of Tennessee in 1799. He was clerk and afterward judge of the general court of Kentucky was elevated to the circuit court in 1803, to the court of appeals in 1806 and was made chief justice in 1808. He was appointed governor of the territory of Illinois by President Madison upon its organization in 1809, and remained in office till 1818 when the territory became a state. He organized volunteer rangers, built stockade forts and prepared for the protection of the immigrant settlers against Indian depredations. In 1816 he was one of three commissioners appointed to treat with Indian tribes. Upon the organization of the new state government he was elected a U.S. senator and drew the short term. He served through the 15th congress and was re-elected for a full term in 1819. He resigned in 1824 to accept the appointment of minister to Mexico. Mr. Edwards reached New Orleans en route to his post when he was recalled by President Monroe, charges having been made against him by the secretary of the treasury, and he was succeeded by J. McLean, who completed his term. On his return to Illinois he was elected governor of the state and served 1826-30. His son, Ninian Wirt, was the first state superintendent of schools for Illinois, 1854. His brother Cyrus, 1793-1877, was for thirty-eight years a trustee of Shurtleff college from which he received the degree of LL.D. Another brother, Dr. Benjamin F., 1797-1877, was an original trustee of Shurtleff in 1836. He published: The Life and Times of Ninian Edwards and History of Illinois (1870); and The Edwards Papers (1884). Governor Edwards died at Belleville, Ill., July 20, 1833.
Edwards, Ninian Wirt, lawyer, was born near Frankfort, Ky., April 15, 1809; son of Ninian Edwards, at the time chief justice of the court of appeals of Kentucky. He removed with his father to Kaskasia, Ill., when yet an infant. He was educated at Transylvania university, pursued a course of law there and was graduated LL.B. in 1833. While a student he was married, Feb. 16, 1832, to Elizabeth P., daughter of Robert S. Todd and sister of Mary Todd, who became the wife of Abraham Lincoln. He was admitted to the bar in 1833 and in 1834 was appointed by Governor Reynolds attorney-general of Illinois. He resigned in 1835 and removed to Springfield, Ill. He was a representative in the Illinois legislature, 1836-52, a member of the convention that framed the state constitution of 1848, and with Abraham Lincoln and others he advocated the removal of the state capital from Vandalia to Springfield in 1837. He was appointed by Governor Matteson in 1854 attorney for the state before the board of commissioners appointed to investigate the claims of canal contractors amounting to over $1,500,000, and the same year was made state superintendent of public instruction, the first to hold that office in the state. The state legislature retained him in this office three years and he drafted the free school law, first adopted by the state. He was U.S. commissary of subsistence with the rank of major from August, 1861, to June 22, 1865. He then retired from public life and from the practice of his profession. Abraham Lincoln was married to Mary Todd at his house in Springfield, Ill., Nov. 4, 1842, and Mrs. Lincoln died there, July 16, 1882. Mrs. Edwards died there, Feb. 22, 1888. Major Edwards, at the request of the Illinois historical society, prepared Life and Times of Ninian Edwards and History of Illinois (1870). He died in Springfield, Ill., Sept. 2, 1889.
ESHER, John Jacob, clergyman, was born in Strasburg, Alsace, Dec. 11, 1823. His parents came to the United States in 1830, and settled near Warren, Pa. In 1836 they removed to Illinois. John Jacob was licensed to preach in the Evangelical church in 1845, became presiding elder of Wisconsin in 1849, was a founder of Northwestern college, edited some of the church publications, in 1863 was elected bishop, and was reflected for two successive terms. He visited foreign countries for missionary work. He wrote an account of his travels, a treatise on systematic theology and a catechism. He died in Chicago, April 16, 1901.
