CABLE, a town in Mercer County, on the Rock Island & Peoria Railroad, 26 miles south by east from Rock Island. Coal-mining is the principal industry, but there are also tile works, a good quality of clay for manufacturing purposes being found in abundance. Population (1880), 572; (1890), 1,276; (1900), 697; (1910), 360.

CABLE, Benjamin T., capitalist and politician, was born in Georgetown, Scott County, Ky., August 11, 1853. When he was three years old his father’s family removed to Rock Island, Ill., where he has since resided. After passing through the Rock Island public schools, he matriculated at the University of Michigan, graduating in June, 1876. He owns extensive ranch and manufacturing property, and is reputed wealthy; is also an active Democratic politician, and influential in his party, having been a member of both the National and State Central Committees. In 1890 he was elected to Congress from the Eleventh Illinois District, but since 1893 has held no public office.

CABLE, Ransom R., railway manager, was born in Athens County, Ohio, Sept. 23, 1834. His early training was mainly of the practical sort, and by the time he was 17 years old he was actively employed as a lumberman. In 1857 he removed to Illinois, first devoting his attention to coal mining in the neighborhood of Rock Island. Later he became interested in the projection and management of railroads, being in turn Superintendent, Vice-President and President of the Rock Island & Peoria Railroad. His next position was that of General Manager of the Rockford, Rock Island & St. Louis Railroad. His experience in these positions rendered him familiar with both the scope and the details of railroad management, while his success brought him to the favorable notice of those who controlled railway interests all over the country. In 1876 he was elected a Director of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway. In connection with this company he also held, successively, the offices of Vice-President, Assistant to the President, General Manager and President, being chief executive officer from 1880. Died Nov. 12, 1909. (See Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway.)

CAHOKIA, the first permanent white settlement in Illinois, and, in French colonial times, one of its principal towns. French Jesuit missionaries established the mission of the Tamaroas here in 1700, to which they gave the name of “Sainte Famille de Caoquias,” antedating the settlement at Kaskaskia of the same year by a few months. Cahokia and Kaskaskia were jointly made the county-seats of St. Clair County, when that county was organized by Governor St. Clair in 1790. Five years later, when Randolph County was set off from St. Clair, Cahokia was continued as the county-seat of the parent county, so remaining until the removal of the seat of justice to Belleville in 1814. Like its early rival, Kaskaskia, it has dwindled in importance until, in 1890, its population was estimated at 100. Descendants of the early French settlers make up a considerable portion of the present population. The site of the old town is on the line of the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern Railroad, about four miles from East St. Louis. Some of the most remarkable Indian mounds in the Mississippi Valley, known as “the Cahokia Mounds,” are located in the vicinity. (See Mound-Builders, Works of the)

CAIRNES, Abraham, a native of Kentucky, in 1816 settled in that part of Crawford County, Ill., which was embraced in Lawrence County on the organization of the latter in 1821. Mr. Cairnes was a member of the House for Crawford County in the Second General Assembly (1820-22), and for Lawrence County in the Third (1822-24), in the latter voting against the pro-slavery Convention scheme. He removed from Lawrence County to some point on the Mississippi River in 1826, but further details of his history are unknown.

CAIRO, the county-seat of Alexander County, and the most important river point between St. Louis and Memphis. Its first charter was obtained from the Territorial Legislature by Shadrach Bond (afterwards Governor of Illinois), John G. Comyges and others, who incorporated the “City and Bank of Cairo.” The company entered about 1,800 acres, but upon the death of Mr. Comyges, the land reverted to the Government. The forfeited tract was re-entered in 1835 by Sidney Breese and others, who later transferred it to the “Cairo City and Canal Company,” a corporation chartered in 1837, which, by purchase, increased its holdings to 10,000 acres. Peter Stapleton is said to have erected the first house, and John Hawley the second, within the town limits. In consideration of certain privileges, the Illinois Central Railroad has erected around the water front a substantial levee, eighty feet wide. During the Civil War Cairo was an important base for military operations; is an important shipping point; has flouring mills and other factories; 2 daily and 3 weekly papers. Pop. (1910), 14,548.

CAIRO BRIDGE, THE, one of the triumphs of modern engineering, erected by the Illinois Central Railroad Company across the Ohio River, opposite the city of Cairo. It is the longest metallic bridge across a river in the world, being thixty-three feet longer than the Tay Bridge, in Scotland. The work of construction was begun, July 1, 1887, and uninterruptedly prosecuted for twenty-seven months, being completed, Oct. 29, 1889. The first train to cross it was made up of ten locomotives coupled together. The approaches from both the Illinois and Kentucky shores consist of iron viaducts and well-braced timber trestles. The Illinois viaduct approach consists of seventeen spans of 150 feet each, and one span of 106 1/4 feet. All these rest on cylinder piers filled with concrete, and are additionally supported by piles driven within the cylinders. The viaduct on the Kentucky shore is of similar general construction. The total number of spans is twenty-two – twenty-one being of 150 feet each, and one of 106 1/4 feet. The total length of the metal work, from end to end, is 10,650 feet, including that of the bridge proper, which is 4.644 feet. The latter consists of nine through spans and three deck spans. The through spans rest on ten first-class masonry piers on pneumatic foundations. The total length of the bridge, including the timber trestles, is 20,461 feet – about 3 7/8 miles. Four-fifths of the Illinois trestle work has been filled in with earth, while that on the southern shore has been virtually replaced by an embankment since the completion of the bridge. The bridge proper stands 104.42 feet in the clear above low water, and from the deepest foundation to the top of the highest iron work is 248.94 feet. The total cost of the work, including the filling and embankment of the trestles, has been (1895) between $3,250,000 and $3,500,000.

CAIRO, VINCENNES & CHICAGO RAILROAD, a division of the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis Railway, extending from Danville to Cairo (261 miles), with a branch nine miles in length from St. Francisville, Ill., to Vincennes, Ind. It was chartered as the Cairo & Vincennes Railroad in 1867, completed in 1872, placed in the hands of a receiver in 1874, sold under foreclosure in January, 1880, and for some time operated as the Cairo Division of the Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway. In 1889, having been surrendered by the Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway, it was united with the Danville & Southwestern Railroad, reorganized as the Cairo, Vincennes & Chicago Railroad, and, in 1890, leased to the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis Railway, of which it is known as the “Cairo Division.” (See Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis Railway.)

CAIRO & ST. LOUIS RAILROAD. (See St. Louis & Cairo Railroad and Mobile & Ohio Railway.)

CAIRO & VINCENNES RAILROAD. (See Cairo, Vincennes & Chicago Railroad.)

CALDWELL, (Dr.) George, early physician and legislator (the name is spelled both Cadwell and Caldwell in the early records), was born at Wethersfield, Conn., Feb. 21, 1773, and received his literary education at Hartford, and his professional at Rutland, Vt. He married a daughter of Hon. Matthew Lyon, who was a native of Ireland, and who served two terms in Congress from Vermont, four from Kentucky (1803-11), and was elected the first Delegate in Congress from Arkansas Territory, but died before taking his seat in August, 1822. Lyon was also a resident for a time of St. Louis, and was a candidate for Delegate to Congress from Missouri Territory, but defeated by Edward Hempstead (see Hempstead, Edward). Dr. Caldwell descended the Ohio River in 1799 in company with Lyon’s family and his brother-in-law, John Messinger (see Messinger, John), who afterwards became a prominent citizen of St. Clair County, the party locating at Eddyville, Ky. In 1802, Caldwell and Messinger removed to Illinois, landing near old Fort Chartres, and remained some time in the American Bottom. The former finally located on the banks of the Mississippi a few miles above St. Louis, where he practiced his profession and held various public offices, including those of Justice of the Peace and County Judge for St. Clair County, as also for Madison County after the organization of the latter. He served as State Senator from Madison County in the First and Second General Assemblies (1818-22), and, having removed in 1820 within the limits of what is now Morgan County (but still earlier embraced in Greene), in 1822 was elected to the Senate for Greene and Pike Counties – the latter at that time embracing all the northern and northwestern part of the State, including the county of Cook. During the following session of the Legislature he was a sturdy opponent of the scheme to make Illinois a slave State. His home in Morgan County was in a locality known as “Swinerton’s Point,” a few miles west of Jacksonville, where he died, August 1, 1826. (See Slavery and Slave Laws.) Dr. Caldwell (or Cadwell, as he was widely known) commanded a high degree of respect among early residents of Illinois. Governor Reynolds, in his “Pioneer History of Illinois,” says of him: “He was moral and correct in his public and private life, . . was a respectable physician, and always maintained an unblemished character.”

CALHOUN, John, pioneer printer and editor, was born at Watertown, N. Y., April 14, 1808; learned the printing trade and practiced it in his native town, also working in a type-foundry in Albany and as a compositor in Troy. In the fall of 1833 he came to Chicago, bringing with him an outfit for the publication of a weekly paper, and, on Nov. 26, began the issue of “The Chicago Democrat” – the first paper ever published in that city. Mr. Calhoun retained the management of the paper three years, transferring it in November, 1836, to John Wentworth, who conducted it until its absorption by “The Tribune” in July, 1861. Mr. Calhoun afterwards served as County Treasurer, still later as Collector, and, finally, as agent of the Illinois Central Railroad in procuring right of way for the construction of its lines. Died in Chicago, Feb. 20, 1859.

CALHOUN, John, surveyor and politician, was born in Boston, Mass., Oct. 14, 1806; removed to Springfield, Ill., in 1830, served in the Black Hawk War and was soon after appointed County Surveyor. It was under Mr. Calhoun, and by his appointment, that Abraham Lincoln served for some time as Deputy Surveyor of Sangamon County. In 1838 Calhoun was chosen Representative in the General Assembly, but was defeated in 1840, though elected Clerk of the House at the following session. He was a Democratic Presidential Elector in 1844, was an unsuccessful candidate for the nomination for Governor in 1846, and, for three terms (1849, ’50 and ’51), served as Mayor of the city of Springfield. In 1852 he was defeated by Richard Yates (afterwards Governor and United States Senator), as a candidate for Congress, but two years later was appointed by President Pierce Surveyor-General of Kansas, where he became discreditably conspicuous by his zeal in attempting to carry out the policy of the Buchanan administration for making Kansas a slave State – especially in connection with the Lecompton Constitutional Convention, with the election of which he had much to do, and over which he presided. Died at St. Joseph, Mo., Oct. 25, 1859.

CALHOUN, William J., lawyer, was born in Pittsburg, Pa., Oct. 5, 1847. After residing at various points in that State, his family removed to Ohio, where he worked on a farm until 1864, when he enlisted as a private in the Nineteenth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, serving to the end of the war. He participated in a number of severe battles while with Sherman on the march against Atlanta, returning with General Thomas to Nashville, Tenn. During the last few months of the war he served in Texas, being mustered out at San Antonio in that State, though receiving his final discharge at Columbus, Ohio. After the war he entered the Poland Union Seminary, where he became the intimate personal friend of Maj. William McKinley, who was elected to the Presidency in 1896. Having graduated at the seminary, he came to Areola, Douglas County, Ill., and began the study of law, later taking a course in a law school in Chicago, after which he was admitted to the bar (1875) and established himself in practice at Danville as the partner of the Hon. Joseph B. Mann. In 1882 Mr. Calhoun was elected as a Republican to the lower branch of the Thirty-third General Assembly and, during the following session, proved himself one of the ablest members of that body. In May, 1897, Mr. Calhoun was appointed by President McKinley a special envoy to investigate the circumstances attending the death of Dr. Ricardo Ruiz, a naturalized citizen of the United States who had died while a prisoner in the hands of the Spaniards during the rebellion then in progress in Cuba. In 1898 he was appointed a member of the Inter-State Commerce Commission, is now (1911) Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to China.

CALHOUN COUNTY, situated between the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers, just above their junction. It has an area of 254 square miles, with a population (1910) of 8,610; was organized in 1825 and named for John C. Calhoun. Originally, the county was well timbered and the early settlers were largely engaged in lumbering, which tended to give the population more or less of a migratory character. Much of the timber has been cleared off, and the principal business in later years has been agriculture, although coal is found and mined in paying quantities along Silver Creek. Tradition has it that the aborigines found the precious metals in the bed of this stream. It was originally included within the limits of the Military Tract set apart for the veterans of the War of 1812. The physical conformation of the county’s surface exhibits some peculiarities. Limestone bluffs, rising sometimes to the height of 200 feet, skirt the banks of both rivers, while through the center of the county runs a ridge dividing the two watersheds. The side valleys and the top of the central ridge are alike fertile. The bottom lands are very rich, but are liable to inundation. The county-seat and principal town is Hardin, with a population (1890) of 311.

CALLAHAN, Ethelbert, lawyer and legislator, was born near Newark, Ohio, Dec. 17, 1829; came to Crawford County, Ill., in 1849, where he farmed, taught school and edited, at different times, “The Wabash Sentinel” and “The Marshall Telegraph.” He early identified himself with the Republican party, and, in 1864, was the Republican candidate for Congress in his district; became a member of the first State Board of Equalization by appointment of Governor Oglesby in 1867; served in the lower house of the General Assembly during the sessions of 1875, ’91, ’93 and ’95, and, in 1893-95, on a Joint Committee to revise the State Revenue Laws. He was also Presidential Elector in 1880, and again in 1888. Mr. Callahan was admitted to the bar when past 30 years of age, and was President of the State Bar Association in 1889. His home is at Robinson.

CALUMET RIVER, a short stream the main body of which is formed by the union of two branches which come together at the southern boundary of the city of Chicago, and which flows into Lake Michigan a short distance north of the Indiana State line. The eastern branch, known as the Grand Calumet, flows in a westerly direction from Northwestern Indiana and unites with the Little Calumet from the west, 3 1/2 miles from the mouth of the main stream. From the southern limit of Chicago the general course of the stream is north between Lake Calumet and Wolf Lake, which it serves to drain. At its mouth, Calumet Harbor has been constructed, which admits of the entrance of vessels of heavy draught, and is a shipping and receiving point of importance for heavy freight for the Illinois Steel Works, the Pullman Palace Car Works and other manufacturing establishments in that vicinity. The river is regarded as a navigable stream, and has been dredged by the General Government to a depth of twenty feet and 200 feet wide for a distance of two miles, with a depth of sixteen feet for the remainder of the distance to the forks. The Calumet feeder for the Illinois and Michigan Canal extends from the west branch (or Little Calumet) to the canal in the vicinity of Willow Springs. The stream was known to the early French explorers as “the Calimic,” and was sometimes confounded by them with the Chicago River.

CALUMET RIVER RAILROAD, a short line, 4.43 miles in length, lying wholly within Cook County. The Pennsylvania Railroad Company is the lessee, but the line is not operated at present (1898). Its outstanding capital stock is $68,700. It has no funded debt, but has a floating debt of $116,357, making a total capitalization of $185,087. This road extends from One Hundredth Street in Chicago to Hegewisch, and was chartered in 1883. (See Pennsylvania Railroad.)

CAMBRIDGE, the county-seat of Henry County, about 160 miles southwest of Chicago, on the Rock Island & Peoria Railroad. It is situated in a fertile region chiefly devoted to agriculture and stock-raising. The city is a considerable grain market and has some manufactories. Some coal is also mined. It has a public library, three newspapers, three banks, good schools, and handsome public (county) buildings. Population (1880), 1,203; (1890), United States census report, 940; (1900), 1,345; (1910), 1,272.

CAMERON, James, Cumberland Presbyterian minister and pioneer, was born in Kentucky in 1791, came to Illinois in 1815, and, in 1818, settled in Sangamon County. In 1829 he is said to have located where the town of New Salem (afterwards associated with the early history of Abraham Lincoln) was built, and of which he and James Rutledge were the founders. He is also said to have officiated at the funeral of Ann Rutledge, with whose memory Mr. Lincoln’s name has been tenderly associated by his biographers. Mr. Cameron subsequently removed successively to Fulton County, Ill., to Iowa and to California, dying at a ripe old age, in the latter State, about 1878.

CAMP DOUGLAS, a Federal military camp established at Chicago early in the War of the Rebellion, located between Thirty-first Street and College Place, and Cottage Grove and Forest Avenues. It was originally designed and solely used as a camp of instruction for new recruits. Afterwards it was utilized as a place of confinement for Confederate prisoners of war. (For plot to liberate the latter, together with other similar prisoners in Illinois, see Camp Douglas Conspiracy.)

CAMP DOUGLAS CONSPIRACY, a plot formed in 1864 for the liberation of the Confederate prisoners of war at Chicago (in Camp Douglas), Rock Island, Alton and Springfield. It was to be but a preliminary step in the execution of a design long cherished by the Confederate Government, viz., the seizing of the organized governments of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, and the formation of a Northwestern Confederacy, through the cooperation of the “Sons of Liberty.” (See Secret Treasonable Societies.) Three peace commissioners (Jacob Thompson, C. C. Clay and J. P. Holcomb), who had been sent from Richmond to Canada, held frequent conferences with leaders of the treasonable organizations in the North, including Clement L. Vallandigham, Bowles, of Indiana, and one-Charles Walsh, who was head of the movement in Chicago, with a large number of allies in that city and scattered throughout the States. The general management of the affair was entrusted to Capt. Thomas H. Hines, who had been second in command to the rebel Gen. John Morgan during his raid north of the Ohio River, while Col. Vincent Marmaduke, of Missouri, and G. St. Leger Grenfell (an Englishman) were selected to carry out the military program. Hines followed out his instructions with great zeal and labored indefatigably. Thompson’s duty was to disseminate incendiary treasonable literature, and strengthen the timorous “Sons of Liberty” by the use of argument and money, both he and his agents being lavishly supplied with the latter. There was to be a draft in July, 1864, and it was determined to arm the “Sons of Liberty” for resistance, the date of uprising being fixed for July 20. This part of the scheme, however, was finally abandoned. Captain Hines located himself at Chicago, and personally attended to the distribution of funds and the purchase of arms. The date finally fixed for the attempt to liberate the Southern prisoners was August 29, 1864, when the National Democratic Convention was to assemble at Chicago. On that date it was expected the city would be so crowded that the presence of the promised force of “Sons” would not excite comment. The program also included an attack on the city by water, for which purpose reliance was placed upon a horde of Canadian refugees, under Capt. John B. Castleman. There were some 26,500 Southern prisoners in the State at this time, of whom about 8,000 were at Chicago, 6,000 at Rock Island, 7,500 at Springfield, and 5,000 at Alton. It was estimated that there were 4,000 “Sons of Liberty” in Chicago, who would be largely reen forced. “With these and the Canadian refugees the prisoners at Camp Douglas were to be liberated, and the army thus formed was to march upon Rock Island, Springfield and Alton. But suspicions were aroused, and the Camp was reenforced by a regiment of infantry and a battery. The organization of the proposed assailing force was very imperfect, and the great majority of those who were to compose it were lacking in courage. Not enough of the latter reported for service to justify an attack, and the project was postponed. In the meantime a preliminary part of the plot, at least indirectly connected with the Camp Douglas conspiracy, and which contemplated the release of the rebel officers confined on Johnson’s Island in Lake Erie, had been “nipped in the bud” by the arrest of Capt. C. H. Cole, a Confederate officer in disguise, on the 19th of September, just as he was on the point of putting in execution a scheme for seizing the United States steamer Michigan at Sandusky, and putting on board of it a Confederate crew. November 8 was the date next selected to carry out the Chicago scheme – the day of President Lincoln’s second election. The same preliminaries were arranged, except that no water attack was to be made. But Chicago was to be burned and flooded, and its banks pillaged. Detachments were designated to apply the torch, to open fire plugs, to levy arms, and to attack banks. But representatives of the United States Secret Service had been initiated into the “Sons of Liberty,” and the plans of Captain Hines and his associates were well known to the authorities. An efficient body of detectives was put upon their track by Gen. B. J. Sweet, the commandant at Camp Douglas, although some of the most valuable service in running down the conspiracy and capturing its agents, was rendered by Dr. T. Winslow Ayer of Chicago, a Colonel Langhorne (an ex-Confederate who had taken the oath of allegiance without the knowledge of some of the parties to the plot), and Col. J. T. Shanks, a Confederate prisoner who was known as “The Texan.” Both Langhorne and Shanks were appalled at the horrible nature of the plot as it was unfolded to them, and entered with zeal into the effort to defeat it. Shanks was permitted to escape from Camp Douglas, thereby getting in communication with the leaders of the plot who assisted to conceal him, while he faithfully apprised General Sweet of their plans. On the night of Nov. 6 – or rather after midnight on the morning of the 7th – General Sweet caused simultaneous arrests of the leaders to be made at their hiding-places. Captain Hines was not captured, but the following conspirators were taken into custody: Captains Cantrill and Traverse; Charles Walsh, the Brigadier-General of the “Sons of Liberty,” who was sheltering them, and in whose barn and house was found a large quantity of arms and military stores; Cols. St. Leger Grenfell, W. R. Anderson and J. T. Shanks; R. T. Semmes, Vincent Marmaduke, Charles T. Daniel and Buckner S. Morris, the Treasurer of the order. They wrere tried by Military Commission at Cincinnati for conspiracy. Marmaduke and Morris were acquitted; Anderson committed suicide during the trial; Walsh, Semmes and Daniels were sentenced to the penitentiary, and Grenfell was sentenced to be hung, although his sentence was afterward commuted to life imprisonment at the Dry Tortugas, where he mysteriously disappeared some years afterward, but whether he escaped or was drowned in the attempt to do so has never been known. The British Government had made repeated attempts to secure his release, a brother of his being a General in the British Army. Daniels managed to escape, and was never recaptured, while Walsh and Semmes, after undergoing brief terms of imprisonment, were pardoned by President Johnson. The subsequent history of Shanks, who played so prominent a part in defeating the scheme of wholesale arson, pillage and assassination, is interesting. “While in prison he had been detailed for service as a clerk in one of the offices under the direction of General Sweet, and, while thus employed, made the acquaintance of a young lady member of a loyal family, whom he afterwards married. After the exposure of the contemplated uprising, the rebel agents in Canada offered a reward of $1,000 in gold for the taking of his life, and he was bitterly persecuted. The attention of President Lincoln was called to the service rendered by him, and sometime during 1865 he received a commission as Captain and engaged in fighting the Indians upon the Plains. The efficiency shown by Colonel Sweet in ferreting out the conspiracy and defeating its consummation won for him the gratitude of the people of Chicago and the whole nation, and was recognized by the Government in awarding him a commission as Brigadier-General. (See Benjamin J. Sweet, Camp Douglas and Secret Treasonable Societies.)

CAMPBELL, Alexander, legislator and Congressman, was born at Concord, Pa., Oct. 4, 1814. After obtaining a limited education in the common schools, at an early age he secured employment as a clerk in an iron manufactory. He soon rose to the position of superintendent, managing iron-works in Pennsylvania, Kentucky and Missouri, until 1850, when he removed to Illinois, settling at La Salle. He was twice (1852 and 1853) elected Mayor of that city, and represented his county in the Twenty-first General Assembly (1859). He was also a member of the State Constitutional Convention of 1862, and served one term (1875-77) as Representative in Congress, being elected as an Independent, but, in 1878, was defeated for re-election by Philip C. Hayes, Republican. Mr. Campbell was a zealous friend of Abraham Lincoln, and, in 1858, contributed liberally to the expenses of the latter in making the tour of the State during the debate with Douglas. He broke with the Republican party in 1874 on the greenback issue, which won for him the title of “Father of the Greenback.” His death occurred at La Salle, August 9, 1898.

CAMPBELL, Antrim, early lawyer, was born in New Jersey in 1814; came to Springfield, Ill., in 1838; was appointed Master in Chancery for Sangamon County in 1849, and, in 1861, to a similar position by the United States District Court for that district. Died, August 11, 1868.

CAMPBELL, James R., Congressman and soldier, was born in Hamilton County, Ill., May 4, 1853, his ancestors being among the first settlers in that section of the State; was educated at Notre Dame University, Ind., read law and was admitted to the bar of the Supreme Court in 1877; in 1878 purchased “The McLeansboro Times,” which he has since conducted; was elected to the lower house of the General Assembly in 1884, and again in ’86, advanced to the Senate in 1888, and re-elected in ’92. During his twelve years’ experience in the Legislature he participated, as a Democrat, in the celebrated Logan-Morrison contest for the United States Senate, in 1885, and assisted in the election of Gen. John M. Palmer to the Senate in 1891. At the close of his last term in the Senate (1896) he was elected to Congress from the Twentieth District, receiving a plurality of 2,851 over Orlando Burrell, Republican, who had been elected in 1894. On the second call for troops issued by the President during the Spanish-American War, Mr. Campbell organized a regiment which was mustered in as the Ninth Regiment Illinois Volunteers, of which he was commissioned Colonel and assigned to the corps of Gen. Fitzhugh Lee at Jacksonville, Fla. Although his regiment saw no active service during the war, it was held in readiness for that purpose, and, on the occupation of Cuba in December, 1898, it became a part of the army of occupation. As Colonel Campbell remained with his regiment, he took no part in the proceedings of the last term of the Fifty-fifth Congress, and was not a candidate for re-election in 1898.

CAMPBELL, Thompson, Secretary of State and Congressman, was born in Chester County, Pa., in 1811; removed in childhood to the western part of the State and was educated at Jefferson College, afterwards reading law at Pittsburg. Soon after being admitted to the bar he removed to Galena, Ill., where he had acquired some mining interests, and, in 1843, was appointed Secretary of State by Governor Ford, but resigned in 1846, and became a Delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1847; in 1850 was elected as a Democrat to Congress from the Galena District, but defeated for re-election in 1852 by E. B. Washburne. He was then appointed by President Pierce Commissioner to look after certain land grants by the Mexican Government in California, removing to that State in 1853, but resigned this position about 1855 to engage in general practice. In 1859 he made an extended visit to Europe with his family, and, on his return, located in Chicago, the following year becoming a candidate for Presidential Elector-at-large on the Breckinridge ticket; in 18G1 returned to California, and, on the breaking out of the Civil War, became a zealous champion of the Union cause, by his speeches exerting a powerful influence upon the destiny of the State. He also served in the California Legislature during the war, and, in 1864, was a member of the Baltimore Convention which nominated Mr. Lincoln for the Presidency a second time, assisting most ably in the subsequent campaign to carry the State for the Republican ticket. Died in San Francisco, Dec. 6, 1868.

CAMPBELL, William J., lawyer and politician, was born in Philadelphia in 1850. When he was two years old his father removed to Illinois, settling in Cook County. After passing through the Chicago public schools, Mr. Campbell attended the University of Pennsylvania, for two years, after which he studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1875. From that date he was in active practice and attained prominence at the Chicago bar. In 1878 he was elected State Senator, and was re-elected in 1882, serving in all eight years. At the sessions of 1881, ’83 and ’85 he was chosen President pro tempore of the Senate, and, on Feb. 6, 1883, he became Lieutenant-Governor upon the accession of Lieutenant-Governor Hamilton to the executive office to succeed Shelby M. Cullom, who had been elected United States Senator. In 1888 he represented the First Illinois District in the National Republican Convention, and was the same year chosen a member of the Republican National Committee for Illinois and was re-elected in 1882. Died in Chicago, March 4, 1896. For several years immediately preceding his death, Mr. Campbell was the chief attorney of the Armour Packing Company of Chicago.

CAMP POINT, a village in Adams County, at the intersection of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy and the Wabash Railroads, 22 miles east-northeast of Quincy. It is a grain center, has one flour mill, two feed mills, one elevator, a pressed brick plant, two banks, four churches, a high school, and one newspaper. Population (1890), 1,150; (1900), 1,260; (1910), 1,148.

CANAL SCRIP FRAUD. During the session of the Illinois General Assembly of 1859, Gen. Jacob Fry, who, as Commissioner or Trustee, had been associated with the construction of the Illinois & Michigan Canal from 1837 to 1845, had his attention called to a check purporting to have been issued by the Commissioners in 1839, which, upon investigation, he became convinced was counterfeit, or had been fraudulently issued. Having communicated his conclusions to Hon. Jesse K. Dubois, the State Auditor, in charge of the work of refunding the State indebtedness, an inquiry was instituted in the office of the Fund Commissioner – a position attached to the Governor’s office, but in the charge of a secretary – which developed the fact that a large amount of these evidences of indebtedness had been taken up through that office and bonds issued therefor by the State Auditor under the laws for funding the State debt. A subsequent investigation by the Finance Committee of the State Senate, ordered by vote of that body, resulted in the discovery that, in May and August, 1839, two series of canal “scrip” (or checks) had been issued by the Canal Board, to meet temporary demands in the work of construction – the sum aggregating $269,059 – of which all but $316 had been redeemed within a few years at the Chicago branch of the Illinois State Bank. The bank officers testified that this scrip (or a large part of it) had, after redemption, been held by them in the bank vaults without cancellation until settlement was had with the Canal Board, when it was packed in boxes and turned over to the Board. After having lain in the canal office for several years in this condition, and a new “Trustee” (as the officer in charge was now called) having come into the canal office in 1853, this scrip, with other papers, was repacked in a shoe-box and a trunk and placed in charge of Joel A. Matteson, then Governor, to be taken by him to Springfield and deposited there. Nothing further was known of these papers until October, 1854, when $300 of the scrip was presented to the Secretary of the Fund Commissioner by a Springfield banker, and bond issued thereon. This was followed in 1856 and 1857 by larger sums, until, at the time the legislative investigation was instituted, it was found that bonds to the amount of $223,182.66 had been issued on account of principal and interest. With the exception of the $300 first presented, it was shown that all the scrip so funded had been presented by Governor Matteson, either while in office or subsequent to his retirement, and the bonds issued therefor delivered to him – although none of the persons in whose names the issue was made were known or ever afterward discovered. The developments made by the Senate Finance Committee led to an offer from Matteson to indemnify the State, in which he stated that he had “unconsciously and innocently been made the instrument through whom a gross fraud upon the State had been attempted.” He therefore gave to the State mortgages and an indemnifying bond for the sum shown to have been funded by him of this class of indebtedness, upon which the State, on foreclosure a few years later, secured judgment for $255,000, although the property on being sold realized only $238,000. A further investigation by the Legislature, in 1861, revealed the fact that additional issues of bonds for similar scrip had been made amounting to $165,346, for which the State never received any compensation. A search through the State House for the trunk and box placed it in the hands of Governor Matteson in 1853, while the official investigation was in progress, resulted in the discovery of the trunk in a condition showing it had been opened, but the box was never found. The fraud was made the subject of a protracted investigation by the Grand Jury of Sangamon County in May, 1859, and, although the jury twice voted to indict Governor Matteson for larceny, it as often voted to reconsider, and, on a third ballot, voted to “ignore the bill.”

CANBY, Richard Spring, jurist, was born in Green County, Ohio, Sept. 30, 1808; was educated at Miami University and admitted to the bar, afterwards serving as Prosecuting Attorney, member of the Legislature and one term (1847-49) in Congress. In 1863 he removed to Illinois, locating at Olney, was elected Judge of the Twenty-fifth Judicial Circuit in 1867, resuming practice at the expiration of his term in 1873. Died in Richland County, July 27, 1895. Judge Canby was a relative of Gen. Edward Richard Spriggs Canby, who was treacherously killed by the Modocs in California in 1873.

CANNON, Joseph G., Congressman, was born at Guilford, N. C, May 7, 1836, and removed to Illinois in early youth, locating at Danville, Vermilion County. By profession he is a lawyer, and served as State’s Attorney of Vermilion County for two terms (1861-68). Incidentally, he is conducting a large banking business at Danville. In 1872 he was elected as a Republican to the Forty-third Congress for the Fifteenth District, and has been re-elected biennially ever since, except in 1890, when he was defeated for the Fifty-second Congress by Samuel T. Busey, his Democratic opponent. He is now (1898) serving his twelfth term as the Representative for the Twelfth Congressional District, and has been re-elected for a thirteenth term in the Fifty-sixth Congress (1899-1901). Mr. Cannon has been an influential factor in State and National politics, as shown by the fact that he has been Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations during the important sessions of the Fifty-fourth and Fifty-fifth Congresses.

CANTON, a flourishing city in Fulton County, 12 miles from the Illinois River, and 28 miles southwest of Peoria. It is the commercial metropolis of one of the largest and richest counties in the “corn belt”; also has abundant supplies of timber and clay for manufacturing purposes. There are coal mines within the municipal limits, and various manufacturing establishments. Among the principal outputs are agricultural implements, flour, brick and tile, cigars, cigar boxes, foundry and machine-shop products, firearms, brooms, and marble. The city is lighted by gas and electricity, has water-works, fire department, a public library, six ward schools and one high school, and three newspapers. Population (1890), 5,604; (1900), 6,564; (1910), 10,453.

CAPPS, Jabez, pioneer, was born in London, England, Sept. 9, 1796; came to the United States in 1817, and to Sangamon County, Ill., in 1819. For a time he taught school in what is now called Round Prairie, in the present County of Sangamon, and later in Calhoun (the original name of a part of the city of Springfield), having among his pupils a number of those who afterwards became prominent citizens of Central Illinois. In 1836, in conjunction with two partners, he laid out the town of Mount Pulaski, the original county-seat of Logan County, where he continued to live for the remainder of his life, and where, during its later period, he served as Postmaster some fifteen years. He also served as Recorder of Logan County four years. Died, April 1, 1896, in the 100th year of his age.

CARBONDALE, a city in Jackson County, founded in 1852, 57 miles north of Cairo, and 91 miles from St. Louis. Three lines of railway center here. The chief industries are coal-mining, farming, stock-raising, fruit-growing and lumbering. It has two preserving plants, eight churches, one daily and two weekly papers, public schools, and is the seat of the Southern Illinois Normal University. Pop. (1910), 5,441.

CARBONDALE & SHAWNEETOWN RAILROAD, a short line 17 miles in length, extending from Marion to Carbondale, and operated by the St. Louis, Alton & Terre Haute Railroad Company, as lessee. It was incorporated as, the Murphysboro & Shawneetown Railroad in 1867; its name changed in 1869 to The Carbondale & Shawneetown, was opened for business, Dec. 31, 1871, and leased in 1886 for 980 years to the St. Louis Southern, through which it passed into the hands of the St. Louis, Alton & Terre Haute Railroad, and by lease from the latter, in 1896, became apart of the Illinois Central System (which see).

CAREY, William, lawyer, was born in the town of Turner, Maine, Dec. 29, 1826; studied law with General Fessenden and at Yale Law School, was admitted to the bar of the Supreme Court of Maine in 1856, the Supreme Court of Illinois in 1857, and the Supreme Court of the United States, on motion of Hon. Lyman Trumbull, in 1871}. Judge Carey was a member of the State Constitutional Convention of 1869-70 from Jo Daviess County, and the choice of the Republicans in that body for temporary presiding officer; was elected to the next General Assembly (the Twenty-seventh), serving as Chairman of the House Judiciary Committee through its four sessions; from 1873 to 1876 was United States District Attorney for Utah, still later occupying various offices at Deadwood, Dakota, and in Reno County, Kan. The first office held by Judge Carey in Illinois (that of Superintendent of Schools for the city of Galena) was conferred upon him through the influence of John A. Rawlins, afterwards General Grant’s chief-of-staff during the war, and later Secretary of War – although at the time Mr. Rawlins and he were politically opposed. Mr. Carey’s present residence is in Chicago.

CARLIN, Thomas, former Governor, was born of Irish ancestry in Fayette County, Ky., July 18, 1789; emigrated to Illinois in 1811, and served as a private in the War of 1812, and as a Captain in the Black Hawk War. While not highly educated, he was a man of strong common sense, high moral standard, great firmness of character and unfailing courage. In 1818 he settled in Greene County, of which he was the first Sheriff; was twice elected State Senator, and was Register of the Land Office at Quincy, when he was elected Governor on the Democratic ticket in 1838. An uncompromising partisan, he nevertheless commanded the respect and good-will of his political opponents. Died at his home in Carrollton, Feb. 14, 1852.

CARLIN, William Passmore, soldier, nephew of Gov. Thomas Carlin, was born at Rich Woods, Greene County, Ill., Nov. 24, 1829. At the age of 21 he graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point, and, in 1855, was attached to the Sixth United States Infantry as Lieutenant. After several years spent in Indian fighting, he was ordered to California, where he was promoted to a captaincy and assigned to recruiting duty. On August 15, 1861, he was commissioned Colonel of the Thirty-eighth Illinois Volunteers. His record during the war was an exceptionally brilliant one. He defeated Gen. Jeff. Thompson at Fredericktown, Mo., Oct. 21, 1861; commanded the District of Southeast Missouri for eighteen months; led a brigade under Slocum in the Arkansas campaign; served with marked distinction in Kentucky and Mississippi; took a prominent part in the battle of Stone River, was engaged in the Tullahoma campaign, at Chattanooga, Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge, and, on Feb. 8, 1864, was commissioned Major in the Sixteenth Infantry. He also took part in the Georgia campaign, aiding in the capture of Atlanta, and marching with Sherman to the sea. For gallant service in the assault at Jonesboro, Tenn., Sept. 1, 1864, he was made Colonel in the regular army, and, on March 13, 1865, was brevetted Brigadier-General for meritorious service at Bentonville, N. C, and Major-General for service during the war, retiring with rank of Brigadier-General in 1893. Died in Montana, Oct. 4, 1903, on way home at Carrollton, Ill.

CARLINVILLE, the county-seat of Macoupin County; a city and railroad junction, 57 miles northeast of St. Louis and 38 miles southwest of Springfield. Blackburn University (which see) is located here. Three coal mines are operated, and there are brick works, tile works, and one daily and two weekly newspapers. The city is an important trade center, has banks, gas and electric light plants and water-works. Pop. (1900), 3,502; (1910), 3,616.

CARLYLE, the county-seat of Clinton County, 48 miles east of St. Louis, located on the Kaskaskia River and the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern Railroad. The town has churches, parochial and public schools, water-works, lighting plant, and manufactures. It has a flourishing seminary for young ladies, two weekly papers, and a public library connected with the high school. Population (1890), 1,784; (1900), 1,874; (1910), 1,982.

CARMI, the county-seat of White County, on the Little Wabash River, 124 miles east of St. Louis and 38 west of Evansville, Ind. The surrounding country is fertile, yielding both cereals and fruit. Flouring mills and lumber manufacturing, including the making of staves, are the chief industries, though the city has brick and tile works, a plow factory and foundry. Population (1890), 2,785; (1900), 2,939; (1910), 2,833.

CARPENTER, Milton, legislator and State Treasurer; entered upon public life in Illinois as Representative in the Ninth General Assembly (1834) from Hamilton County, serving by successive re-elections in the Tenth, Eleventh and Twelfth. While a member of the latter (1841) he was elected by the Legislature to the office of State Treasurer, retaining this position until the adoption of the Constitution of 1848, when he was chosen his own successor by popular vote, but died a few days after the election in August, 1848. He was buried in what is now known as the “Old Hutchinson Cemetery” – a burying ground in the west part of the city of Springfield, long since abandoned – where his remains still lie (1897) in a grave unmarked by a tombstone.

CARPENTER, Philo, pioneer and early druggist, was born of Puritan and Revolutionary ancestry in the town of Savoy, Mass., Feb. 27, 1805; engaged as a druggist’s clerk at Troy, N. Y., in 1828, and came to Chicago in 1832, where he established himself in the drug business, which was later extended into other lines. Soon after his arrival, he began investing in lands, which have since become immensely valuable. Mr. Carpenter was associated with the late Rev. Jeremiah Porter in the organization of the First Presbyterian Church of Chicago, but, in 1851, withdrew on account of dissatisfaction with the attitude of some of the representatives of that denomination on the subject of slavery, identifying himself with the Congregationalist Church, in which he had been reared. He was one of the original founders and most liberal benefactors of the Chicago Theological Seminary, to which he gave in contributions, during his lifetime, or in bequests after his death, sums aggregating not far from $100,000. One of the Seminary buildings was named in his honor, “Carpenter Hall.” He was identified with various other organizations, one of the most important being the Relief and Aid Society, which did such useful work after the fire of 1871. By a life of probity, liberality and benevolence, he won the respect of all classes, dying, August 7, 1886.