EVANS, Jervice Gaylord, educator, was born in Marshall county, Ill., Dec. 19, 1833; son of Joshua and Elisabeth (Radcliff) Evans, and grandson of Thomas Evans, who came from Wales. His mother's parents were natives of Germany. He attended the Ohio Wesleyan university, and in 1854 became a minister in the Methodist Episcopal church. He was married June 14, 1857, to Nettie G. Gardiner of Powell, Ohio. He preached in various places until 1872 when he became president of Hedding college, Ill., resigning in 1878 to accept the presidency of Chaddock college, Quincy, Ill. In 1879 he returned to the pulpit, and in 1889 again became president of Hedding college. He was for six years secretary of the Central Illinois conference, and for four years presiding elder. He was a delegate to the general conference in 1876, 1884, 1892 and 1896, and in 1884 was a delegate to the centennial conference of American Methodism, held in Baltimore. In the General conference of 1892, held in Omaha, he was chairman of the committee on temperance and prohibition, and from that time was a member of the permanent committee on temperance, by appointment of the General conference. He received the degrees of A.M. from Quincy college in 1870, D.D. from Chaddock college in 1884, and LL.D. from the Chicago college of science in 1889. He is the author of: Genesis and Geology (1875); Tobacco (1877); The Pulpit and Politics (1886); The Woman Question (1887); Christianity and Science vs. Evolution and Infidelity (1895); Parental Obligation (1898); Christian Citizenship (1898), and numerous pamphlets, lectures and sermons.
EVANS, John, governor of Colorado, was born near Waynesville. Ohio, March 9, 1814; son of David and Rachel Evans; grandson of Benjamin and Hannah (Smith) Evans, and great-grandson of an early Quaker settler of Philadelphia. He removed to Philadelphia in 1835 and entered Clermont academy. He received his M.D. degree in 1838 from the medical department of Cincinnati college. In 1839 he was married to Hannah, daughter of Joseph Canby, and removed to Attica, Ind. He resided in Indianapolis, Ind., 1842-45. He held the chair of materia medica in the Rush medical college, Chicago, Ill., 1845-56, and later edited the Northwestern Medical and Surgical Journal of Chicago. He founded the Illinois general hospital of the Lakes, and was prominent in establishing the Methodist book concern in Chicago. He was the chief instrument in founding the Northwestern university, in a suburb of Chicago which was named Evanston in his honor. and he endowed the chairs of Latin and mental and moral philosophy in that institution with $100,000. He was a delegate to the Republican national convention in 1860, and in 1862 was appointed territorial governor of Colorado, serving until 1865, when he was removed by President Johnson. In 1863 he was influential in building Colorado seminary, which afterward became the University of Denver, and to which he presented about $150,000. He was organizer and president of several railroad companies and other enterprises. He was married in 1853 to Margaret P., daughter of Samuel Gray of Maine, and their daughter Josephine became the wife of Gov. Samuel Hitt Elbert of Colorado. Governor Evans died in Denver, Col., July 3, 1897.
EWING, James Stevenson, diplomatist, was born in Woodford county, Ill., July 19, 1835. He was graduated at Centre college, Danville, Ky., in 1858; studied law in the office of John C. Bullett of Philadelphia, Pa., and was admitted to the Illinois bar, practising in Bloomington. He was appointed by President Cleveland, U.S. envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to Brussels, Belgium, in 1893, serving till the close of the administration when he returned to the practice of his profession. He was married to Catharine Spencer of Bloomington, Ill.