CARPENTER, (Mrs.) Sarah L. Warren, pioneer teacher, born in Fredonia, N. Y., Sept. 1, 1813; at the age of 13 she began teaching at State Line, N. Y.; in 1833 removed with her parents (Mr. and Mrs. Daniel Warren) to Chicago, and soon after began teaching in what was called the “Yankee settlement,” now the town of Lockport, Will County. She came to Chicago the following year (1834) to take the place of assistant of Granville T. Sproat in a school for boys, and is said to have been the first teacher paid out of the public funds in Chicago, though Miss Eliza Chappell (afterwards Mrs. Jeremiah Porter) began teaching the children about Fort Dearborn in 1833. Miss Warren married Abel E. Carpenter, whom she survived, dying at Aurora, Kane County, Jan. 10, 1897.

CARPENTERSVILLE, a village of Kane County and manufacturing center, on Lake Geneva branch of the Chicago & Northwestern Railroad miles north of East Elgin and about 48 miles from Chicago. Pop. (1900), 1,002; (1910), 1,128.

CARR, Clark E., lawyer, politician and diplomat, was born at Boston, Erie County, N. Y., May 20, 1836; at 13 years of age accompanied his father’s family to Galesburg, Ill., where he spent several years at Knox College. In 1857 he graduated from the Albany Law School, but on returning to Illinois, soon embarked in politics, his affiliations being uniformly with the Republican party. His first office was that of Postmaster at Galesburg, to which he was appointed by President Lincoln in 1861 and which he held for twenty-four years. He was a tried and valued assistant of Governor Yates during the War of the Rebellion, serving on the staff of the latter with the rank of Colonel. He was a delegate to the National Convention of his party at Baltimore in 1864, which renominated Lincoln, and took an active part in the campaigns of that year, as well as those of 1868 and 1872. In 1869 he purchased “The Galesburg Republican,” which he edited and published for two years. In 1880 he was an unsuccessful candidate for the Republican nomination for Governor; in 1884 was a delegate to the Republican National Convention, from the State-at-large, and, in 1887, a candidate for the caucus nomination for United States Senator, which was given to Charles B. Farwell. In 1888 he was defeated in the Republican State Convention as candidate for Governor by Joseph W. Fifer. In 1889 President Harrison appointed him Minister to Denmark, which post he filled with marked ability and credit to the country until his resignation was accepted by President Cleveland, when he returned to his former home at Galesburg. While in Denmark he did much to promote American trade with that country, especially in the introduction of American corn as an article of food, which has led to a large increase in the annual exportation of this commodity to Scandinavian markets.

CARR, Eugene A., soldier, was born in Erie County, N. Y., May 20, 1830, and graduated at West Point in 1850, entering the Mounted Rifles. Until 1861 he was stationed in the Far West, and engaged in Indian fighting, earning a First Lieutenancy through his gallantry. In 1861 he entered upon active service under General Lyon, in Southwest Missouri, taking part in the engagements of Dug Springs and Wilson’s Creek, winning the brevet of Lieutenant-Colonel. In September, 1861, he was commissioned Colonel of the Third Illinois Cavalry. He served as acting Brigadier-General in Fremont’s hundred-day expedition, for a time commanding the Fourth Division of the Army of the Southwest. On the second day at Pea Ridge, although three times wounded, he remained on the field seven hours, and materially aided in securing a victory, for his bravery being made Brigadier-General of Volunteers. In the summer of 1862 he was promoted to the rank of Major in the Regular Army. During the Vicksburg campaign he commanded a division, leading the attack at Magnolia Church, at Port Gibson, and at Big Black River, and winning a brevet Lieutenant-Colonelcy in the United States Army. He also distinguished himself for a first and second assault upon taking Vicksburg, and, in the autumn of 1862, commanded the left wing of the Sixteenth Corps at Corinth. In December of that year he was transferred to the Department of Arkansas, where he gained new laurels, being brevetted Brigadier-General for gallantry at Little Rock, and Major-General for services during the war. After the close of the Civil War, he was stationed chiefly in the West, where he rendered good service in the Indian campaigns. In 1894 he was retired with the rank of Brigadier-General, and died in Washington, D. C, Dec. 2, 1910.

CARRIEL, Henry F., M.D., alienist, was born at Charlestown, N. H., and educated at Marlow Academy, N. H., and Wesleyan Seminary, Vt.; graduated from the College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York City, in 1857, and immediately accepted the position of Assistant Physician in the New Jersey State Lunatic Asylum, remaining until 1870. Meanwhile, however, he visited a large number of the leading hospitals and asylums of Europe. In 1870, Dr. Carriel received the appointment of Superintendent of the Illinois Central Hospital for the Insane at Jacksonville, a position which he continued to fill until 1893, when he tendered his resignation to Gov. Altgeld, retiring July 1 of that year. Died June 21, 1908. – Mrs. Mary Turner (Carriel), wife of Dr. Carriel, and a daughter of Prof. Jonathan B. Turner of Jacksonville, was elected a Trustee of the University of Illinois on the Republican ticket in 1896, receiving a plurality of 148,039 over Julia Holmes Smith, her highest competitor.

CARROLL COUNTY, originally a part of Jo Daviess County, but set apart and organized in 1839, named for Charles Carroll of Carrollton. The first settlements were in and around Savanna, Cherry Grove and Arnold’s Grove. The first County Commissioners were Messrs. L. H. Bor den, Garner Moffett and S. M. Jersey, who held their first court at Savanna, April 13, 1839. In 1843 the county-seat was changed from Savanna to Mount Carroll, where it yet remains. Townships were first organized in 1850, and the development of the county has steadily pro gressed since that date. The surface of the land is rolling, and at certain points decidedly picturesque. The land is generally good for farming. It is well timbered, particularly along the Mississippi. Area of the county, 450 square miles; population, 18,035. Mount Carroll is a pleasant, prosperous, wide-awake town, of about 2,000 inhabitants, and noted for its excellent public and private schools.

CARROLLTON, the county-seat of Greene County, situated on the west branch of the Chicago & Alton and the Quincy, Carrollton & St. Louis Railroads, 33 miles north-northwest of Alton, and 34 miles south by west from Jacksonville. The town has a foundry, carriage and wagon factory, two machine shops, two flour mills, two banks, six churches, a high school, and two weekly newspapers. Population (1890), 2,258; (1900), 2,355; (1910), 2,323.

CARTER, Joseph N., Justice of the Supreme Court, was born in Hardin County, Ky., March 12, 1843; came to Illinois in boyhood, and, after attending school at Tuscola four years, engaged in teaching until 1863, when he entered Illinois College, graduating in 1866; in 1868 graduated from the Law Department of the University of Michigan, the next year establishing himself in practice at Quincy, where he has since resided. He was a member of the Thirty-first and Thirty-second General Assemblies (1878-82), and, in June, 1894, was elected to the seat on the Supreme Bench, which he now occupies.

CARTER, Thomas Henry, United States Senator, born in Scioto County, Ohio, Oct, 30, 1854; in his fifth year was brought to Illinois, his father locating at Pana, where he was educated in the public schools; was employed in farming, railroading and teaching several years, then studied law and was admitted to the bar, and, in 1882, removed to Helena, Mont., where he engaged in practice; was elected, as a Republican the last Territorial Delegate to Congress from Idaho and the first Representative from the new State; was Commissioner of the General Land Office (1891-92), and, in 1895, was elected to the United States Senate for the term ending in 1901. In 1892 he was chosen Chairman of the Republican National Committee, serving until the St. Louis Convention of 1896.

CARTERVILLE, a city in Williamson County, 10 miles by rail northwest of Marion. Coal mining is the principal industry. It has a bank, five churches, a public school, and two weekly newspapers Population (1880), 692; (1890), 969; (1900), 1,749; (1910), 2,971.

CARTHAGE, a city and the county-seat of Hancock County, 13 miles east of Keokuk, Iowa, on the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy and the Wabash Railroads; has water-works, electric lights, three banks, four trust companies, four weekly papers, and is the seat of a Lutheran College. Pop. (1890), 1,654; (1900), 2,104; (1910), 2,373.

CARTHAGE COLLEGE, at Carthage, Hancock County, incorporated in 1871; has a teaching faculty of twelve members, and reports 158 pupils – sixty-eight men and ninety women – for 1897-98. It has a library of 5,000 volumes and endowment of $32,000 Instruction is given in the classical, scientific, musical, fine arts and business departments, as well as in preparatory studies. In 1898 this institution reported a property valuation of $41,000, of which $35,000 was in real estate.

CARTHAGE & BURLINGTON RAILROAD. (See Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad.)

CARTWRIGHT, James Henry, Justice of the Supreme Court, was born at Maquoketa, Iowa, Dec. 1, 1842 – the son of a frontier Methodist clergyman; was educated at Rock River Seminary and the University of Michigan, graduating from the latter in 1867; began practice in 1870 at Oregon, Ogle County, which is still his home; in 1888 was elected Circuit Judge to succeed Judge Eustace, deceased, and in 1891 assigned to Appellate Court duty; in December, 1895, was elected Justice of the Supreme Court to succeed Justice John M. Bailey, deceased, and re-elected in 1897.

CARTWRIGHT, Peter, pioneer Methodist preacher, was born in Amherst County, Va., Sept. 1, 1785, and at the age of five years accompanied his father (a Revolutionary veteran) to Logan County, Ky. The country was wild and unsettled, there were no schools, the nearest mill was 40 miles distant, the few residents wore homespun garments of flax or cotton; and coffee, tea and sugar in domestic use were almost unknown. Methodist circuit riders soon invaded the district, and, at a camp meeting held at Cane Ridge in 1801, Peter received his first religious impressions. A few months later he abandoned his reckless life, sold his race-horse and abjured gambling. He began preaching immediately after his conversion, and, in 1803, was regularly received into the ministry of the Methodist Episcopal Church, although only 18 years old. In 1823 he removed to Illinois, locating in Sangamon County, then but sparsely settled. In 1828, and again in 1832, he was elected to the Legislature, where his homespun wit and undaunted courage stood him in good stead. For a long series of years he attended annual conferences (usually as a delegate), and was a conspicuous figure at camp-meetings. Although a Democrat all his life, he was an uncompromising antagonist of slavery, and rejoiced at the division of his denomination in 1844. He was also a zealous supporter of the Government during the Civil War. In 1846 he was a candidate for Congress on the Democratic ticket, but was defeated by Abraham Lincoln. He was a powerful preacher, a tireless worker, and for fifty years served as a Presiding Elder of his denomination. On the lecture platform, his quaintness and eccentricity, together with his inexhaustible fund of personal anecdotes, insured an interested audience. Numerous stories are told of his physical prowess in overcoming unruly characters whom he had failed to convince by moral suasion. Inside the church he was equally fearless and outspoken, and his strong common sense did much to promote the success of the denomination in the West. He died at his home near Pleasant Plains, Sangamon County, Sept. 25, 1872. His principal published works are “A Controversy with the Devil” (1853), “Autobiography of Peter Cartwright” (1856), “The Backwoods Preacher” (London, 1869), and several works on Methodism.

CARY, Eugene, lawyer and insurance manager, was born at Boston, Erie County, N. Y., Feb. 20, 1835; began teaching at sixteen, meanwhile attending a select school or academy at intervals; studied law at Sheboygan, Wis., and Buffalo, N. Y., 1855-56; served as City Attorney and later as County Judge, and, in 1861, enlisted in the First Regiment Wisconsin Volunteers, serving as a Captain in the Army of the Cumberland, and the last two years as Judge-Advocate on the staff of General Rousseau. After the war he settled at Nashville, Tenn., where he held the office of Judge of the First District, but in 1871 he was elected to the City Council, and, in 1883, was the High-License candidate for Mayor in opposition to Mayor Harrison, and believed by many to have been honestly elected, but counted out by machine methods. Died Mar. 9, 1901.

CASAD, Anthony Wayne, clergyman and physician, was born in Wantage Township, Sussex County, N. J., May 2, 1791; died at Summerfield, Ill., Dec. 16, 1857. His father, Rev. Thomas Casad, was a Baptist minister, who, with his wife, Abigail Tingley, was among the early settlers of Sussex County. He was descended from Dutch-Huguenot ancestry, the family name being originally Cossart, the American branch having been founded by Jacques Cossart, who emigrated from Leyden to New York in 1663. At the age of 19 Anthony removed to Greene County, Ohio, settling at Fairfield, near the site of the present city of Dayton, where some of his relatives were then residing. On Feb. 6, 1811, he married Anna, eldest daughter of Captain Samuel Stites and Martha Martin Stites, her mother’s father and grandfather having been patriot soldiers in the War of the Revolution. Anthony Wayne Casad served as a volunteer from Ohio in the War of 1812, being a member of Captain Wm. Stephenson’s Company. In 1818 he removed with his wife’s father to Union Grove, St. Clair County, Ill. A few years later he entered the ministry of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and during 1821-23 was stationed at Kaskaskia and Buffalo, removing, in 1823, to Lebanon, where he taught school. Later he studied medicine and attained considerable prominence as a practitioner, being commissioned Surgeon of the Forty-ninth Illinois Infantry in 1835. He was one of the founders of McKendree College and a liberal contributor to its support; was also for many years Deputy Superintendent of Schools at Lebanon, served as County Surveyor of St. Clair County, and acted as agent for Harper Brothers in the sale of Southern Illinois lands. He was a prominent Free Mason and an influential citizen. His youngest daughter, Amanda Keziah, married Rev. Colin D. James (which see).

CASEY, a city of Clark County, at the intersection of the Vandalia Line and the Chicago & Ohio River Railroad, 35 miles southwest of Terra Haute; in oilfield. Pop. (1900), 1,500; (1910), 2,157.

CASEY, Zadoc, pioneer and early Congressman, was born in Georgia, March 17, 1796, the youngest, son of a soldier of the Revolutionary War who removed to Tennessee about 1800. The subject of this sketch came to Illinois in 1817, bringing with him his widowed mother, and settling in the vicinity of the present city of Mount Vernon, in Jefferson County, where he acquired great prominence as a politician and became the head of an influential family. He began preaching at an early age, and continued to do so occasionally through his political career. In 1819, he took a prominent part in the organization of Jefferson County, serving on the first Board of County Commissioners; was an unsuccessful candidate for the Legislature in 1820, but was elected Representative in 1822 and re-elected two years later; in 1826 was advanced to the Senate, serving until 1830, when he was elected Lieutenant-Governor, and during his incumbency took part in the Black Hawk War. On March 1, 1833, he resigned the Lieutenant-Governorship to accept a seat as one of the three Congressmen from Illinois, to which he had been elected a few months previous, being subsequently re-elected for four consecutive terms. In 1842 he was again a candidate, but was defeated by John A. McClernand. Other public positions held by him included those of Delegate to the Constitutional Conventions of 1847 and 1862, Representative in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth General Assemblies (1848-52), serving as Speaker in the former. He was again elected to the Senate in 1860, but died before the expiration of his term, Sept. 4, 1862. During the latter years of his life he was active in securing the right of way for the Ohio & Mississippi Railroad, the original of the Mississippi division of the Baltimore, Ohio & Southwestern. He commenced life in poverty, but acquired a considerable estate, and was the donor of the ground upon which the Supreme Court building for the Southern Division at Mount Vernon was erected. – Dr. Newton R. (Casey), son of the preceding, was born in Jefferson County, Ill., Jan. 27, 1826, received his primary education in the local schools and at Hillsboro and Mount Vernon Academies; in 1842 entered the Ohio University at Athens in that State, remaining until 1845, when he commenced the study of medicine, taking a course of lectures the following year at the Louisville Medical Institute; soon after began practice, and, in 1847, removed to Benton, Ill., returning the following year to Mount Vernon. In 1856-57 he attended a second course of lectures at the Missouri Medical College, St. Louis, the latter year removing to Mound City, where he filled a number of positions, including that of Mayor from 1859 to 1864, when he declined a re-election. In 1860, Dr. Casey served as delegate from Illinois to the Democratic National Convention at Charleston, S. C, and, on the establishment of the United States Government Hospital at Mound City, in 1861, acted for some time as a volunteer surgeon, later serving as Assistant Surgeon. In 1866, he was elected Representative in the Twenty-fifth General Assembly and re-elected in 1868, when he was an unsuccessful Democratic candidate for Speaker in opposition to Hon. S. M. Cullom; also again served as Representative in the Twenty-eighth General Assembly (1872-74). Since retiring from public life Dr. Casey has given his attention to the practice of his profession. – Col. Thomas S. (Casey), another son, was born in Jefferson County, Ill., April 6, 1832, educated in the common schools and at McKendree College, in due course receiving the degree of A.M. from the latter; studied law for three years, being admitted to the bar in 1854; in 1860, was elected State’s Attorney for the Twelfth Judicial District; in September, 1862, was commissioned Colonel of the One Hundred and Tenth Illinois Volunteer Infantry, but was mustered out May 16, 1863, having in the meantime taken part in the battle of Stone River and other important engagements in Western Tennessee. By this time his regiment, having been much reduced in numbers, was consolidated with the Sixtieth Illinois Volunteer Infantry. In 1864, he was again elected State’s Attorney, serving until 1868; in 1870, was chosen Representative, and, in 1872, Senator for the Mount Vernon District for a term of four years. In 1879, he was elected Circuit Judge and was immediately assigned to Appellate Court duty, soon after the expiration of his term, in 1885, removing to Springfield, where he died, March 1, 1891.

CASS COUNTY, situated a little west of the center of the State, with an area of 460 square miles and a population (1910) of 17,372 – named for Gen. Lewis Cass. French traders are believed to have made the locality of Beardstown, their headquarters about the time of the discovery of the Illinois country. The earliest permanent white settlers came about 1820, and among them were Thomas Beard, Martin L. Lindsley, John Cetrough and Archibald Job. As early as 1821 there was a horse-mill on Indian Creek, and, in 1827, M. L. Lindsley conducted a school on the bluffs. Peter Cartwright, the noted Methodist missionary and evangelist, was one of the earliest preachers, and among the pioneers may be named Messrs. Robertson, Toplo, McDonald, Downing, Davis, Shepherd, Penny, Bergen and Hopkins. Beardstown was the original county-seat, and during both the Black Hawk and Mormon troubles was a depot of supplies and rendezvous for troops. Here also Stephen A. Douglas made his first political speech. The site of the town, as at present laid out, was at one time sold by Mr. Downing for twenty-five dollars. The county was set off from Morgan in 1837. The principal towns are Beardstown, Virginia, Chandlerville, Ashland and Arenzville. The county-seat, formerly at Beardstown, was later removed to Virginia, where it now is. Beardstown was incorporated in 1837, with about 700 inhabitants. Virginia was platted in 1836, but not incorporated until 1842.

CASTLE, Orlando Lane, educator, was born at Jericho, Vt., July 26,1822; graduated at Denison University, Ohio, 1846,- spent one year as tutor there, and, for several years, had charge of the public schools of Zanesville, Ohio. In 1858, he accepted the chair of Rhetoric, Oratory and Belles-Lettres in Shurtleff College, at Upper Alton, Ill., remaining until his death, Jan. 31, 1892. Professor Castle received the degree of LL.D. from Denison University in 1877.

CATHERWOOD, Mary Hartwell, author, was born (Hartwell) in Luray, Ohio, Dec. 16, 1844; educated at the Female College, Granville, Ohio, where she graduated, in 1868, and, in 1887, was married to James S. Catherwood, with whom she resided at Hoopeston, Ill. Mrs. Catherwood was the author of a number of works of fiction, which have been accorded a high rank. Among her earlier productions are “Craque-o’-Doom” (1881), “Rocky Fork” (1882), “Old Caravan Days” (1884), “The Secrets at Roseladies” (1888), “The Romance of Dollard” and “The Bells of St. Anne” (1889). During her last few years she had shown a predilection for subjects connected with early Illinois history, and had published popular romances under the title of “The Story of Tonty,” “The White Islander,” “The Lady, of Fort St. John,” “Old Kaskaskia” and “The Chase of Sant Castin and other Stories of the French in the New World.” Died Dec. 26, 1902.