FALLOWS, Samuel, Reformed Episcopal bishop, was born in Pendleton, near Manchester, England. Dec. 13, 1835; son of Theseus and Anne (Ashworth) Fallows. He immigrated with his parents to America in 1848 and settled in Wisconsin. He was graduated from the University of Wisconsin as valedictorian in 1859, was vice-president of Galesville university, Wis., 1859-61; pastor of the Methodist church, Oshkosh, Wis., 1861, and served in the civil war, 1861-65. He was chaplain of the 32d Wisconsin volunteers; organized the 40th Wisconsin infantry composed almost entirely of college students and graduates and known as the "God and Morality" regiment; was colonel of the 49th Wisconsin infantry, and attained the rank of brevet brigadier-general of volunteers. He was professor of natural sciences in the Lawrence university, Wis.; pastor of the Summerfield Methodist church and of the Spring Street church in Milwaukee, Wis., 1865-71; regent of the University of Wisconsin, 1866-74; state superintendent of public instruction, 1870-74; professor elect of logic and rhetoric in the University of Wisconsin, and president of Illinois Wesleyan university, Bloomington, 1873-75. He became rector of St. Paul's Reformed Episcopal church, Chicago, Ill., in May, 1875; editor of the Appeal, 1876; and was ordained bishop, July 15, 1876. He was repeatedly elected presiding bishop. He was appointed a manager of the Illinois state reformatory and served as president of the board from 1891. He organized the Peoples' institute, Chicago, Ill.; was chairman of the general educational committee of the World's congresses, 1893, and was afterward made chancellor of the University association, the outgrowth of the World's congresses. He received from Lawrence university the degree of D.D. in 1873 and from the University of Wisconsin that of LL.D. in 1895. He published a Supplemental Dictionary (1884); Past Noon, (1886); Synonyms and Antonyms (1885); The Bible Story (1890); Life of Samuel Adams (1897).
FARNHAM, Eliza Woodson (Burhans), philanthropist, was born in Rensselaerville, N.Y, Nov. 17, 1815. She went to Illinois in 1835, where she met Thomas Jefferson Farnham, a native of Vermont and a lawyer, to whom she was married in 1836. In 1839 her husband took command of an expedition to Oregon and in 1841 she returned to her native state, Mr. Farnham remaining on the Pacific coast, where he wrote Travels in Oregon Territory (1844); Adventures in California (1846); and Mexico, its Geography, People and Institutions (1846). He died in California in 1848. Mrs. Farnham in 1844 became matron of the Woman's prison, Sing Sing, N.Y., and there instituted a government of the department by kindness, which was a revelation in the line of prison discipline. In 1848 she gave up her position to accept one in the Institution for the blind, Boston, Mass. In September, 1848, she went to California in order to settle up the estate of her deceased husband. She returned to New York in 1856, studied medicine in 1857-58, and in 1859 organized an emigration society to provide homes in the west for destitute women. She is the author of Life in Prairie Land (1846); California Indoors and Out (1856); and My Early Days (1859). She also edited Sampson's Criminal Jurisprudence, and wrote Ideal Attained (1865), and Woman and Her Era (2 vols., 1864). She died in New York city, Dec. 15, 1864.
FARNSWORTH, John Franklin, representative, was born in Eaton, Canada, March 27, 1820. He settled in Michigan in 1834, where he acquired a classical education, studied law and practised his profession. He removed to Chicago, where he was elected as a Republican representative in the 35th and 36th congresses, serving 1857-61. He recruited the 8th Illinois cavalry regiment and was elected its colonel in 1861. He was then commissioned by the war department to recruit the 17th Illinois regiment, and on Nov. 29, 1862, was commissioned brigadier-general. He was in active duty at the front until March, 1863, when by reason of injuries received he was forced to resign. He made his home in St. Charles, Ill., and was a representative from his district in the 38th-42d congresses, inclusive, 1863-73. He then engaged in the practice of law in Washington, D.C. His nephew, Gen. Elon John Farnsworth, was killed while leading a cavalry charge at Gettysburg, July 3, 1863. John F. Farnsworth died in Washington, D.C., July 14, 1897.