CATON, John Dean, early lawyer and jurist, was born in Monroe County, N. Y., March 19, 1812. Left to the care of a widowed mother at an early age, his childhood was spent in poverty and manual labor. At 15 he was set to learn a trade, but an infirmity of sight compelled him to abandon it. After a brief attendance at an academy at Utica, where he studied law between the ages of 19 and 21, in 1833 he removed to Chicago, and shortly afterward, on a visit to Pekin, was examined and licensed to practice by Judge Stephen T. Logan. In 1834, he was elected Justice of the Peace, served as Alderman in 1837-38, and sat upon the bench of the Supreme Court from 1842 to 1864, when he resigned, having served nearly twenty-two years. During this period he more than once occupied the position of Chief-Justice. Being embarrassed by the financial stringency of 1837-38, in the latier year he entered a tract of land near Plainfield, and, taking his family with him, began farming. Later in life, while a resident of Ottawa, he became interested in the construction of telegraph lines in the West, which for a time bore his name and were ultimately incorporated in the “Western Union,” laying the foundation of a large fortune. On retiring from the bench, he devoted himself for the remainder of his life to his private affairs, to travel, and to literary labors. Among his published works are “The Antelope and Deer of America,” “A Summer in Norway,” “Miscellanies,” and “Early Bench and Bar of Illinois.” Died in Chicago, July 30, 1895.

CAVARLY, Alfred W., early lawyer and legislator, was born in Connecticut, Sept. 15, 1793; served as a soldier in the War of 1812, and, in 1822, came to Illinois, first settling at Edwardsville, and soon afterwards at Carrollton, Greene County. Here he was elected Representative in the Fifth General Assembly (1826), and again to the Twelfth (1840); also served as Senator in the Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth Assemblies (1842-48), acting, in 1845, as one of the Commissioners to revise the statutes. In 1844, he was chosen a Presidential Elector, and, in 1846, was a prominent candidate for the Democratic nomination for Governor, but was defeated in convention by Augustus C. French. Mr. Cavarly was prominent both in his profession and in the Legislature while a member of that body. In 1853, he removed to Ottawa, where he resided until his death, Oct. 25, 1876.

CENTRAL CITY, a village of Marion County, on the Illinois Central Railroad, just north of Centralia; in a mining region. Pop. (1910), 1,179.

CENTRAL HOSPITAL FOR THE INSANE, established under act of the Legislature passed March 1, 1847, and located at Jacksonville, Morgan County. Its founding was largely due to the philanthropic efforts of Miss Dorothea L. Dix, who addressed the people from the platform and appeared before the General Assembly in behalf of this class of unfortunates. Construction of the building was begun in 1848. By 1851 two wards were ready for occupancy, and the first patient was received in November of that year. The first Superintendent was Dr. J. M. Higgins, who served less than two years, when he was succeeded by Dr. H. K. Jones, who had been Assistant Superintendent. Dr. Jones remained as Acting Superintendent for several months, when the place was filled by the appointment of Dr. Andrew McFarland of New Hampshire, his administration continuing until 1870, when he resigned on account of ill-health, being succeeded by Dr. Henry F. Carriel of New Jersey. Dr. Carriel tendered his resignation in 1893, and, after one or two further changes, in 1897 Dr. F. C. Winslow, who had been Assistant Superintendent under Dr. Carriel, was placed in charge of the institution. The original plan of construc – tion provided for a center building, five and a half stories high, and two wings with a rear extension in which were to be the chapel, kitchen and employes’ quarters. Subsequently these wings were greatly enlarged, permitting an increase in the number of wards, and as the exigencies of the institution demanded, appropriations have been made for the erection of additional buildings. Numerous detached buildings have been erected within the past few years, and the capacity of the institution greatly increased – “The Annex” admitting of the introduction of many new and valuable features in the classification and treatment of patients. The number of inmates of late years has ranged from 1,200 to 1,400. The counties from which patients are received in this institution embrace: Rock Island, Mercer, Henry, Bureau, Putnam, Marshall, Stark, Knox, Warren, Henderson, Hancock, McDonough, Fulton, Peoria, Tazewell, Logan, Mason, Menard, Cass, Schuyler, Adams, Pike, Calhoun, Brown, Scott, Morgan, Sangamon, Christian, Montgomery, Macoupin, Greene and Jersey.

CENTRALIA, a city and railway center of Marion County, 250 miles south of Chicago. It forms a trade center for the famous “fruit belt” of Southern Illinois; has a number of coal mines, oil and gas wells, a glass plant, iron foundries, railroad repair shops, flour and rolling mills, and an ice plant; also has water-works and sewerage system, a fire department, two daily and weekly papers, and excellent graded schools. Several parks afford splendid pleasure resorts. Population (1890), 4,763; (1900), 6,721; (1910), 9,680.

CENTRALIA & ALTAMONT RAILROAD. (See Centralia & Chester Railroad.)

CENTRALIA & CHESTER RAILROAD, a railway line wholly within the State, extending from Salem, in Marion County, to Chester, on the Mississippi River (91.6 miles), with a lateral branch from Sparta to Roxborough (5 miles), and trackage facilities over the Illinois Central from the branch junction to Centralia (2.9 miles) – total, 99.5 miles. The original line was chartered as the Centralia & Chester Railroad, in December, 1887, completed from Sparta to Coulterville in 1889, and consolidated the same year with the Sparta & Evansville and the Centralia & Altamont Railroads (projected); line completed from Centralia to Evansville early in 1894. The branch from Sparta to Rosborough was built in 1895, the section of the main line from Centralia to Salem (14.9 miles) in 1896, and that from Evansville to Chester (17.6 miles) in 1897-98. The road was placed in the hands of a receiver, June 7, 1897, and the expenditures for extension and equipment made under authority granted by the United States Court for the issue of Receiver’s certificates. The total capitalization is $2,374,841, of which $978,000 is in stocks and $948,000 in bonds.

CENTRAL MILITARY TRACT RAILROAD. (See Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad.)

CERRO GORDO, a town in Piatt County, 12 miles by rail east-northeast of Decatur. The crop of cereals in the surrounding country is sufficient to support two elevators at Cerro Gordo, which has also a flouring mill, brick and tile factories, etc. There are three churches, graded schools, a bank and one weekly newspaper. Population 1890), 939; (1900), 1,008; (1910), 876.

CHADDOCK COLLEGE, an institution under the patronage of the Methodist Episcopal Church at Quincy, Ill., incorporated in 1878; is co-educational, has a faculty of ten instructors, and reports 127 students – 70 male and 57 female – in the classes of 1895-96. Besides the usual departments in literature, science and the classics, instruction is given to classes in theology, music, the fine arts, oratory and preparatory studies. It has property valued at $110,000, and reports an endowment fund of $8,000.

CHAMBERLIN, Thomas Crowder, geologist and educator, was born near Mattoon, Ill., Sept. 25, 1845; graduated at Beloit College, Wisconsin, in 1866: took a course in Michigan University (1868-69); taught in various Wisconsin institutions, also discharged the duties of State Geologist, later filling the chair of Geology at Columbian University, Washington, D. C. In 1878, he was sent to Paris, in charge of the educational exhibits of Wisconsin, at the International Exposition of that year – during his visit making a special study of the Alpine glaciers. In 1887, he was elected President of the University of Wisconsin, serving until 1892, when he became Head Professor of Geology at the University of Chicago, where he still remains. He is also editor of the University “Journal of Geology” and President of the Chicago Academy of Sciences. Professor Chamberlin is author of a number of volumes on educational and scientific subjects, chiefly in the line of geology. He received the degree of LL.D. from the University of Michigan, Beloit College and Columbian University, all on the same date (1887).

CHAMPAIGN, a flourishing city in Champaign County, 128 miles southwest of Chicago and 83 miles northeast of Springfield; is the intersecting point of three lines of railway and connected with the adjacent city of Urbana, the county-seat, by an electric railway. The University of Illinois, located in Urbana, is contiguous to the city. Champaign has an excellent system of water-works, well-paved streets, and is lighted by both gas and electricity. The surrounding country is agricultural, but the city has manufactories of carriages and machines. Three papers are published here, besides a college weekly conducted by the students of the University. The Burnham Hospital and the Garwood Old Ladies’ Home are located in Champaign. In the residence portion of the city there is a handsome park, covering ten acres and containing a notable piece of bronze statuary, and several smaller parks in other sections. There are several handsome churches, and excellent schools, both public and private. Pop. (1900), 9,098; (1910), 12,421.

CHAMPAIGN COUNTY, situated in the eastern half of the central belt of the State; area, 1,008 square miles; population (1910), 51,829. The county was organized in 1833, and named for a county in Ohio. The physical conformation is flat, and the soil rich. The county lies in the heart of what was once called the “Grand Prairie.” Workable seams of bituminous coal underlie the surface, but overlying quicksands interfere with their operation. The Sangamon and Kaskaskia Rivers have their sources in this region, and several railroads cross the county. The soil is a black muck underlaid by a yellow clay. Urbana (with a population of 5,708 in 1900) is the county-seat. Other important points in the county are Champaign (9,000), Tolono (1,000), and Rantoul (1,200). Champaign and Urbana adjoin each other, and the grounds of the Illinois State University extend into each corporation, being argely situated in Champaign. Large drifted masses of Niagara limestone are found, interspersed with coal measure limestone and sandstone. Alternating beds of clay, gravel and quicksand of the drift formation are found beneath the subsoil to the depth of 150 to 300 feet.

CHAMPAIGN, HAVANA & WESTERN RAILROAD. (See Illinois Central Railroad.)

CHANDLER, Charles, physician, was born at West Woodstock, Conn., July 2, 1806; graduated with the degree of M.D. at Castleton, Vt., and, in 1829, located in Scituate, R. I.; in 1832, started with the intention of settling at Fort Clark (now Peoria), Ill., but was stopped at Beardstown by the “Black Hawk War,” finally locating on the Sangamon River, in Cass County, where, in 1848, he laid out the town of Chandlerville – Abraham Lincoln being one of the surveyors who platted the town. Here he gained a large practice, which he was compelled, in his later years, partially to abandon in consequence of injuries received while prosecuting his profession, afterwards turning his attention to merchandising and encouraging the development of the locality in which he lived by promoting the construction of railroads and the building of schoolhouses and churches. Liberal and public-spirited, his influence for good extended over a large region. Died, April 7, 1879.

CHANDLER, Henry B., newspaper manager, was born at Frelighsburg, Quebec, July 12, 1836; at 18 he began teaching, and later took charge of the business department of “The Detroit Free Press”; in 1861, came to Chicago with Wilbur F. Storey and became business manager of “The Chicago Times”; in 1870, disagreed with Storey and retired from newspaper business. Died, at Yonkers, N. Y., Jan. 18, 1896.

CHANDLERVILLE, a village in Cass County, on the Chicago, Peoria & St. Louis Railroad, 7 miles north by east from Virginia, laid out in 1848 by Dr. Charles Chandler, and platted by Abraham Lincoln. It has a bank, a creamery, four churches, a weekly newspaper, a flour and a saw-mill. Pop. (1900), 940; (1910), 884.

CHAPIN, a village of Morgan County, at the intersection of the Wabash and the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroads, 10 miles west of Jacksonville. Pop. (1900), 514; (1910), 552.

CHAPPELL, Charles H., railway manager, was born in Du Page County, Ill., March 3, 1841. With an ardent passion for the railroad business, at the age of 16 he obtained a position as freight brakeman on the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, being steadily promoted through the ranks of conductor, train-master and dispatcher, until, in 1865, at the age of 24, he was appointed General Agent of the Eastern Division of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy. Other railroad positions which Mr. Chappell later held were: Superintendent of a division of the Union Pacific (1869-70); Assistant or Division Superintendent of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, or some of its branches (1870-74); General Superintendent of the Missouri, Kansas & Texas (1874-76); Superintendent of the Western Division of the Wabash (1877-79). In 1880, he accepted the position of Assistant General Superintendent of the Chicago & Alton Railroad, being advanced in the next three years through the grades of General Superintendent and Assistant General Manager, to that of General Manager of the entire system, which he continued to fill for more than twelve years. Quietly and without show or display, Mr. Chappell continued in the discharge of his duties, assisting to make the system with which he was identified one of the most successful in its operation in the country. Died June 22, 1904.

CHARLESTON, the county-seat of Coles County, an incorporated city and a railway junction, 46 miles west of Terre Haute, Ind. It lies in the center of a farming region, yet has several factories, including woolen and flouring mills, broom, plow and carriage factories, a foundry and a canning factory. Three newspapers are published here, issuing daily editions. The Eastern State Normal School was located here in 1895. Pop. (1900), 5,488; (1900), 5,884.

CHARLESTON, PEORIA & ST. LOUIS RAILROAD. (See Toledo, St. Louis & Kansas City Railroad.)

CHARLEVOIX, Pierre Francois Xavier de, a celebrated French traveler and an early explorer of Illinois, born at St. Quentin, France, Oct. 29, 1682. He entered the Jesuit Society, and while a student was sent to Quebec (1695), where for four years he was instructor in the college, and completed his divinity studies. In 1709 he returned to France, but came again to Quebec a few years later. He ascended the St. Lawrence, sailed through Lakes Ontario and Erie, and finally reached the Mississippi by way of the Illinois River. After visiting Cahokia and the surrounding county (1720-21), he continued down the Mississippi to New Orleans, and returned to France by way of Santo Domingo. Besides some works on religious subjects, he was the author of histories of Japan, Paraguay and San Domingo. His great work, however, was the “History of New France,” which was not published until twenty years after his death. His journal of his American explorations appeared about the same time. His history has long been cited by scholars as authority, but no English translation was made until 1865, when it was undertaken by Shea. Died in France, Feb. 1, 1761.

CHASE, Philander, Protestant Episcopal Bishop, was born in Cornish, Vt., Dec. 14, 1775, and graduated at Dartmouth in 1795. Although reared as a Congregationalist, he adopted the Episcopal faith, and was ordained a priest in 1799, for several years laboring as a missionary in Northern and Western New York. In 1805, he went to New Orleans, but returning North in 1811, spent six years as a rector at New Haven, Conn., then engaged in missionary work in Ohio, organizing a number of parishes and founding an academy at Worthington; was consecrated a Bishop in 1819, and after a visit to England to raise funds, laid the foundation of Kenyon College and Gambier Theological Seminary, named in honor of two English noblemen who had contributed a large portion of the funds. Differences arising with some of his clergy in reference to the proper use of the funds, he resigned both the Bishopric and the Presidency of the college in 1831, and after three years of missionary labor in Michigan, in 1835 was chosen Bishop of Illinois. Making a second visit to England, he succeeded in raising additional funds, and, in 1838, founded Jubilee College at Robin’s Nest, Peoria County, Ill., for which a charter was obtained in 1847. He was a man of great religious zeal, of indomitable perseverance and the most successful pioneer of the Episcopal Church in the West. He was Presiding Bishop from 1843 until his death, which occurred Sept, 20, 1852. Several volumes appeared from his pen, the most important being “A Plea for the West” (1826), and “Reminiscences: an Autobiography, Comprising a History of the Principal Events in the Author’s Life” (1848).

CHATHAM, a village of Sangamon County, on the Chicago & Alton Railroad, 9 miles south of Springfield. Pop. (1900), 629; (1910), 666.

CHATSWORTH, town in Livingston County, on Ill. Cent, and Toledo, Peoria & Western Railways, 79 miles east of Peoria; in farming and stock-raising district; has two banks, three grain elevators, five churches, a graded school, two weekly papers, water-works, electric lights, paved streets, cement sidewalks, brick works, and other manufactories. Pop. (1900), 1,038; (1910), 1,112.

CHEBANSE, a town in Iroquois and Kankakee Counties, on the Illinois Central Railroad, 64 miles south-southwest from Chicago; the place has one bank and one newspaper. Population (1880), 728; (1890), 616; (1900), 555; (1910), 590.

CHENEY, Charles Edward, Bishop of the Reformed Protestant Episcopal Church, was born in Canandaigua, N. Y., Feb. 12, 1836; graduated at Hobart in 1857, and began study for the ministry of the Protestant Episcopal Church. Soon after ordination he became rector of Christ Church, Chicago, and was prominent among those who, under the leadership of Assistant Bishop Cummins of Kentucky, organized the Reformed Episcopal Church in 1873. He was elected Missionary Bishop of the Northwest for the new organization, and was consecrated in Christ Church, Chicago, Dec. 14, 1873.

CHENEY, John Yance, author and librarian, was born at Groveland, N. Y., Dec. 29, 1848, though the family home was at Dorset, Vt.. where he grew up and received his primary education. He acquired his academic training at Manchester, Vt., and Temple Hill Academy, Genesee, N. Y., graduating from the latter in 1865, later becoming Assistant Principal of the same institution. Having studied law, he was admitted to the bar successively in Massachusetts and New York; but meanwhile having written considerably for the old “Scribner’s Monthly” (now “Century Magazine”), while under the editorship of Dr. J. G. Holland, he gradually adopted literature as a profession. Removing to the Pacific Coast, he took charge, in 1887, of the Free Public Library at San Francisco, remaining until 1894, when he accepted the position of Librarian of the Newberry Library in Chicago, as successor to Dr. William F. Poole, deceased. Besides two or three volumes of verse, Mr. Cheney is the author of numerous essays on literary subjects. His published works include “Thistle-Drift,” poems (1887); “Wood-Blooms,” poems (1888), “Golden Guess,” essays (1892); “That Dome in Air,” essays (1895); “Queen Helen.” poem (1895) and “Out of the Silence,” poem (1897). He is also editor of “Wood Notes Wild,” by Simeon Pease Cheney (1892), and Caxton Club’s edition of Derby’s Phoenixiana.

CHENOA, an incorporated city of McLean County, at the intersecting point of the Toledo, Peoria & Western and the Chicago & Alton Railroads, 48 miles east of Peoria, 23 miles northeast of Bloomington, and 102 miles south of Chicago. Agriculture, dairy farming, fruit-growing and coal-mining are the chief industries of the surrounding region. The city also has an electric light plant, water-works, canning works and tile works, besides two banks, seven churches, a graded school, two weekly papers, and telephone systems connecting with the surrounding country. Pop. (1900), 1,512; (1910), 1,314.

CHESBROUGH, Ellis Sylvester, civil engineer, was born in Baltimore, Md., July 6, 1813; at the age of thirteen was chainman to an engineering party on the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, being later employed on other roads. In 1837, he was appointed senior assistant engineer in the construction of the Louisville, Cincinnati & Charleston Railroad, and, in 1846, Chief Engineer of the Boston Waterworks, in 1850 becoming sole Commissioner of the Water Department of that city. In 1855, he became engineer of the Chicago Board of Sewerage Commissioners, and in that capacity designed the sewerage system of the city – also planning the river tunnels. He resigned the office of Commissioner of Public Works of Chicago in 1879. He was regarded as an authority on water-supply and sewerage, and was consulted by the officials of New York, Boston, Toronto, Milwaukee and other cities. Died, August 19, 1886.

CHESNUT, John A., lawyer, was born in Kentucky, Jan. 19, 1816, his father being a native of South Carolina, but of Irish descent. John A. was educated principally in his native State, but came to Illinois in 1836, read law with P. H. Winchester at Carlinville, was admitted to the bar in 1837, and practiced at Carlinville until 1855, when he removed to Springfield and engaged in real estate and banking business. Mr. Chesnut was associated with many local business enterprises, was for several years one of the Trustees of the Institution for the Deaf and Dumb at Jacksonville, also a Trustee of the Illinois Female College (Methodist) at the same place, and was Supervisor of the United States Census for the Sixth District of Illinois in 1880. Died, Jan. 14, 1898.

CHESTER, the county-seat of Randolph County, situated on the Mississippi River, 76 miles south of St. Louis. It is the seat of the Southern Illinois Penitentiary and of the State Asylum for Insane Convicts. It stands in the neart of a region abounding in bituminous coal, and is a prominent shipping point for this commodity; also has quarries of building stone. It has a grain elevator, flouring mills, rolling mills and foundries and two weekly papers. Pop. (1890), 2,708; (1900), 2,832; (1910), 2,747.