FARWELL, Charles Benjamin, senator, was born near Painted Post, Steuben county, N.Y., July 1, 1823. His first ancestor in America left England for Massachusetts in 1640. He attended Elmira academy and engaged in land surveying and farming until 1844, when he removed to Chicago, Ill., where he was a clerk in the county clerk's office, teller in a bank, and from 1853 to 1861, clerk of Cook county. In 1861 he entered into the dry goods business in partnership with his brother John Villiers Farwell, under the firm name, John V. Farwell & Co. He was a member of the state board of equalization in 1867; chairman of the board of supervisors of Cook county in 1868, and a national bank examiner in 1869. He was a Republican representative from Illinois in the 42d and 43d congresses, 1871-75. His seat in the 44th congress was successfully contested by J. V. Le Moyne in 1876. He was again a representative, serving in the 47th congress, 1881-83, declining re-election. In 1887 he was elected to the U.S. senate to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Gen. John A. Logan and served until March 4, 1891. In 1887 he built with his brother the Texas state capitol, for which they received three million acres of land which they turned into a ranch and stocked with 150,000 cattle. He died in Chicago, Sept. 24, 1903.
FIFER, Joseph Wilson, governor of Illinois, was born in Staunton, Va., Oct. 28, 1840; son of John and Mary (Daniels) Fifer. His father was a bricklayer and removed with his family to McLean county, Ill., in 1857, where he built a log cabin and opened a farm in the wilderness. Joseph's early educational advantages were limited to the district school. In 1861 with his brother George, he walked fifteen miles to Bloomington, Ill., and there enlisted in the 33d Illinois regiment. He took part in the Vicksburg campaign of 1863. He was severely wounded at Jackson, Miss., July 13, 1863, and was incapacitated from further active service. His term of enlistment expired in 1864 and he returned home and began a course of study, determining to gain a college education and pay his own expenses in the meantime. This he did by serving as tax collector, working at bricklaying and cutting cord-wood. He was graduated at Illinois Wesleyan university B.S. in 1868, and was admitted to the bar in June, 1869, beginning practice at Bloomington. He was corporative counsel for the city in 1871; state's attorney for McLean county, 1872-79; state senator, 1880-84, and governor of Illinois, 1889-92. He was defeated for re-election in 1892 by John B. Altgeld, Democrat. In 1896 he was a prominent candidate for the vice-presidency before the Republican national convention and in November, 1899, was appointed by President McKinley an inter-state commerce commissioner. He was a trustee of Illinois Wesleyan university, 1891-93, and received the degree of LL.D. from that institution in 1892.
FINLEY, John Huston, educator, was born at Grand Ridge, Ill., Oct. 19, 1863; son of James G. and Margaret (McCombs) Finley, grandson of Ebenezer Finley of Fayette county, Pa., and a descendant of the Rev. James Finley, brother of the Rev. Samuel Finley, president of the College of New Jersey. He spent his boyhood on an Illinois farm, and was graduated at Knox college, A.B, 1887, A.M., 1890. He then entered upon post-graduate studies at Johns Hopkins university in the department of history and economics, studying under Drs. H. B. Adams, R. T. Ely, Woodrow Wilson and J. F. Jameson. After nearly two years at Johns Hopkins he became secretary of the State Charities and association of New York. He founded and edited for three years the State Charities Record and in 1891 became the editor of the Christian Review. He was called to the chair of sociology in Leland Stanford Jr. university, and at about the same time was offered the presidency of Knox college and accepted the latter, succeeding Dr. Bateman in 1892. He resigned in June, 1899, to associate himself with the Harpers and McClures in a joint literary enterprise. He received the degree of LL.D. from Knox college in 1899. With Professor Richard T. Ely he wrote Taxation in American States end Cities (1889). He became president of the College of the City of New York in 1903.
FISHER, Oscar Louis, educator, was born in Stephenson county, Ill., Aug. 12, 1844; son of George W. and Barbara A. (Williams) Fisher; grandson of John and Mary Fisher, and of Benjamin and Elizabeth Williams, and a descendant of Dutch, Scotch, Welsh and Irish ancestors. He took an academic course at Rock River seminary at Mt. Morris, Ill., and was graduated from the Garrett Biblical school of Northwestern university, Illinois, in 1871. He entered the Upper Iowa conference of the Methodist Episcopal church in 1871 and was pastor, presiding elder and superintendent of church extension in Iowa, 1871-73, and in Denver, Col., 1873-90. He was elected president of Fort Worth university, Texas, in 1891.