CHETLAIN, Augustus Louis, soldier, was born in St. Louis, Mo., Dec. 26, 1824, of French Huguenot stock – his parents having emigrated from Switzerland in 1823, at first becoming members of the Selkirk colony on Red River, in Manitoba. Having received a common school education, he became a merchant at Galena, and was the first to volunteer there in response to the call for troops after the bombardment of Fort Sumter, in 1861, being chosen to the captaincy of a company in the Twelfth Regiment of Illinois Volunteers, which General Grant had declined; participated in the campaign on the Tennessee River which resulted in the capture of Fort Donelson and the battle of Shiloh, meanwhile being commissioned Lieutenant-Colonel; also distinguished himself at Corinth, where he remained in command until May, 1863, and organized the first colored regiment raised in the West. In December, 1863, he was promoted Brigadier-General and placed in charge of the organization of colored troops in Tennessee, serving later in Kentucky and being brevetted Major-General in January, 1864. From January to October, 1865, he commanded the post at Memphis, and later the District of Talladega, Ala., until January, 1866, when he was mustered out of the service. General Chetlain was Assessor of Internal Revenue for the District of Utah (1867-69), then appointed United States Consul at Brussels, serving until 1872, on his return to the United States establishing himself as a banker and broker in Chicago.


CHICAGO, the county-seat of Cook County, chief city of Illinois and (1910) second city in population in the United States.

SITUATION. – The city is situated at the southwest bend of Lake Michigan, 18 miles north of the extreme southern point of the lake, at the mouth of the Chicago River; 715 miles west of New York, 590 miles north of west from Washington, and 260 miles northeast of St. Louis. From the Pacific Coast it is distant 2,417 miles. Latitude 41 – 52′ north; longitude 87 – 35′ west of Greenwich. Area (1910), 190.6 square miles.

TOPOGRAPHY. – Chicago stands on the dividing ridge between the Mississippi and St. Lawrence basins. It is 502 feet above sea-level, and its highest point is some 18 feet above Lake Michigan. The Chicago River is virtually a bayou, dividing into north and south branches about a half-mile west of the lake. The surrounding country is a low, flat prairie, but engineering science and skill have done much for it in the way of drainage. The Illinois & Michigan Canal terminates at a point on the south branch of the Chicago River, within the city limits, and unites the waters of Lake Michigan with those of the Illinois River.

COMMERCE. – The Chicago River, with its branches, affords a water frontage of nearly 60 miles, the greater part of which is utilized for the shipment and unloading of grain, lumber, stone, coal, merchandise, etc. Another navigable stream (the Calumet River) also lies within the corporate limits. Dredging has made the Chicago River, with its branches, navigable for vessels of deep draft. The harbor has also been widened and deepened. Well constructed breakwaters protect the vessels lying inside, and the port is as safe as any on the great lakes. The city is a port of entry, and the tonnage of vessels arriving there exceeds that of any other port in the United States. During 1897, 9,156 vessels arrived, with an aggregate tonnage of 7,209,442, while 9,201 cleared, representing a tonnage of 7,185,324. It is the largest grain market in the world, its elevators (in 1897) having a capacity of 32,550,000 bushels.

According to the reports of the Board of Trade, the total receipts and shipments of grain for the year 1898 – counting flour as its grain equivalent in bushels – amounted to 323,097,453 bushels of the former, to 289,920,028 bushels of the latter. The receipts and shipments of various products for the year (1898) were as follows:

Receipts & Shipments

Flour (bbls.) – 5,316,195 – 5,032,236
Wheat (bu.) – 35,741,555 – 38,094,900
Corn (bu.) – 127,426,374 – 130,397,681
Oats (bu.) – 110,293,647 – 85,057,636
Rye (bu.) – 4,935,308 – 4,453,384
Barley (bu.) – 18,116,594 – 6,755,247
Cured Meats (lbs.) – 229,005,246 – 923,627,722
Dressed Beef (lbs.) – 110,286,652 – 1,060,859,808
Live-stock – Hogs (lbs.) – 9,360,968 – 1,334,768
Cattle (lbs.) – 2,480,632 – 864,408
Sheep (lbs.) – 3,502,378 – 545,001

Chicago is also an important lumber market, the receipts in 1895, including shingles, being 1,562,527 in feet. As a center for beef and pork-packing, the city is without a rival in the amount of its products, there having been 92,459 cattle and 760,514 hogs packed in 1894-95. In bank clearings and general mercantile business it ranks second only to New York, while it is also one of the chief manufacturing centers of the country. The census of 1890 shows 9,959 manufacturing establishments, with a capital of $292,477,038; employing 203,108 hands, and turning out products valued at – 632,184,140. Of the output by far the largest was that of the slaughtering and meat-packing establishments, amounting to $203,825,092; men’s clothing came next ($32,-517,226); iron and steel, $31,419,854; foundry and machine shop products, $29,928,616; planed lumber, $17,604,494. Chicago is also the most important live-stock market in the United States. The Union Stock Yards (in the southwest part of the city) are connected with all railroad lines entering the city, and cover many hundreds of acres. In 1894, there were received 8,788,049 animals (of all descriptions), valued at $148,057,626. Chicago is also a primary market for hides and leather, the production and sales being both of large proportions, and the trade in manufactured leather (notably in boots and shoes) exceeds that of any other market in the country. Ship-building is a leading industry, as are also brick-making, distilling and brewing.

TRANSPORTATION, ETC. – Besides being the chief port on the great lakes, Chicago ranks second to no other American city as a railway center. The old “Galena & Chicago Union,” its first railroad, was operated in 1849, and within three years a substantial advance had been scored in the way of steam transportation. Since then the multiplication of railroad lines focusing in or passing through Chicago has been rapid and steady. In 1895 not less than thirty-eight distinct lines enter the city, although these are operated by only twenty-two companies. Some 2,600 miles of railroad track are laid within the city limits. The number of trains daily arriving and departing (suburban and freight included) is about 2,000. Intramural transportation is afforded by electric, steam, cable and horse-car lines. Four tunnels under the Chicago River and its branches, and numerous bridges connect the various divisions of the city.

HISTORY. – Point du Sable (a native of San Domingo) was admittedly the first resident of Chicago other than the aborigines. The French missionaries and explorers – Marquette, Joliet, La Salle, Hennepin and others – came a century earlier, their explorations beginning in 1673. After the expulsion of the French at the close of the French and Indian War, the territory passed under British control, though French traders remained in this vicinity after the War of the Revolution. One of these named Le Mai followed Point du Sable about 1796, and was himself succeeded by John Kinzie, the Indian trader, who came in 1803. Fort Dearborn was built near the mouth of the Chicago River in 1804 on land acquired from the Indians by the treaty of Greenville, concluded by Gen. Anthony Wayne in 1795, but was evacuated in 1812, when most of the garrison and the few inhabitants were massacred by the savages. (See Fort Dearborn.) The fort was rebuilt in 1816, and another settlement established around it. The first Government survey was made, 1829-30. Early residents were the Kinzies, the Wolcotts, the Beaubiens and the Millers. The Black Hawk War (1832) rather aided in developing the resources and increasing the population of the infant settlement by drawing to it settlers from the interior for purposes of mutual protection. Town organization was effected on August 10, 1832, the total nuinber of votes polled being 28. The town grew rapidly for a time, but received a set-back in the financial crisis of 1837. During May of that year, however, a charter was obtained and Chicago became a city. The total number of votes cast at that time was 703. The census of the city for the 1st of July of that year showed a population of 4,180. The following table shows the names and term of office of the chief city officers from 1837 to 1899:

1837Wm B OgdenI. N. Arnold, Geo Davis (1)N. B. JuddHiram Pearsons
1838Buckner S MorrisGeo DavisN. B. JuddHiram Pearsons
1839Benj. W. RaymondWm. H. BrackettSamuel L. SmithGeo. W. Dole
1840Alexander LloydThomas HoyneMark SkinnerW.S. Gurnee, N.H. Bolles(2)
1841F. C. ShermanThomas HoyneGeo. ManierreN. H. Bolles
1842Benj. W. RaymondJ. CurtisHenry BrownF. C. Sherman
1843Augustus GarrettJames M. LoweG. Manierre, Henry Brown(3)Walter S. Gurnee
1844Aug.Garrett,Alson S.Sherman(4)E. A. RuckerHenry W. ClarkeWalter S. Gurnee
1845Aug.Garrett, Alson S.Sherman(4)E. A. Rucker,Wm.S.Brown(5)Henry W. ClarkeWm. L. Church
1846John P. ChapinHenry B. ClarkeCharles H. LarrabeeWm. L. Church
1847James CurtissHenry B. ClarkePatrick BallingallAndrew Getzler
1848James H. WoodworthSidney AbellGiles SpringWm. L. Church
1849James H. WoodworthSidney AbellO. R. W. LullWm. L. Church
1850James CurtissSidney AbellHenry H. ClarkEdward Manierre
1851Walter S. GurneeHenry W. ZimmermanHenry H. ClarkEdward Manierre
1852Walter S. GurneeHenry W. ZimmermanArno VossEdward Manierre
1853Charles M. GrayHenry W. ZimmermanArno VossEdward Manierre
1854Ira L. MillikenHenry W. ZimmermanPatrick BallingallUriah P. Harris
1855Levi D. BooneHenry W. ZimmermanJ. A. ThompsonWm. P. De Wolf
1856Thomas DyerHenry W. ZimmermanJ. L MarshO.J. Rose
1857John WentworthH. KreismanJohn C. MillerC. N. Holden
1858John C. HainesH. KreismanElliott AnthonyAlonzo Harvey
1859John C. HainesH. KreismanGeo. F. CrockerAlonzo Harvey
1860John WentworthAbraham KohnJohn Lyle KingAlonzo Harvey,C.W.Hunt(6)
1861Julian S. RumseyA. J. MarbleIra W. BuelW. H. Rice
1862F. C.ShermanA. J. MarbleGeo. A. MeechF. H. Cutting, W. H. Rice(7)
1863F.C.ShermanH.W.ZimmermanFrancis AdamsDavid A. Gage
1864F. C. ShermanH. W. ZimmermanFrancis AdamsDavid A. Gage
1865John B. BiceAlbert H. BodmanDaniel D. DriscollA. G. Throop
1866John B. RiceAlbert H. BodmanDaniel D. DriscollA. G. Throop
1867John B. RiceAlbert H. BodmanHasbrouck DavisWm. F. Wentworth
1868John B. BiceAlbert H. BodmanHasbrouck DavisWm. F. Wentworth
1869John B. Rice (8)Albert H. BodmanHasbrouck DavisWm. F. Wentworth
1870B.B. MasonCharles T. HotchkissIsrael N. StilesDavid A. Gage
1871B.B. MasonCharles T. HotchkissIsrael N. StilesDavid A. Gage
1872Joseph MedillCharles T. HotchkissIsrael N. StilesDavid A. Gage
1873Joseph MedillCharles T. HotchkissIsrael N. StilesDavid A. Gage
1874Harvey D. ColvinJos. K. C. ForrestEgbert JamiesonDaniel O’Hara
1875Harvey D. ColvinJos. K. C. ForrestEgbert JamiesonDaniel O’Hara
1876Monroe Heath,(9), H. D. Colvin, Thomas HoyneCaspar ButzR. S. TuthillClinton Briggs
1877-78Monroe HeathCaspar ButzR. S. TuthillChas. B. Larrabee
1879-80Carter H. HarrisonP.J.HowardJulius S. GrinnellW. C. Scipp
1881-82Carter H. HarrisonP. J. HowardJulius S. GrinnellRudolph Brand
1883-84Carter H. HarrisonJohn G. NeumeisterJulius S. GrinnellJohn M. Dunphy
1885- 86Carter H. HarrisonC. Herman PlautzHempstead WashburneWm. M. Devine
1887-88John A. BocheD. W. NickersonHempstead WashburneC. Herman Plautz
1889-90Dewitt C. CregierFranz AmbergGeo. F. SuggBernard Roesing
1891-92Hempstead WashburneJames R. B. Van CleaveJacob J. Kern, G.A.Trude(10)Peter Kiolbassa
1893-94Carter H. Harrison, Geo. B. Swift. (11), John P. Hopkins.(11)Chas. D. GastfieldGeo. A. TrudeMichael J. Bransfield
1895-96Geo. B. SwiftJames R. B. Van CleaveRoy O. WestAdam Wolf
1897-98Carter H. Harrison, JrWilliam LoefflerMiles J. DevineErnst Hummel
1899-01Carter H. Harrison, JrWilliam LoefflerAndrew J. RyanAdam Ortseifen
1901-03Carter H. Harrison, JrWilliam LoefflerA. J. Ryan (12)Charles F. Gunther
1903-05Carter H. Harrison, JrFred C. BenderJohn F. Smulski (13)Adam Ortseifer
1906-07Edward F. DunneA. C. AnsonOffice made appointiveFred W. Blocki
1907-09Fred A. BusseJohn B. McCabe(1905)John A. Traeger
1909-11(Term 4 years)F. D. Connery.Isaac N. Powell
1911-Carter H. HarrisonF. D. Connery.Henry Stuckart

(1) I. N. Arnold resigned, and Geo. Davis appointed, October, 1837.
(2) Gurnee resigned, Bolles appointed his successor, April, 1840.
(3) Manierre resigned, Brown appointed his successor, July, 1843.
(4) Election of Garrett declared illegal, and Sherman elected at new election, held April, 1844.
(5) Brown appointed to fill vacancy caused by resignation of Rucker.
(6) Harvey resigned and Hunt appointed to fill vacancy.
(7) Cutting having failed to qualify, Rice, who was already in office, held over.
(8) Legislature changed date of election from April to November, the persons in office at beginning of 1869 remaining in office to December of that year.
(9) City organized under general Incorporation Act in 1875, and no city election held until April, 1876. The order for a new election omitted the office of Mayor, yet a popular vote was taken which gave a majority to Thomas Hoyne. The Council then in office refuted to canvass this vote, but its successor, at its first meeting, did so, declaring Hoyne duly elected. Colvin, the incumbent, refused to surrender the office, claiming the right to ” hold over;” Hoyne then made a contest for the office, which resulted in a decision by the Supreme Court denying the claims of both contestants, when a new election was ordered by the City Council, July 12, 1876, at which Monroe Heath was elected, serving out the term.
(10) City Attorney Kern, having resigned November 21, 1892, Geo. A. Trude was appointed to serve out the remainder of the term.
(11) Mayor Harrison, having been assassinated, October 28, 1893, the City Council at its next meeting (November 6, 1893) elected Geo. B. Swift (an Alderman from the Eleventh Ward) Mayor ad interim. At a special election held December 19, 1893, John P. Hopkins was elected to fill out the unexpired term of Mayor Harrison.

THE FIRE OF 1871. – The city steadily grew in beauty, population and commercial importance until 1871. On Oct. 9 of that year occurred the “great fire” the story of which has passed into history. Recuperation was speedy, and the 2,100 acres burned over were rapidly being rebuilt, when, in 1874, occurred a second conflagration, although by no means so disastrous as that of 1871. The city’s recuperative power was again demonstrated, and its subsequent development has been phenomenal. The subjoined statement shows its growth in population:

1837 – 4,179
1840 – 4,470
1850 – 28,269
1860 – 112,162
1870 – 298,977
1880 – 503,185
1890 – 1,099,850
1900 – 1,698,575
1910 – 2,185,283

Notwithstanding a large foreign population and a constant army of unemployed men, Chicago has witnessed only three disturbances of the peace by mobs – the railroad riots of 1877, the Anarchist disturbance of 1886, and a strike of railroad employes in 1894.

MUNICIPAL ADMINISTRATION. – Chicago long since outgrew its special charter, and is now incorporated under the broader provisions of the law applicable to “cities of the first class,” under which the city is virtually autonomous. The personnel, drill and equipment of the police and fire departments are second to none, if not superior to any, to be found in other American cities. The Chicago River, with its branches, divides the city into three principal divisions, known respectively as North, South and West. Each division has its statutory geographical boundaries, and each retains its own distinct township organization. This system is anomalous; it has, however, both assailants and defenders.

PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS. – Chicago has a fine system of parks and boulevards, well developed, well improved and well managed. One of the parks (Jackson in the South Division) was the site of the World’s Columbian Exposition. The water supply is obtained from Lake Michigan by means of cribs and tunnels. In this direction new and better facilities are being constantly introduced, and the existing water system will compare favorably with that of any other American city.

ARCHITECTURE. – The public and office buildings, as well as the business blocks, are in some instances classical, but generally severely plain.

Granite and other varieties of stone are used in the City Hall, County Court House, the Board of Trade structure, and in a few commercial buildings, as well as in many private residences. In the business part of the city, however, steel, iron, brick and fire clay are the materials most largely employed in construction, the exterior walls being of brick. The most approved methods of fire-proof building are followed, and the “Chicago construction” has been recognized and adopted (with modifications) all over the United States. Office buildings range from ten to sixteen, and even, as in the case of the Masonic Temple, twenty stories in height. Most of them are sumptuous as to the interior, and many of the largest will each accommodate 3,000 to 5,000 occupants, including tenants and their employes. In the residence sections wide diversity may be seen; the chaste and the ornate styles being about equally popular. Among the handsome public, or semi-public buildings may be mentioned the Public Library, the Newberry Library, the Art Institute, the Armour Institute, the Academy of Sciences, the Auditorium, the Board of Trade Building, the Masonic Temple, and several of the railroad depots.

EDUCATION AND LIBRARIES. – Chicago has a public school system unsurpassed for excellence in any other city in the country. According to the report of the Board of Education for 1898, the city had a total of 221 primary and grammar schools, besides fourteen high schools, employing 5,268 teachers and giving instruction to over 236,000 pupils in the course of the year. The total expenditures during the year amounted to $6,785,601, of which nearly $4,500,000 was on account of teachers’ salaries. The city has nearly $7,500,000 invested in school buildings. Beside pupils attending public schools there are about 100,000 in attendance on private and parochial schools, not reckoning students at higher institutions of learning, such as medical, law, theological, dental and pharmaceutical schools, and the great University of Chicago. Near the city are also the Northwestern and the Lake Forest Universities, the former at Evanston and the latter at Lake Forest. Besides an extensive Free Public Library for circulating and reference purposes, maintained by public taxation, and embracing (in 1898) a total of over 235,000 volumes and nearly 50,000 pamphlets, there are the Library of the Chicago Historical Society and the Newberry and Crerar Libraries – the last two thje outgrowth of posthumous donations by public-spirited and liberal citizens – all open to the public for purposes of reference under certain conditions. This list does not include the extensive library of the University of Chicago and those connected with the Armour Institute and the public schools, intended for the use of the pupils of these various institutions.

CHICAGO BOARD OF TRADE, one of the leading commercial exchanges of the world. It was originally organized in the spring of 1843 as a voluntary association, with a membership of eighty-two. Its primary object was the promotion of the city’s commercial interests by unity of action. On Feb. 8, 1849, the Legislature enacted a general law authorizing the establishment of Boards of Trade, and under its provisions an incorporation was effected – a second organization being effected in April, 1850. For several years the association languished, and at times its existence seemed precarious. It was, however, largely instrumental in securing the introduction of the system of measuring grain by weight, which initial step opened the way for subsequent great improvements in the methods of handling, storing, inspecting and grading cereals and seeds. By the close of 1856, the association had overcome the difficulties incident to its earlier years, and the feasibility of erecting a permanent Exchange building began to be agitated, but the project lay dormant for several years. In 1856 was adopted the first system of classification and grading of wheat, which, though crude, formed the foundation of the elaborate modern system, which has proved of such benefit to the grain-growing States of the West, and has done so much to give Chicago its commanding influence in the grain markets of the world. In 1858, the privilege of trading on the floor of the Exchange was limited to members. The same year the Board began to receive and send out daily telegraphic market reports at a cost, for the first year, of $500,000, which was defrayed by private subscriptions. New York was the only city with which such communication was then maintained. In February, 1859, a special charter was obtained, conferring more extensive powers upon the organization, and correspondingly increasing its efficiency. An important era in the Board’s history was the Civil War of 1861-65. During this struggle its attitude was one of undeviating loyalty and generous patriotism. Hundreds of thousands of dollars were contributed, by individual members and from the treasury of the organization, for the work of recruiting and equipping regiments, in caring for the wounded on Southern battlefields, and providing for the families of enlisted men. In 1864, the Board waged to a successful issue a war upon the irredeemable currency with which the entire West was then flooded, and secured such action by the banks and by the railroad and express companies as compelled its replacement by United States legal-tender notes and national bank notes. In 1865, handsome, large (and, as then supposed, permanent) quarters were occupied in a new building erected by the Chicago Chamber of Commerce under an agreement with the Board of Trade. This structure was destroyed in the fire of October, 1871, but at once rebuilt, and made ready for re-occupancy in precisely one year after the destruction of its predecessor. Spacious and ample as these quarters were then considered, the growing membership and increasing business demonstrated their inadequacy before the close of 1877. Steps looking to the erection of a new building were taken in 1881, and, on May 1, 1885, the new edifice – then the largest and most ornate of its class in the world – was opened for occupancy. The membership of the Board for the year 1898 aggregated considerably in excess of 1,800. The influence of the association is felt in every quarter of the commercial world.