FITHIAN, George W., representative, was born near Willow Hill, Ill., July 4, 1854; son of Glover and Mary A. (Catt) Fithian, and grandson of Israel Fithian. He attended the public schools and learned the printer's trade at Mount Carmel, Ill., which business he followed till he was admitted to the bar in 1875. He was state's attorney of Jasper county, 1876-84; represented the 16th Illinois district in the 51st, 52d and 53d congresses, 1889-95; and was railroad and warehouse commissioner of the state of Illinois, 1895-97.
FLAGG, Willard Cutting, pomologist, was born in Moro, Madison county, Ill., Sept. 16, 1829. His father, a pioneer farmer of Illinois, was a brother of Azariah Cutting Flagg, the New York Democratic politician. Willard was brought up on the farm, and was graduated at Yale, A.B., 1854, A.M., 1857. After graduation he took charge of the farm and became a prominent agriculturist. He was secretary of the Illinois state horticultural society, 1861-69; senator in the Illinois legislature, 1869-73; secretary of the board of trustees of the Illinois industrial university, 1867-78; secretary of the American pomological society, 1873-78; president of the Illinois state farmers' association, 1872-78, and president of the National agricultural congress, 1875-78. He was editor of the Annual Reports of the Illinois State Horticultural Society (1863-69); of the Reports of the Trustees of the Illinois lndustrial University (1868-74); of the horticultural department of the Prairie Farmer (1872-78); and chief editor of the American Encyclopædia of Agriculture (1876-78). He died at Moro, Ill., March 30, 1878.
FOLEY, Thomas, R. C. bishop, was born in Baltimore, Md., March 6, 1822. He received his scholastic and theological education at St. Mary's college and the Seminary of St. Sulpice, Baltimore, and was ordained a priest, Aug. 17, 1846, by Archbishop Eccleston, who placed him in charge of St. Mary's mission, Rockville, Montgomery county, Md., and soon afterward appointed him assistant to Father Matthew at St. Patrick's church, Washington, D. C. He was chancellor of the archdiocese of Baltimore, 1848-51, secretary to Archbishop Kenrick in 1851, and vicar general to Archbishop Spalding in 1867. He was sent to Chicago in 1868 to determine the condition of the diocese incident to the apparent insanity of the Rt. Rev. James Duggan, bishop of Chicago. He was consecrated at Baltimore, Md., Feb. 27, 1870, bishop of Pergamos, and coadjutor-bishop of Chicago and administrator of the diocese. The great fire of Oct. 7, 8 and 9, 1871, destroyed several of the finest churches, schools and asylums in the diocese, and Bishop Foley rebuilt the churches, erected the Cathedral of the Holy Name, founded five new convents and seven academies, and during his administration increased the number of churches from 200 to 300 and the number of priests from 142 to 200. At his death the legislature of Illinois passed resolutions expressing its estimate of his worth and of the loss sustained by the community, and the citizens of Chicago, without regard to creed, voiced their sorrow in public meetings and at their several churches. He died at Chicago, Ill., Feb. 19, 1879.