CHICAGO, BURLINGTON & NORTHERN RAILROAD. (See Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad.)

CHICAGO, BURLINGTON & QUINCY RAILROAD (known as the “Burlington Route”) is the parent organization of an extensive system which operates railroads in eleven Western and Northwestern States, furnishing connections from Chicago with Omaha, Denver, St. Paul and Minneapolis, St. Louis and Kansas City, Cheyenne (Wyo.), Billings (Mont.), Deadwood (So. Dak,), and intermediate points, and having connections by affiliated roads with the Pacific Coast. The main line extends from Chicago to Denver (Colo.), 1,025.41 miles. The mileage of the various branches and leased proprietary lines (1898) aggregates 4,627.06 miles. The Company uses 207.23 miles in conjunction with other roads, besides subsidiary standard-gauge lines controlled through the ownership of securities amounting to 1,440 miles more. In addition to these the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy controls 179 miles of narrow-gauge road. The whole number of miles of standard-gauge road operated by the Burlington system, and known as the Burlington Route, on June 30, 1899, is estimated at 7,419, of which 1,509 is in Illinois, all but 47 miles being owned by the Company. The system in Illinois connects many important commercial points, including Chicago, Aurora, Galesburg, Quincy, Peoria, Streator, Sterling, Mendota, Fulton, Lewistown, Rushville, Geneva, Keithsburg, Rock Island, Beardstown, Alton, etc. The entire capitalization of the line (including stock, bonds and floating debt) amounted, in 1898, to $234,884,600, which was equivalent to about $33,000 per mile. The total earnings of the road in Illinois, during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1898, amounted to $8,724,997, and the total disbursements of the Company within the State, during the same period, to $7,469,456. Taxes paid in 1898, $377,968. – (HISTORY). The first section of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad was constructed under a charter granted, in 1849, to the Aurora Branch Railroad Company, the name being changed in 1852 to the Chicago & Aurora Railroad Company. The line was completed in 1853, from the junction with the old Galena & Chicago Union Railroad, 30 miles west of Chicago, to Aurora, later being extended to Mendota. In 1855 the name of the Company was changed by act of the Legislature to the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy. The section between Mendota and Galesburg (80 miles) was built under a charter granted in 1851 to the Central Military Tract Railroad Company, and completed in 1854. July 9, 1856, the two companies were consolidated under the name of the former. Previous to this consolidation the Company had extended aid to the Peoria & Oquawka Railroad (from Peoria to the Mississippi River, nearly opposite Burlington, Iowa), and to the Northern Cross Railroad from Quincy to Galesburg, both of which were completed in 1855 and operated by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy. In 1857 the name of the Northern Cross was changed to the Quincy & Chicago Railroad. In 1860 the latter was sold under foreclosure to the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, and, in 1863, the Peoria & Oquawka was acquired in the same way – the former constituting the Quincy branch of the main line and the latter giving it its Burlington connection. Up to 1863, the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy used the track of the Galena & Chicago Union Railroad to enter the city of Chicago, but that year began the construction of its line from Aurora to Chicago, which was completed in 1864. In 1872 it acquired control, by perpetual lease, of the Burlington & Missouri River Road in Iowa, and, in 1880, extended this line into Nebraska, now reaching Billings, Mont., with a lateral branch to Deadwood, So. Dak. Other branches in Illinois, built or acquired by this corporation, include the Peoria & Hannibal; Carthage & Burlington; Quincy & Warsaw; Ottawa, Chicago & Fox River Valley; Quincy, Alton & St. Louis, and the St. Louis, Rock Island & Chicago. The Chicago, Burlington & Northern – known as the Northern Division of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy – is an important part of the system, furnishing a connection between St. Louis on the south and St. Paul and Minneapolis on the north, of which more than half of the distance of 583 miles between terminal points, is in Illinois. The latter division was originally chartered, Oct. 21, 1885, and constructed from Oregon, Ill., to St. Paul, Minn. (319 miles), and from Fulton to Savanna, Ill. (16.72 miles), and opened, Nov. 1. 1886. It was formally incorporated into the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy line in 1899. In June of the same year the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy also acquired by purchase the Keokuk & Western Railroad from Keokuk to Van Wert, Iowa (143 miles), and the Des Moines & Kansas City Railway, from Des Moines, Iowa, to Cainesville, Mo. (112 miles).

CHICAGO, DANVILLE & VINCENNES RAILROAD. (See Chicago & Eastern Illinois Railroad.)

CHICAGO DRAINAGE CANAL, a channel or waterway, in course of construction (1892-99) from the Chicago River, within the limits of the city of Chicago, to Joliet Lake, in the Des Plaines River, about 12 miles above the junction of the Des Plaines with the Illinois. The primary object of the channel is the removal of the sewage of the city of Chicago and the proper drainage of the region comprised within what is called the “Sanitary District of Chicago.” The feasibility of connecting the waters of Lake Michigan by way of the Des Plaines River with those of the Illinois, attracted the attention of the earliest French explorers of this region, and was commented upon, from time to time, by them and their successors. As early as 1808 the subject of a canal uniting Lake Michigan with the Illinois was discussed in a report on roads and canals by Albert Gallatin, then Secretary of the Treasury, and the project was touched upon in a bill relating to the Erie Canal and other enterprises, introduced in Congress in 1811. The measure continued to receive attention in the press, in Western Territorial Legislatures and in official reports, one of the latter being a report by John C. Calhoun, as Secretary of War, in 1819, in which it is spoken of as “valuable for military purposes.” In 1822 Congress passed an act granting the right of way to the State through the public lands for such an enterprise, which was followed, five years later, by a grant of lands for the purpose of its construction. The work was begun in 1836, and so far completed in 1848 as to admit of the passage of boats from the Chicago basin to La Salle. (See Illinois & Michigan Canal.) Under an act passed by the Legislature in 1865, the work of deepening the canal was undertaken by the city of Chicago with a view to furnishing means to relieve the city of its sewage, the work being completed some time before the fire of 1871. This scheme having failed to accomplish the object designed, other measures began to be considered. Various remedies were proposed, but in all the authorities were confronted with the difficulty of providing a fund, under the provisions of the Constitution of 1870, to meet the necessary cost of construction. In the closing months of the year 1885, Hon. H. B. Hurd, who had been a member of a Board of “Drainage Commissioners,” organized in 1855, was induced to give attention to the subject. Having satisfied himself and others that the difficulties were not insurmountable with proper action by the Legislature, the City Council, on Jan. 27, 1886, passed a resolution authorizing the Mayor to appoint a Commission, to consist of “one expert engineer of reputation and experience in engineering and sanitary matters,” and two consulting engineers, to constitute a “drainage and water-supply commission” for the purpose of investigating and reporting upon the matter of water-supply and disposition of the sewage of the city. As a result of this action, Rudolph Hering, of Philadelphia, was appointed expert engineer by Mayor Harrison, with Benezette Williams and S. G. Artingstall, of Chicago, as consulting engineers. At the succeeding session of the General Assembly (1887), two bills – one known as the “Hurd bill” and the other as the “Winston bill,” but both drawn by Mr. Hurd, the first contemplating doing the work by general taxation and the issue of bonds, and the other by special assessment – were introduced in that body. As it was found that neither of these bills could be passed at that session, a new and shorter one, which became known as the “Roche-Winston bill,” was introduced and passed near the close of the session. A resolution was also adopted creating a commission, consisting of two Senators, two Representatives and Mayor Roche of Chicago, to further investigate the subject. The later act, just referred to, provided for the construction of a cutoff from the Des Plaines River, which would divert the flood-waters of that stream and the North Branch into Lake Michigan north of the city. Nothing was done under this act, however. At the next session (1889) the commission made a favorable report, and a new law was enacted embracing the main features of the Hurd bill, though changing the title of the organization to be formed from the “Metropolitan Town,” as proposed by Mr. Hurd, to the “Sanitary District.” The act, as passed, provided for the election of a Board of nine Trustees, their powers being confined to “providing for the drainage of the district,” both as to surplus water and sewage. Much opposition to the measure had been developed during the pendency of the legislation on the subject, especially in the Illinois valley, on sanitary grounds, as well as fear of midsummer flooding of the bottom lands which are cultivated to some extent; but this was overcome by the argument that the channel would, when the Des Plaines and Illinois Rivers were improved between Joliet and La Salle, furnish a new and enlarged waterway for the passage of vessels between the lake and the Mississippi River, and the enterprise was indorsed by conventions held at Peoria, Memphis and elsewhere, during the eighteen months preceding the passage of the act. The promise ultimately to furnish a flow of not less than 600,000 cubic feet per minute also excited alarm in cities situated upon the lakes, lest the taking of so large a volume of water from Lake Michigan should affect the lake-level injuriously to navigation; but these apprehensions were quieted by the assurance of expert engineers that the greatest reduction of the lake-level below the present minimum would not exceed three inches, and more likely would not produce a perceptible effect. At the general election, held Nov. 5, 1889, the “Sanitary District of Chicago” was organized by an almost unanimous popular vote – the returns showing 70,958 votes for the measure to 242 against. The District, as thus formed, embraces all of the city of Chicago north of Eighty-seventh Street, with forty-three square miles outside of the city limits but within the area to be benefited by the improvement. Though the channel is located partly in Will County, the district is wholly in Cook and bears the entire expense of construction. The first election of Trustees was held at a special election, Dec. 12, 1889, the Trustees then elected to hold their offices for five years and until the following November. The second election occurred, Nov. 5, 1895, when the Board, as now constituted (1899), was chosen, viz.: William Boldenweck, Joseph C. Braden, Zina R. Carter, Bernard A. Eckhart, Alexander J. Jones, Thomas Kelly, James P. Mallette, Thomas A. Smyth and Frank Wenter. The Trustees have power to sell bonds in order to procure funds to prosecute the work and to levy taxes upon property within the district, under certain limitations as to length of time the taxes run and the rate per cent imposed. Under an amendment of the Drainage Act adopted by the Legislature in 1897, the rate of assessment upon property within the Drainage District is limited to one and one-half per cent, up to and including the year 1899, but after that date becomes one-half of one per cent. The bed of the channel, as now in process of construction, commences at Robey Street and the South Branch of the Chicago River, 5.8 miles from Lake Michigan, and extends in a southwesterly direction to the vicinity of Summit, where it intersects the Des Plaines River. From this point it follows the bed of that stream to Lockport, in Will County, where, in consequence of the sudden depression in the ground, the bed of the channel comes to the surface, and where the great controlling works are situated. This has made necessary the excavation of about thirteen miles of new channel for the river – which runs parallel with, and on the west side of, the drainage canal – besides the construction of about nineteen miles of levee to separate the waters of the canal from the river. The following statement of the quality of the material excavated and the dimensions of the work, is taken from a paper by Hon. H. B. Hurd, under the title, “The Chicago Drainage Channel and Waterway,” published in the sixth volume of “Industrial Chicago” (1896): “Through that portion of the channel between Chicago and Summit, which is being constructed to produce a flow of 300,000 cubic feet per minute, which is supposed to be sufficient to dilute sewage for about the present population (of Chicago), the width of the channel is 110 feet on the bottom, with side slopes of two to one. This portion of the channel is ultimately to be enlarged to the capacity of 600,000 cubic feet per minute. The bottom of the channel, at Robey Street, is 24.448 feet below Chicago datum. The width of the channel from Summit down to the neighborhood of Willow Springs is 202 feet on the bottom, with the same side slope. The cut through the rock, which extends from the neighborhood of Willow Springs to the point where the channel runs out of ground near Lockport, is 160 feet wide at the bottom. The entire depth of the channel is substantially the same as at Robey Street, with the addition of one foot in 40,000 feet. The rock portion of the channel is constructed to the full capacity of 600,000 cubic feet per minute. From the point where the channel runs out of ground to Joliet Lake, there is a rapid fall; over this slope works are to be constructed to let the water down in such a manner as not to damage Joliet.” Ground was broken on the rock-cut near Lemont, on Sept. 3, 1892, and work has been in progress almost constantly ever since. The progress of the work was greatly obstructed during the year 1898, by difficulties encountered in securing the right of way for the discharge of the waters of the canal through the city of Joliet, but these were compromised near the close of the year, and it was anticipated that the work would be prosecuted to completion during the year 1899. From Feb. 1, 1890, to Dec. 31, 1898, the net receipts of the Board for the prosecution of the work aggregated $28,257,707, while the net expenditures had amounted to $28,221.864.57. Of the latter, $20,099,284.67 was charged to construction account, $3,156,903.12 to “land account” (including right of way), and $1,222,092.82 to the cost of maintaining the engineering department. When finished, the cost will reach not less than $35,000,000. These figures indicate the stupendous character of the work, which bids fair to stand without a rival of its kind in modern engineering and in the results it is expected to achieve.

CHICAGO GREAT WESTERN RAILWAY. The total mileage of this line, June 30, 1898, was 1,008 miles, of which 152.52 miles are operated and owned in Illinois. The line in this State extends west from Chicago to East Dubuque, the extreme terminal points being Chicago and Minneapolis in the Northwest, and Kansas City in the Southwest. It has several branches in Illinois, Iowa and Minnesota, and trackage arrangements with several lines, the most important being with the St. Paul & Northern Pacific (10.56 miles), completing the connection between St. Paul and Minneapolis; with the Illinois Central from East Dubuque to Portage (12.23 miles), and with the Chicago & Northern Pacific from Forest Home to the Grand Central Station in Chicago. The company’s own track is single, of standard gauge, laid with sixty and seventy-five-pound steel rails. Grades and curvature are light, and the equipment well maintained. The outstanding capital stock (1898) was $52,019,054; total capitalization, including stock, bonds and miscellaneous indebtedness, $57,144,245. (HISTORY). The road was chartered, Jan. 5, 1892, under the laws of Illinois, for the purpose of reorganization of the Chicago, St. Paul & Kansas City Railway Company on a stock basis. During 1895, the De Kalb & Great Western Railroad (5.81 miles) was built from De Kalb to Sycamore are a feeder of this line.

CHICAGO, HARLEM & BATAVIA RAILROAD. (See Chicago & Northern Pacific Railroad.)

CHICAGO, HAVANA & WESTERN RAILROAD. (See Illinois Central Railroad.)

CHICAGO HISTORICAL SOCIETY, organized, April 24, 1856, for the purposes of (1) establishing a library and a cabinet of antiquities, relics, etc.; (2) the collection and preservation of historical manuscripts, documents, papers and tracts; (3) the encouragement of the discovery and investigation of aboriginal remains, particularly in Illinois; (4) the collection of material illustrating the growth and settlement of Chicago. By 1871 the Society had accumulated much valuable material, but the entire collection was destroyed in the great Chicago fire of that year, among the manuscripts consumed being the original draft of the emancipation proclamation by Abraham Lincoln. The nucleus of a second collection was consumed by fire in 1874. Its loss in this second conflagration included many valuable manuscripts. In 1877 a temporary building was erected, which was torn down in 1892 to make room for the erection, on the same lot, of a thoroughly fire-proof structure of granite, planned after the most approved modern systems. The new building was erected and dedicated under the direction of its late President, Edward G. Mason, Esq., Dec. 12, 1896. The Society’s third collection now embraces about twenty-five thousand volumes and nearly fifty thousand pamphlets; seventy-five portraits in oils, with other works of art; a valuable collection of mauuscript documents, and a large museum of local and miscellaneous antiquities. Mr. Charles Evans is Secretary and Librarian.

CHICAGO HOMEOPATHIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, organized in 1876, with a teaching faculty of nineteen and forty-five matriculates. Its first term opened October 4, of that year, in a leased building. By 1881 the college had outgrown its first quarters, and a commodious, well appointed structure was erected by the trustees, in a more desirable location. The institution was among the first to introduce a graded course of instruction, extending over a period of eighteen years. In 1897, the matriculating class numbered over 200.

CHICAGO HOSPITAL FOR WOMEN AND CHILDREN, located at Chicago, and founded in 1865 by Dr. Mary Harris Thompson. Its declared objects are: “To afford a home for women and children among the respectable poor in need of medical and surgical aid; to treat the same classes at home by an assistant physician; to afford a free dispensary for the same, and to train competent nurses.” At the outset the hospital was fairly well sustained through private benefactions, and, in 1870, largely through Dr. Thompson’s efforts, a college was organized for the medical education of women exclusively. (See Northwestern University Woman’s Medical School.) The hospital building was totally destroyed in the great fire of 1871, but temporary accommodations were provided in another section of the city. The following year, with the aid of $25,000 appropriated by the Chicago Relief and Aid Society, a permanent building was purchased, and, in 1885, a new, commodious and well planned building was erected on the same site, at a cost of about $75,000.

CHICAGO, MADISON & NORTHERN RAILROAD, a line of railway 231.3 miles in length, 140 miles of which lie within Illinois. It is operated by the Illinois Central Railroad Company, and is known as its “Freeport Division.” The par value of the capital stock outstanding is $50,000 and of bonds $2,500,000, while the floating debt is $3,620,698, making a total capitalization of $6,170,698, or – 26,698 per mile. (See also Illinois Central Railroad.) This road was opened from Chicago to Freeport in 1888.

CHICAGO MEDICAL COLLEGE. (See Northwestern University Medical College.)

CHICAGO, MILWAUKEE & ST. PAUL RAILWAY, one of the great trunk lines of the Northwest, having a total mileage (1898) of 6,153.83 miles, of which 317.94 are in Illinois. The main line extends from Chicago to Minneapolis, 420 miles, although it has connections with Kansas City, Omaha, Sioux City and various points in Wisconsin, Iowa and the Dakotas. The Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad Company enjoys the distinction of being the owner of all the lines operated by it, though it operates 245 miles of second tracks owned jointly wTith other lines. The greater part of its track is laid with 60, 75 and 85-lb. steel rails. The total capital invested (1898) is $220,005,901, distributed as follows: capital stock, $77,845,000; bonded debt, $135,285,500; other forms of indebtedness, $5,572,401. Its total earnings in Illinois for 1898 were $5,205,244, and the total expenditures, $3,320,248. The total number of employees in Illinois for 1898 was 2,293, receiving $1,746,827.70 in aggregate compensation. Taxes paid for the same year amounted to $151,285. – (HISTORY). The Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway was organized in 1863 under the name of the Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway. The Illinois portion of the main line was built under a charter granted to the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway Company, and the Wisconsin portion under charter to the Wisconsin Union Railroad Company; the whole built and opened in 1872 and purchased by the Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway Company. It subsequently acquired by purchase several lines in Wisconsin, the whole receiving the present name of the line by act of the Wisconsin Legislature, passed, Feb. 14, 1874. The Chicago & Evanston Railroad was chartered, Feb. 16, 1861, built from Chicago to Calvary (10.8 miles), and opened, May 1,1885; was consolidated with the Chicago & Lake Superior Railroad, under the title of the Chicago, Evanston & Lake Superior Railroad Company, Dec. 22,1885, opened to Evanston, August 1, 1886, and purchased, in June, 1887, by the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway Company. The Road, as now organized, is made up of twenty-two divisions located in Illinois, Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota, North and South Dakota, Missouri and Michigan.