FORBES, Stephen Alfred, naturalist, was born in Silver Creek, Ill., May 29, 1844; son of Isaac Sawyer and Agnes (Van Hoesen) Forbes, and a lineal descendant from Daniel Forbes [Forbush], who emigrated from Scotland to Massachusetts in 1650. He attended Beloit academy and Rush medical college, and received the degree of Ph.D. from the Indiana state university in 1884. During the civil war he served four years in the volunteer cavalry and was mustered out as captain of his company. In 1872 he was appointed curator of the Illinois museum of natural history, which, in 1877, was changed to the Illinois state laboratory of natural history, Mr. Forbes retaining the directorship. He was professor of zoology in the State normal university, 1875-78; in 1882 was appointed state entomologist of Illinois, and in 1884 became professor of zoology and entomology in the University of Illinois. In 1888 he was made dean of the college of science in that institution, and in 1894 founded and became director of the Illinois biological station. He was for many years secretary of the Illinois state natural history society; was president of the Cambridge (Mass.) entomological club; a member of the American ornithological union, and of the Society for the promotion of agricultural science. He organized, in 1888, and became president of the natural science division of the State teachers' association. In 1890 he was charged by the U.S. fish commission with the investigation of the lower aquatic animal life of the waters of the northern Mississippi valley, of the Yellowstone Park, and the mountain region of Montana. His published papers are chiefly included in his reports as state entomologist; in the Bulletins of the State laboratory of natural history, and of the United States Fish commissions. He also published: Studies of the Food of Birds, Fishes and Insects (1883); and Studies of the Contagious Diseases of Insects (1886), and numerous contributions to scientific periodicals.
FORD, Thomas, governor of Illinois, was born at Uniontown, Pa., Dec. 5, 1800; son of Robert Ford. His father was killed by the Indians, and the son was taken at an early age by his widowed mother, first to the territory west of the Mississippi river, and subsequently to Monroe county, Ill., where he studied law and was admitted to the bar. He was judge of the circuit court and later a judge of the supreme court, from which latter office he was elected governor of Illinois, serving 1842-46. As governor he saved the financial honor of the state by opposing the proposed repudiation of the state debt of over fifteen million dollars wasted by former administrations in useless internal improvements and wild-cat banking schemes. He published: History of Illinois from 1818 to 1847 (1854). In 1896 the state erected over his grave a suitable monument. He died in Peoria, Ill., Nov. 3, 1850.
FORMAN, William S., representative, was born in Natchez, Miss., Jan. 20, 1847; son of William B. and Mary C. Forman; and grandson of Hamilton Forman of Kentucky. In 1851 he removed with his father to Washington county, Ill. He was admitted to the bar in 1871, was a member of the state senate during the 34th and 35th general assemblies, 1885-89, and represented the 18th Illinois district in the 51st, 52d and 53d congresses, 1889-95. He was United States commissioner of internal revenue from Nov. 20, 1896, to Jan. 1, 1898.
FORT, Greenberry Lafayette, representative, was born in French Grant, Scioto county, Ohio, Oct. 11, 1825. He removed to Illinois in 1834 and was admitted to the bar in 1847, practising in Lacon, Ill. He held several minor political offices and in 1857-61 was judge of Marshall county. He served throughout the civil war in the army of the Tennessee, being quartermaster-general in Sherman's march to the sea. In 1866 he was mustered out of the service with the rank of colonel and the brevet rank of brigadier-general of volunteers. He served in the Illinois senate in 1866, and was a representative in the 43d, 44th and 45th congresses, 1873-79. He died in Lacon, Ill., Jan. 13. 1883.
FOSS, George Edmund, representative, was born in Berkshire Vt. July 2, 1863; son of George E. and Marcia (Noble) Foss. He was graduated from Harvard in 1885, and entered the Columbia law school and the School of political science in New York city. He was graduated from the Union college of law, Chicago, in 1889, and was admitted to the bar, practising in Chicago, Ill. He was a Republican representative from the 7th Illinois district in the 54th, 58th congresses, 1895-1905.
FOSTER, John Wells, geologist, was born in Brimfield, Mass., March 4, 1815. He completed a scientific course at Wesleyan university in 1834 and was admitted to the bar in 1835, practising at Gainesville, Ohio, 1835-37. He assisted William Williams Mather in the geological survey of Ohio, 1837-44; investigated the copper mines of the Lake Superior region in behalf of various mining companies in 1845-46, and with Josiah Dwight Whitney assisted Charles J. Jackson in a government survey of the region, 1847-49. He was a resident of Massachusetts, 1844-58, and in 1854 was the unsuccessful candidate of the Republican party for representative from the 10th Massachusetts district to the 34th congress. He removed to Chicago, Ill., in 1858 and was land commissioner for the Illinois central railway. He made extensive archæological surveys in the Mississippi valley, studying mounds and other evidences of prehistoric races. He was a member of the American association for the advancement of science, 1840-73; its president, 1869; president of the Chicago academy of sciences and a member of other learned societies. He received the honorary degree of LL.D. His published works include: Report Upon the Mineral Resources of the Illinois Central Railway (1856); The Mississippi Valley: its Physical Geography, including Sketches of the Topography, Botany, Climate, Geology and Mineral Resources (1869); and Prehistoric Races of the United States of America (1873). He died in Chicago, Ill., June 29, 1873.