CHICAGO, PADUCAH & MEMPHIS RAILROAD (Projected), a road chartered, Dec. 19, 1893, to run between Altamont and Metropolis, Ill., 152 miles, with a branch from Johnston City to Carbondale, 20 miles – total length, 172 miles. The gauge is standard, and the track laid with sixty-pound steel rails. By Feb. 1, 1895, the road from Altamont to Marion (100 miles) was completed, and work on the remainder of the line has been in progress. It is intended to connect with the Wabash and the St. Louis Southern systems. Capital stock authorized and subscribed, $2,500,000; bonds issued, $1,575,000. Funded debt, authorized, $15,000 per mile in five per cent first mortgage gold bonds. Cost of road up to Feb. 1, 1895, $20,000 per mile; estimated cost of the entire line, $2,000,000. In December, 1896, this road passed into the hands of the Chicago & Eastern Illinois Railroad Company, and is now operated to Marion, in Williamson County. (See Chicago & Eastern Illinois Railroad.)

CHICAGO, PEKIN & SOUTHWESTERN RAILROAD, a division of the Chicago & Alton Railroad, chartered as the Chicago & Plainfleld Railroad, in 1859; opened from Pekin to Streator in 1873, and to Mazon Bridge in 1876; sold under foreclosure in 1879, and now constitutes a part of the Chicago & Alton system.

CHICAGO, PEORIA & ST. LOUIS RAILROAD COMPANY (of Illinois), a corporation operating two lines of railroad, one extending from Peoria to Jacksonville, and the other from Peoria to Springfield, with a connection from the latter place (in 1895), over a leased line, with St. Louis. The total mileage, as officially reported in 1895, was 208.66 miles, of which 166 were owned by the corporation. (1) The original of the Jacksonville Division of this line was the Illinois River Railroad, opened from Pekin to Virginia in 1859. In October, 1863, it was sold under foreclosure, and, early in 1864, was transferred by the purchasers to a new corporation called the Peoria, Pekin & Jacksonville Railroad Company, by whom it was extended the same year to Peoria, and, in 1869, to Jacksonville. Another foreclosure, in 1879, resulted in its sale to the creditors, followed by consolidation, in 1881, with the Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway. (2) The Springfield Division was incorporated in 1869 as the Springfield & Northwestern Railway; construction was begun in 1872, and road opened from Springfield to Havana (45.20 miles) in December, 1874, and from Havana to Pekin and Peoria over the track of the Peoria, Pekin & Jacksonville line. The same year the road was leased to the Indianapolis, Bloomington & Western Railroad Company, but the lease was forfeited, in 1875, and the road placed in the hands of a receiver. In 1881, together with the Jacksonville Division, it was transferred to the Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway, and by that company operated as the Peoria & Springfield Railroad. The Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific having defaulted and gone into the hands of a receiver, both the Jacksonville and the Springfield Divisions were reorganized in February, 1887, under the name, of the Chicago, Peoria & St. Louis Railroad, and placed under control of the Jacksonville Southeastern Railroad. A reorganization of the latter took place, in 1890, under the name of the Jacksonville, Louisville & St. Louis Railway, and, in 1893, it passed into the hands of receivers, and was severed from its allied lines. The Chicago, Peoria & St. Louis Railroad remained under the management of a separate receiver until January, 1896, when a reorganization was effected under its present name – “The Chicago, Peoria & St. Louis Railroad of Illinois.” The lease of the Springfield & St. Louis Division having expired in December, 1895, it has also been reorganized as an independent corporation under the name of the St. Louis, Peoria & Northern Railway (which see).

CHICAGO RIVER, a sluggish stream, draining a narrow strip of land between Lake Michigan and the Des Plaines River, the entire watershed drained amounting to some 470 square miles. It is formed by the union of the “North” and the “South Branch,” which unite less than a mile and a half from the mouth of the main stream. At an early day the former was known as the “Guarie” and the latter as “Portage River.” The total length of the North Branch is about 20 miles, only a small fraction of which is navigable. The Sooth Branch is shorter but offers greater facilities for navigation, being lined along its lower portions with grain-elevators, lumber-yards and manufactories. The Illinois Indians in early days bond an easy portage between it and the Des Plaines River. The Chicago River, with its branches, separates Cliicago into three divisions, known, respectively, as the “North” the “South” and the “West Divisions.” Drawbridges have been erected at the principal street crossings over the river and both branches, and four tunnels, connecting the various divisions of the citv, have been constructed under the river bed.

CHICAGO, ROCK ISLAND & PACIFIC RAILWAY, formed by the consolidation of various lines in 1880. The parent corporation (The Chicago & Rock Island Railroad) was chartered in Illinois in 1851, and the road opened from Chicago to the Mississippi River at Rock Island (181 miles), July 10, 1854. In 1852 a company was chartered under the name of the Mississippi & Missouri Railroad for the extension of the road from the Mississippi to the Missouri River. The two roads were consolidated in 1866 as the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railroad, and the extension to the Missouri River and a junction with the Union Pacific completed in 1869. The Peoria & Bureau Valley Railroad (an important feeder from Peoria to Bureau Junction – 46.7 miles) was incorporated in 1853, and completed and based in perpetuity to the Chicago & Rock Island Railroad, in 1854. The St. Joseph & Iowa Railroad was purchased in 1889, and the Kansas City & Topeka Railway in 1891. The Company has financial and traffic agreements with the Chicago, Rock Island & Texas Railway, extending from Terral Station, Indian Territory, to Fort Worth, Texas. The road also has connections from Chicago with Peoria; St. Paul and Minneapolis; Omaha and Lincoln (Neb.); Denver, Colorado Springs and Pueblo (Colo.), besides various points in South Dakota, Iowa and Southwestern Kansas. The extent of the lines owned and operated by the Company (“Poor’s Manual,” 1898), is 3,568.15 miles, of which 236.51 miles are in Illinois, 189.52 miles being owned by the corporation. All of the Company’s owned and leased lines are laid with steel rails. The total capitalization reported for the same year was $116,748,211, of which $50,000,000 was in stock and $58,830,000 in bonds. The total earnings and income of the line in Illinois, for the year ending June 30, 1898, was $5,851,875, and the total expenses $3,401,165, of which $233,129 was in the form of taxes. The Company has received under Congressional grants 550,194 acres of land, exclusive of State grants, of which there had been sold, up to March 31, 1894, 548,609 acres.

CHICAGO, ST. PAUL & FOND DU LAC RAILROAD. (See Chicago & Northwestern Railway.)

CHICAGO, ST. PAUL & KANSAS CITY RAILWAY. (See Chicago Great Western Railway.)

CHICAGO, ST. LOUIS & PADUCAH RAILWAY, a short road, of standard gauge, laid with steel rails, extending from Marion to Brooklyn, Ill., 53.64 miles. It was chartered, Feb. 7, 1887, and opened for traffic, Jan. 1, 1889. The St. Louis, Alton & Terre Haute Railroad Company is the lessee, having guaranteed principal and interest on its first mortgage bonds. Its capital stock is $1,000,000, and its bonded debt $2,000,000, making the total capitalization about $56,000 per mile. The cost of the road was $2,950,000; total incumbrance (1895), $3,016,715.

CHICAGO TERMINAL TRANSFER RAILROAD, the successor to the Chicago & Northern Pacific Railroad. The latter was organized in November, 1889, to acquire and lease facilities to other roads and transact a local business. The Road under its new name was chartered, June 4, 1897, to purchase at foreclosure sale the property of the Chicago & Northern Pacific, soon after acquiring the property of the Chicago & Calumet Terminal Railway also. The combination gives it the control of 84.53 miles of road, of which 70.76 miles are in Illinois. The line is used for both passenger and freight terminal purposes, and also a belt line just outside the city limits. Its principal tenants are the Chicago Great Western, the Baltimore & Ohio, the Wisconsin Central Lines, and the ChicagQ, Hammond & Western Railroad. The Company also has control of the ground on which the Grand Central Depot is located. Its total capitalization (1898) was $44,553,044, of which $30,000,000 was capital stock and $13,394,000 in the form of bonds.

CHICAGO THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY, organized, Sept. 26, 1854, by a convention of Congregational ministers and laymen representing seven Western States, among which was Illinois. A special and liberal charter was granted, Feb. 15, 1855. The Seminary has always been under Congregational control and supervision, its twenty-four trustees being elected at Triennial Conventions, at which are represented all the churches of that denomination west of the Ohio and east of the Rocky Mountains. The institution was formally opened to students, Oct. 6, 1858, with two professors and twenty-nine matriculates. Since then it has steadily grown in both numbers and influence. Preparatory and linguistic schools have been added and the faculty (1896) includes eight professors and nine minor instructors. The Seminary is liberally endowed, its productive assets being nearly $1,000,000, and the value of its grounds, buildings, library, etc., amounting to nearly $500,000 more. No charge is made for tuition or room rent, and there are forty-two endowed scholarships, the income of which is devoted to the aid of needy students. The buildings, including the library and dormitories, are four in number, and are well constructed and arranged.

CHICAGO & ALTON RAILROAD, an important railway running in a southwesterly direction from Chicago to St. Louis, with numerous branches, extending into Missouri, Kansas and Colorado. The Chicago & Alton Railroad proper was constructed under two charters – the first granted to the Alton & Sangamon Railroad Company, in 1847, and the second to the Chicago & Mississippi Railroad Company, in 1852. Construction of the former was begun in 1852, and the line opened from Alton to Springfield in 1853. Under the second corporation, the line was opened from Springfield to Bloomington in 1854, and to Joliet in 1856. In 1855 a line was constructed from Chicago to Joliet under the name of the Joliet & Chicago Railroad, and leased in perpetuity to the present Company, which was reorganized in 1857 under the name of the St. Louis, Alton & Chicago Railroad Company. For some time connection was had between Alton and St. Louis by steam-packet boats running in connection with the railroad; but later over the line of the Indianapolis & St. Louis Railroad – the first railway line connecting the two cities – and, finally, by the Company’s own line, which was constructed in 1864, and formally opened Jan. 1, 1865. In 1861, a company with the present name (Chicago & Alton Railroad Company) was organized, which, in 1862, purchased the St. Louis, Alton & Chicago Road at foreclosure sale. Several branch lines have since been acquired by purchase or lease, the most important in the State being the line from Bloomington to St. Louis by way of Jacksonville. This was chartered in 1851 under the name of the St. Louis, Jacksonville & Chicago Railroad, was opened for business in January, 1868, and having been diverted from the route upon which it was originally projected, was completed to Bloomington and leased to the Chicago & Alton in 1868. In 1884 this branch was absorbed by the main line. Other important branches are the Kansas City Branch from Roodhouse, crossing the Mississippi at Louisiana, Mo.; the Washington Branch from Dwight to Washington and Lacon, and the Chicago & Peoria, by which entrance is obtained into the city of Peoria over the tracks of the Toledo, Peoria & Western. The whole number of miles operated (1898; is 843.54, of which 580.73 lie in Illinois. Including double tracks and sidings, the Company has a total trackage of 1,186 miles. The total capitalization, in 1898, was $32,793,972, of which $22,230,600 was in stock, and $6,694,850 in bonds. The total earnings and income for the year, in Illinois, were $5,022,315, and the operating and other expenses, $4,272,207. This road, under its management as it existed up to 1898, has been one of the most uniformly successful in the country. Dividends have been paid semiannually from 1863 to 1884, and quarterly from 1884 to 1896. For a number of years previous to 1897, the dividends had amounted to eight per cent per annum on both preferred and common stock, but later had been reduced to seven per cent on account of short crops along the line. The taxes paid in 1898 were $341,040. The surplus, June 30, 1895, exceeded two and three-quarter million dollars. The Chicago & Alton was the first line in the world to put into service sleeping and dining cars of the Pullman model, which have since been so widely adopted, as well as the first to run free reclining chair-cars for the convenience and comfort of its passengers. At the time the matter embraced in this volume is undergoing final revision (1899), negotiations are in progress for the purchase of this historic line by a syndicate representing the Baltimore & Ohio, the Missouri Pacific, the Union Pacific, and the Missouri, Kansas & Texas systems, in whose interest it will hereafter be operated.

CHICAGO & AURORA RAILROAD. (See Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad.)

CHICAGO & EASTERN ILLINOIS RAILROAD. This company operates a line 516.3 miles in length, of which 278 miles are within Illinois. The main line in this State extends southerly from Dolton Junction (17 miles south of Chicago) to Danville. Entrance to the Polk Street Depot in Chicago is secured over the tracks of the Western Indiana Railroad. The company owns several important branch lines, as follows: From Momence Junction to the Indiana State Line; from Cissna Junction to Cissna Park; from Danville Junction to Shelbyville, and from Sidell to Rossville. The system in Illinois is of standard gauge, about 108 miles being double track. The right of way is 100 feet wide and well fenced. The grades are light, and the construction (including rails, ties, ballast and bridges), is generally excellent. The capital stock outstanding (1895) is $13,594,400; funded debt, $18,018,000; floating debt, $916,381; total capital invested, $32,570,781; total earnings in Illinois, $2,592,072; expenditures in the State, $2,595,631. The company paid the same year a dividend of six per cent on its common stock ($286,914), and reported a surplus of $1,484,762. The Chicago & Eastern Illinois was originally chartered in 1865 as the Chicago, Danville & Vincennes Railroad, its main line being completed in 1872. In 1873, it defaulted on interest, was sold under foreclosure in 1877, and reorganized as the Chicago & Nashville, but later in same year took its present name. In 1894 it was consolidated with the Chicago & Indiana Coal Railway. Two spurs (5.27 miles in length) were added to the line in 1895. Early in 1897 this line obtained control of the Chicago, Paducah & Memphis Railroad, which is now operated to Marion, in Williamson County. (See Chicago, Paducah & Memphis Railroad.)

CHICAGO &GRAND TRUNK RAILWAY, Of the 335.27 miles of the Chicago & Grand Trunk Railroad, only 30.65 are in Illinois, and of the latter 9.7 miles are operated under lease. That portion of the line within the State extends from Chicago easterly to the Indiana State line. The Company is also lessee of the Grand Junction Railroad, four miles in length. The Road is capitalized at $6,600,000, has a bonded debt of $12,000,000 and a floating debt (1895) of $2,271,425, making the total capital invested, $20,871,425. The total earnings in Illinois for 1895 amounted to $660,393; disbursements within the State for the same period, $345,233. The Chicago & Grand Trunk Railway, as now constituted, is a consolidation of various lines between Port Huron, Mich., and Chicago, operated in the interest of the Grand Trunk Railway of Canada. The Illinois section was built under a charter granted in 1878 to the Chicago & State Line Railway Company, to form a connection with Valparaiso, Ind. This corporation acquired the Chicago & Southern Railroad (from Chicago to Dolton), and the Chicago & State Line Extension in Indiana, all being consolidated under the name of the Northwestern Grand Trunk Railroad. In 1880, a final consolidation of these lines with the eastward connections took place under the present name – the Chicago & Grand Trunk Railway.

CHICAGO & GREAT EASTERN RAILWAY. (See Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis Railway.)

CHICAGO & GREAT SOUTHERN RAILROAD. (See Peoria, Decatur & Evansville Railway.)

CHICAGO & ILLINOIS SOUTHERN RAILWAY. (See Peoria, Decatur & Evansville Railway.)


CHICAGO & MISSISSIPPI RAILROAD. (See Chicago & Alton Railroad.)

CHICAGO & NASHVILLE RAILROAD. (See Chicago & Eastern Illinois Railroad.)

CHICAGO & NORTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD. (See Chicago Terminal Transfer Railroad.)

CHICAGO & NORTHWESTERN RAILWAY, one of the great trunk lines of the country, penetrating the States of Illinois, Wisconsin, Michigan, Iowa, Minnesota and North and South Dakota. The total length of its main line, branches, proprietary and operated lines, on May 1, 1899, was 5,076.89 miles, of which 594 miles are operated in Illinois, all owned by the company. Second and side tracks increase the mileage to a total of 7,217.91 miles. The Chicago & Northwestern Railway (proper) is operated in nine separate divisions, as follows: The Wisconsin, Galena, Iowa, Northern Iowa, Madison, Peninsula, Winona and St. Peter, Dakota and Ashland Divisions. The principal or main lines of the “Northwestern System,” in its entirety, are those which have Chicago, Omaha, St. Paul and Minneapolis for their termini, though their branches reach numerous important points within the States already named, from the shore of Lake Michigan on the east to Wyoming on the west, and from Kansas on the south to Lake Superior on the north. – (History.) The Chicago & Northwestern Railway Company was organized in 1859 under charters granted by the Legislatures of Illinois and Wisconsin during that year, under which the new company came into possession of the rights and franchises of the Chicago, St. Paul & Fond du Lac Railroad Company. The latter road was the outgrowth of various railway enterprises which had been projected, chartered and partly constructed in “Wisconsin and Illinois, between 1848 and 1855, including the Madison & Beloit Railroad, the Rock River Valley Union Railroad, and the Illinois & Wisconsin Railroad – the last named company being chartered by the Illinois Legislature in 1851, and authorized to build a railroad from Chicago to the Wisconsin line. The Wisconsin Legislature of 1855 authorized the consolidation of the Rock River Valley Union Railroad with the Illinois enterprise, and, in March, 1855, the consolidation of these lines was perfected under the name of the Chicago, St. Paul & Fond du Lac Railroad. During the first four years of its existence this company built 176 miles of the road, of which seventy miles were between Chicago and the Wisconsin State line, with the sections constructed in Wisconsin completing the connection between Chicago and Fond du Lac. As the result of the financial revulsion of 1857, the corporation became financially embarrassed, and the sale of its property and franchises under the foreclosure of 1859, already alluded to, followed. This marked the beginning of the present corporation, and, in the next few years, by the construction of new lines and the purchase of others in Wisconsin and Northern Illinois, it added largely to the extent of its lines, both constructed and projected. The most important of these was the union effected with the Galena & Chicago Union Railroad, which was formally consolidated with the Chicago & Northwestern in 1864. The history of the Galena & Chicago Union is interesting in view of the fact that it was one of the earliest railroads incorporated in Illinois, having been chartered by special act of the Legislature during the “internal improvement” excitement of 1836. Besides, its charter was the only one of that period under which an organization was effected, and although construction was not begun under it until 1847 (eleven years afterward), it was the second railroad constructed in the State and the first leading from the city of Chicago. In the forty years of its history the growth of the Chicago & Northwestern has been steady, and its success almost phenomenal. In that time it has not only added largely to its mileage by the construction of new lines, but has absorbed more lines than almost any other road in the country, until it now reaches almost every important city in the Northwest. Among the lines in Northern Illinois now constituting a part of it, were several which had become a part of the Galena & Chicago Union before the consolidation. These included a line from Belvidere to Beloit, Wis.; the Fox River Valley Railroad, and the St. Charles & Mississippi Air Line Railroad – all Illinois enterprises, and more or less closely connected with the development of the State. The total capitalization of the line, on June 30, 1898, was $200,968,108, of which $66,408,821 was capital stock and $101,603,000 in the form of bonds. The earnings in the State of Illinois, for the same period, aggregated $4,374,923, and the expenditures $3,712,593. At the present time (1899) the Chicago & Northwestern is building eight or ten branch lines in Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota and South Dakota. The Northwestern System, as such, comprises nearly 3,000 miles of road not included in the preceding statements of mileage and financial condition. Although owned by the Chicago & Northwestern Company, they are managed by different officers and under other names. The mileage of the whole system covers nearly 8,000 miles of main line.

CHICAGO & SPRINGFIELD RAILROAD. (See Illinois Central Railroad.)

CHICAGO & TEXAS RAILROAD, a line seventy-three miles in length, extending from Johnston City by way of Carbondale westerly to the Mississippi, thence southerly to Cape Girardeau. The line was originally operated by two companies, under the names of the Grand Tower & Carbondale and the Grand Tower & Cape Girardeau Railroad Companies. The former was chartered in 1882, and the road built in 1885; the latter, chartered in 1889 and the line opened the same year. They were consolidated in 1893, and operated under the name of the Chicago & Texas Railroad Company. In October, 1897, the last named line was transferred, under a twenty-five year lease, to the Illinois Central Railroad Company, by whom it is operated as its St. Louis & Cape Girardeau division.