FULLER, Melville Weston, chief justice of the United States, was born in Augusta, Maine, Feb. 11, 1833; son of Frederick Augustus and Catherine M. (Weston) Fuller; and grandson of Henry Weld Fuller, judge of Kennebec county, and of Nathan Weston, associate justice and chief justice of the state, 1820-41. His father was a lawyer of distinction. Melville as graduated at Bowdoin college in 1853; studied law under his maternal uncle, George Melville Weston of Bangor, Maine, and at Harvard law school; and practised his profession at Augusta, the capital of the state, in partnership with his uncle, Benjamin A. G. Fuller, 1855-56, with whom he was also associated as editor of The Age, the leading Democratic paper of Maine. He was city solicitor and president of the common council of Augusta in 1856 and the same year removed to Chicago, Ill., where he continued the practice of law until he entered upon his duties as chief justice of the United States, Oct. 8, 1888. One of the many noted cases in which he was concerned was the defence of the Rev. Charles E. Cheney, D.D., before ecclesiastical courts in the diocese of Illinois and subsequently in the state courts when property [p.207] interests became involved. Mr. Fuller was a friend and supporter of Senator Stephen A. Douglas, making the welcoming speech when the senator visited Chicago in 1860. He was a member of the state constitutional convention of 1862; a representative in the state legislature, 1863-65; a delegate to the Democratic national conventions of 1864, 1872, 1876 and 1880; and a supporter of the civil service reform movements advanced by Grover Cleveland in the political canvass of 1884. On the occurrence of a vacancy in the office of chief justice of the United States, caused by the death of Chief-Justice Waite, March 23, 1888, President Cleveland appointed Mr. Fuller chief justice on April 30. His nomination was confirmed by the senate, July 20, and he took the oath of office and his seat, Oct. 8, 1888. He was married in 1866 to Mary E., daughter of William F. Coolbaugh of Chicago, Ill. He was elected a trustee of the Peabody education fund and was first vice-president of the board in 1899, William M. Evarts being president. He received the honorary degree of LL.D. from Northwestern university and from Bowdoin college in 1888, and from Harvard university in 1891.
FUNK, Benjamin Franklin, representative, was born in Funk's Grove township, McLean county, Ill., Oct. 17, 1838; son of Isaac Funk. He attended Illinois Wesleyan university for three years and in 1866-69 engaged in farming. In 1869 he removed to Bloomington, Ill., and in 1871 was elected mayor of the city, serving seven consecutive terms. He was a delegate to the Republican national convention in 1888 and was a Republican representative in the 53d congress, 1893-95. He was elected a trustee of Illinois Wesleyan university in 1874 and was president of the board of trustees of that institution, 1876-93.
FUNK, Isaac, pioneer, was born in Clark county, Ky., in 1797, of German parentage. In 1823 he removed to Illinois and entered a tract of land which became known as Funk's Grove, McLean county, where he accumulated a fortune as a stock dealer. He was a representative in the Illinois general assembly in 1840 and a state senator, 1861-65. He was an earnest Union man during the war and supported the government in the state legislature. He founded the Isaac Funk professorship of chemistry and zoology in the Illinois Wesleyan university, agreeing to endow it with $10,000, which promise his children carried out after his death. He died at Funk's Grove, Ill., in 1865.
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