CHICAGO & WESTERN INDIANA RAILROAD. The main line of this road extends from Chicago to Dolton, Ill. (17 miles), and affords terminal facilities for all lines entering the Polk St. Depot at Chicago. It has branches to Hammond, Ind. (10.28 miles); to Cragin (15.9 miles), and to South Chicago (5.41 miles); making the direct mileage of its branches 48.59 miles. In addition, its second, third and fourth tracks and sidings increase the mileage to 204.79 miles. The company was organized June 9, 1879; the road opened in 1880, and, on Jan. 26, 1882, consolidated with the South Chicago & Western Indiana Railroad Company, and the Chicago & Western Indiana Belt Railway. It also owns some 850 acres in fee in Chicago, including wharf property on the Chicago River, right of way, switch and transfer yards, depots, the Indiana grain elevator, etc. The elevator and the Belt Division are leased to the Belt Railway Company of Chicago, and the rest of the property is leased conjointly by the Chicago & Eastern Illinois, the Chicago & Grand Trunk, the Chicago & Erie, the Louisville, New Albany & Chicago, and the Wabash Railways (each of which owns $1,000,000 of the capital stock), and by the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe. These companies pay the expense of operation and maintenance on a mileage basis.

CHICAGO & WISCONSIN RAILROAD. (See Wisconsin Central Lines.)

CHILDS, Robert A., was born at Malone, Franklin County, N. Y., March 22, 1845, the son of an itinerant Methodist preacher, who settled near Belvidere, Boone County, Ill., in 1852. His home having been broken up by the death of his mother, in 1854, he went to live upon a farm. In April, 1861, at the age of 16 years, he enlisted in the company of Captain (afterwards General) Stephen A. Hurlbut, which was later attached to the Fifteenth Illinois Volunteers. After being mustered out at the close of the war, he entered school, and graduated from the Illinois State Normal University in 1870. For the following three years he was Principal and Superintendent of public schools at Amboy, Lee County, meanwhile studying law, and being admitted to the bar. In 1873, he began the practice of his profession at Chicago, making his home at Hinsdale. After filling various local offices, in 1884 he was chosen Presidential Elector on the Republican ticket, and, in 1892, was elected by the narrow majority of thirty-seven votes to represent the Eighth Illinois District in the Fifty-third Congress, as a Republican.

CHILLICOTHE, a city in Peoria County, situated on the Illinois River, at the head of Peoria Lake; is 19 miles northwest of Peoria, on the Peoria branch of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railroad, and the freight division of the Atkinson, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad. It is an important shipping-point for grain; has a canning factory, a button factory, two banks, five churches, a high school, and two weekly newspapers. Pop. (1900), 1,G99; (1910), 1,851.

CHINIQUY, (Rev.) Charles, clergyman and reformer, was born in Canada, July 30, 1809, of mixed French and Spanish blood, and educated for the Romish priesthood at the Seminary of St. Nicholet, where he remained ten years, gaining a reputation among his fellow students for extraordinary zeal and piety. Having been ordained to the priesthood in 1833, he labored in various churches in Canada until 1851, when he accepted an invitation to Illinois with a view to building up the church in the Mississippi Valley. Locating at the junction of the Kankakee and Iroquois Rivers, in Kankakee County, he was the means of bringing to that vicinity a colony of some 5,000 French Canadians, followed by colonists from France, Belgium and other European countries. It has been estimated that over 50,000 of this class of emigrants were settled in Illinois within a few years. The colony embraced a territory of some 40 square miles, with the village of St. Ann’s as the center. Here Father Chiniquy began his labors by erecting churches and schools for the colonists. He soon became dissatisfied with what he believed to be the exercise of arbitrary authority by the ruling Bishop, then began to have doubts on the question of papal infallibility, the final result being a determination to separate himself from the Mother Church. In this step he appears to have been followed by a large proportion of the colonists who had accompanied him from Canada, but the result was a feeling of intense bitterness between the opposing factions, leading to much litigation and many criminal prosecutions, of which Father Chiniquy was the subject, though never convicted. In one of these suits, in which the Father was accused of an infamous crime, Abraham Lincoln was counsel for the defense, the charge being proven to be the outgrowth of a conspiracy. Having finally determined to espouse the cause of Protestantism, Father Chiniquy allied himself with the Canadian Presbytery, and for many years of his active clerical life, divided his time between Canada and the United States, having supervision of churches in. Montreal and Ottawa, as well as in this country. He also more than once visited Europe by special invitation to address important religious bodies in that country. He died at Montreal, Canada, Jan. 16, 1899, in the 90th year of his age.

CHOUART, Medard, (known also as Sieur des Groseilliers), an early French explorer, supposed to have been born at Touraine, France, about 1621. Coming to New France in early youth, he made a voyage of discovery with his brother-in-law, Radisson, westward from Quebec, about 1654-56, these two being believed to have been the first white men to reach Lake Superior. After spending the winter of 1658-59 at La Pointe, near where Ashland, Wis., now stands, they are believed by some to have discovered the Upper Mississippi and to have descended that stream a long distance towards its mouth, as they claimed to have reached a much milder climate and heard of Spanish ships on the salt water (Gulf of Mexico). Some antiquarians credit them, about this time (1659), with having visited the present site of the city of Chicago. They were the first explorers of Northwestern Wisconsin and Minnesota, and are also credited with having been the first to discover an inland route to Hudson’s Bay, and with being the founders of the original Hudson’s Bay Company. Groseillier’s later history is unknown, bu – he ranks among the most intrepid explorers of the “New World” about the middle of the seventh century.

CHRISMAN, a city of Edgar County, at the intersection of the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis and the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Railroads, 24 miles south of Danville; has a pipe-wrench factory, grain elevators, and storage cribs. Pop. (1900), 905; (1910), 1,193.

CHRISTIAN COUNTY, a rich agricultural county, lying in the “central belt,” and organized in 1839 from parts of Macon, Montgomery, Sangamon and Shelby Counties. The name first given to it was Dane, in honor of Nathan Dane, one of the framers of the Ordinance of 1787, but a political prejudice led to a change. A preponderance of early settlers having come from Christian County, Ky., this name was finally adopted. The surface is level and the soil fertile, the northern half of the county being best adapted to corn and the southern to wheat. Its area is about 702 square miles, and its population (1910), was 34,594. The life of the early settlers was exceedingly primitive. Game was abundant; wild honey was used as a substitute for sugar; wolves were troublesome; prairie fires were frequent; the first mill (on Bear Creek) could not grind more than ten bushels of grain per day, by horse-power. The people hauled their corn to St. Louis to exchange for groceries. The first store was opened at Robertson’s Point, but the county-seat was established at Taylorville. A great change was wrought in local conditions by the advent of the Illinois Central Railway, which passes through the eastern part of the county. Two other railroads now pass centrally through the county – the “Wabash” and the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern. The principal towns are Taylorville (a railroad center and thriving town of over 5,000 inhabitants), Pana, Morrisonville, Edinburg and Assumption.

CHURCH, Lawrence S., lawyer and legislator, was born at Nunda, N. Y., in 1820; passed his youth on a farm, but having a fondness for study, at an early age began teaching in winter with a view to earning means to prosecute his studies in law. In 1843 he arrived at McHenry, then the county-seat of McHenry County, Ill., having walked a part of the way from New York, paying a portion of his expenses by the delivery of lectures. He soon after visited Springfield, and having been examined before Judge S. H. Treat, was admitted to the bar. On the removal of the county-seat from McHenry to Woodstock, he removed to the latter place, where he continued to reside to the end of his life. A member of the Whig party up to 1856, he was that year elected as a Republican Representative in the Twentieth General Assembly, serving by re-election in the Twenty-first and Twenty-second; in 1860, was supported for the nomination for Congress in the Northwestern District, but was defeated by Hon. E. B. Washburne; in 1862, aided in the organization of the Ninety-fifth Illinois Volunteers, and was commissioned its Colonel, but was compelled to resign before reaching the field on account of failing health. In 1866 he was elected County Judge of McHenry County, to fill a vacancy, and, in 1869 to the Constitutional Convention of 1869-70. Died, July 23, 1870. Judge Church was a man of high principle and a speaker of decided ability.

CHURCH, Selden Marvin, capitalist, was born at East Haddam, Conn., March 4, 1804; taken by his father to Monroe County, N. Y., in boyhood, and grew up on a farm there, but at the age of 21, went to Cincinnati, Ohio, where he engaged in teaching, being one of the earliest teachers in the public schools of that city. Then, having spent some time in mercantile pursuits in Rochester, N. Y., in 1835 he removed to Illinois, first locating at Geneva, but the following year removed to Rockford, where he continued to reside for the remainder of his life. In 1841, he was appointed Postmaster of the city of Rockford by the first President Harrison, remaining in office three years. Other offices held by him were those of County Clerk (1843-47), Delegate to the Second Constitutional Convention (1847), Judge of Probate (1849-57), Representative in the Twenty-third General Assembly (1863-65), and member of the first Board of Public Charities by appointment of Governor Palmer, in 1869, being re-appointed by Governor Beveridge, in 1873, and, for a part of the time, serving as President of the Board. He also served, by appointment of the Secretary of War, as one of the Commissioners to assess damages for the Government improvements at Rock Island and to locate the Government bridge between Rock Island and Davenport. During the latter years of his life he was President for some time of the Rockford Insurance Company; was also one of the originators, and, for many years, Managing Director of the Rockford Water Power Company, which has done so much to promote the prosperity cf that city, and, at the time of his death, was one of the Directors of the Winnebago National Bank. Died at Rockford, June 23, 1892.

CHURCHILL, George, early printer and legislator, was born at Hubbardtown, Rutland County, Vt., Oct. 11, 1789; received a good education in his youth, thus imbibing a taste for literature which led to his learning the printer’s trade. In 1806 he became an apprentice in the office of the Albany (N. Y.) “Sentinel,” and, after serving his time, worked as a journeyman printer, thereby accumulating means to purchase a half-interest in a small printing office. Selling this out at a loss, a year or two later, he went to New York, and, after working at the case some five months, started for the West, stopping en route at Philadelphia, Pittsburg and Louisville. In the latter place he worked for a time in the office of “The Courier,” and still later in that of “The Correspondent,” then owned by Col. Elijah C. Berry, who subsequently came to Illinois and served as Auditor of Public Accounts. In 1817 he arrived in St. Louis, but, attracted by the fertile soil of Illinois, determined to engage in agricultural pursuits, finally purchasing land some six miles southeast of Edwardsville, in Madison County, where he continued to reside the remainder of his life. In order to raise means to improve his farm, in the spring of 1819 he worked as a compositor in the office of “The Missouri Gazette” – the predecessor of “The St. Louis Republic.” While there he wrote a series of articles over the signature of “A Farmer of St. Charles County,” advocating the admission of the State of Missouri into the Union without slavery, which caused considerable excitement among the friends of that institution. During the same year he aided Hooper Warren in establishing his paper, “The Spectator,” at Edwardsville, and, still later, became a frequent contributor to its columns, especially during the campaign of 1822-24, which resulted, in the latter year, in the defeat of the attempt to plant slavery in Illinois. In 1822 he was elected Representative in the Third General Assembly, serving in that body by successive re-elections until 1832. His re-election for a second term, in 1824, demonstrated that his vote at the preceding session, in opposition to the scheme for a State Convention to revise the State Constitution in the interest of slavery, was approved by his constituents. In 1838, he was elected to the State Senate, serving four years, and, in 1844, was again elected to the House in a11 serving a period in both Houses of sixteen years. Mr. Churchill was never married. He was an industrious and systematic collector of historical records, and, at the time of his death in the summer of 1872, left a mass of documents and other historical material of great value. (See Slavery and Slave Laws; Warren, Hooper, and Coles, Edward.)


CLARK (Gen.) George Rogers, soldier, was born near Monticello, Albemarle County, Va., Nov. 19, 1752. In his younger life he was a farmer and surveyor on the upper Ohio. His first experience in Indian fighting was under Governor Dunmore, against the Shawnees (1774). In 1775 he went as a surveyor to Kentucky, and the British having incited the Indians against the Americans in the following year, he was commissioned a Major of militia. He soon rose to a Colonelcy, and attained marked distinction. Later he was commissioned Brigadier-General, and planned an expedition against the British fort at Detroit, which was not successful. In the latter part of 1777, in consultation with Gov. Patrick Henry, of Virginia, he planned an expedition against Illinois, which was carried out the following year. On July 4, 1778, he captured Kaskaskia without firing a gun, and other French villages surrendered at discretion. The following February he set out from Kaskaskia to cross the “Illinois Country” for the purpose of recapturing Vincennes, which had been taken and was garrisoned by the British under Hamilton. After a forced march characterized by incredible suffering, his ragged followers effected the capture of the post. His last important military service was against the savages on the Big Miami, whose villages and fields he laid waste. His last years were passed in sorrow and in comparative penury. He died at Louisville, Ky., Feb. 18, 1818, and his remains, after reposing in a private cemetery near that city for half a century, were exhumed and removed to Cave Hill Cemetery in 1869. The fullest history of General Clark’s expedition and his life will be found in the “Conquest of the Country Northwest of the Ohio River, 1774-1783, and Life of Gen. George Rogers Clark” (2 volumes, 1896), by the late William H. English, of Indianapolis.

CLARK, Horace S., lawyer and politician, was born at Huntsburg, Ohio, August 12, 1840. At the age of 15, coming to Chicago, he found employment in a livery stable; later, worked on a farm in Kane County, attending school in the winter. After a year spent in Iowa City attending the Iowa State University, he returned to Kane County and engaged in the dairy business, later occupying himself with various occupations in Illinois and Missouri, but finally returning to his Ohio home, where he began the study of law at Circleville. In 1861 he enlisted in an Ohio regiment, rising from the ranks to a captaincy, but was finally compelled to leave the service in consequence of a wound received at Gettysburg. In 1865 he settled at Mattoon, Ill., where he was admitted to the bar in 1868. In 1870 he was an unsuccessful candidate for the Legislature on the Republican ticket, but was elected State Senator in 1880, serving four years and proving himself one of the ablest speakers on the floor. In 1888 he was chosen a delegate-at-large to the National Republican Convention, and was long a conspicuous figure in State politics. In 1896 he was a prominent candidate for the Republican nomination for Governor. Died April 11, 1907.

CLARK, John M., civil engineer and merchant, was born at White Pigeon, Mich., August 1, 1836; came to Chicago with his widowed mother in 1847, and, after five years in the Chicago schools, served for a time (1852) as a rodman on the Illinois Central Railroad. After a course in the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute at Troy, N. Y., where he graduated in 1856, he returned to the service of the Illinois Central. In 1859 he went to Colorado, where he was one of the original founders of the city of Denver, and chief engineer of its first water supply company. In 1862 he started on a surveying expedition to Arizona, but was in Santa Fe when that place was captured by a rebel expedition from Texas; was also present soon after at the battle of Apache Canon, when the Confederates, being defeated, were driven out of the Territory. Returning to Chicago in 1864, he became a member of the wholesale leather firm of Gray, Clark & Co. The official positions held by Mr. Clark include those of Alderman (1879-81), Member of the Board of Education, Collector of Customs, to which he was appointed by President Harrison, in 1889, and President of the Chicago Civil Service Board by appointment of Mayor Swift, under an act passed by the Legislature of 1895, retiring in 1897. In 1881 he was the Republican candidate for Mayor of Chicago, but was defeated by Carter H. Harrison. Mr. Clark is one of the Directors of the Crerar Library, named in the will of Mr. Crerar.

CLARK COUNTY, one of the eastern counties of the State, south of the middle line and fronting upon the Wabash River; area, 513 square miles, and population (1910), 23,517; named for Col. George Rogers Clark. Its organization was effected in 1819. Among the earliest pioneers were John Bartlett, Abraham Washburn, James Whitlock, James B. Anderson, Stephen Archer and Uri Manly. The county seat is Marshall, the site of which was purchased from the Government in 1833 by Gov. Joseph Duncan and Col. William B. Archer, the latter becoming sole proprietor in 1835, in which year the first log cabin was built. The original county seat was Darwin, and the change to Marshall (in 1849) was made only after a hard struggle. The soil of the county is rich, and its agricultural products varied, embracing corn (the chief staple), oats, potatoes, winter wheat, butter, sorghum, honey, maple sugar, wool and pork. Woolen, flouring and lumber mills exist, but the manufacturing interests are not extensive. Among the prominent towns, besides Marshall and Darwin, are Casey (population 2,157), Martinsville (1,500), Westfield (927), and York (109).

CLAY, Porter, clergyman and brother of the celebrated Henry Clay, was born in Virginia, March, 1779; in early life removed to Kentucky, studied law, and was, for a time, Auditor of Public Accounts in that State; in 1815, was converted and gave himself to the Baptist ministry, locating at Jacksonville, Ill., where he spent most of his life. Died, in 1850.

CLAY CITY, a village of Clay County, on the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern Railroad, 12 miles west of Olney; has one newspaper, a bank, and is in a grain and fruit-growing region. Pop. (1900), 907; (1910), 837.

CLAY COUNTY, situated in the southeastern quarter of the State; has an area of 466 square miles and a population (1910) of 18,661. It was named for Henry Clay. The first claim in the county was entered by a Mr. Elliot, in 1818, and soon after settlers began to locate homes in the county, although it was not organized until 1824. During the same year the pioneer settlement of Maysville was made the county-seat, but immigration continued inactive until 1837, when many settlers arrived, headed by Judges Apperson and Hopkins and Messrs. Stanford and Lee, who were soon followed by the families of Cochran, McCullom and Tender. The Little Wabash River and a number of small tributaries drain the county. A light-colored sandy loam constitutes the greater part of the soil, although “black prairie loam” appears here and there. Railroad facilities are limited, but sufficient to accommodate the county’s requirements, fruits, especially apples, are successfully cultivated. Educational advantages are fair, although largely confined to district schools and academies in larger towns. Louisville was made the county-seat in 1842, and, in 1890, had a population of 637. Xenia and Flora are the most important towns.

CLAYTON, a town in Adams County, on the Wabash Railway, 28 miles east-northeast of Quincy. A branch of the Wabash Railway extends from this point northwest to Carthage, Ill., and Keokuk, Iowa, and another branch to Quincy, Ill. The industries include flour and feed mills, machine and railroad repair shops, grain elevator, cigar and harness factories. It has a bank, four churches, a high school, and a weekly newspaper. Pop. (1900), 996; (1910), 940.

CLEAVER, William, pioneer, was born in London, England, in 1815; came to Canada with his parents in 1831, and to Chicago in 1834; engaged in business as a chandler, later going into the grocery trade; in 1849, joined the gold-seekers in California, and, six years afterwards, established himself in the southern part of the present city of Chicago, then called Cleaverville, where he served as Postmaster and managed a general store. He was the owner of considerable real estate at one time in what is now a densely populated part of the city of Chicago. Died in Chicago, Nov. 13, 1896.

CLEMENTS, Isaac, ex-Congressman and Governor of Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Home at Danville, Ill., was born in Franklin County, Ind., in 1837; graduated from Asbury University, at Greencastle, in 1859, having supported himself during his college course by teaching. After reading law and being admitted to the bar at Greencastle, he removed to Carbondale, Ill., where he again found it necessary to resort to teaching in order to purchase law-books. In July, 1861, he enlisted in the Ninth Illinois Infantry, and was commissioned Second Lieutenant of Company G. He was in the service for three years, was three times wounded and twice promoted “for meritorious service.” In June, 1867, he was appointed Register in Bankruptcy, and from 1873 to 1875 was a Republican Representative in the Forty-third Congress from the (then) Eighteenth District. He was also a member of the Republican State Convention of 1880. In 1889, he became Pension Agent for the District of Illinois, by appointment of President Harrison, serving until 1893. In the latter part of 1898, he was appointed Superintendent of the Soldiers’ Orphans’ Home, at Normal, but served only a few months, when he accepted the position of Governor of the new Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Home, at Danville. Died May 31, 1909.

CLEVELAND, CINCINNATI, CHICAGO & ST. LOUIS RAILWAY. The total length of this system (1898) is 1,807.34 miles, of which 478.39 miles are operated in Illinois. That portion of the main line lying within the State extends from East St. Louis, northeast to the Indiana State line, 181 miles. The Company is also the lessee of the Peoria & Eastern Railroad (132 miles), and operates, in addition, other lines, as follows: The Cairo Division, extending from Tilton, on the line of the Wabash, 3 miles southwest of Danville, to Cairo (259 miles) the Chicago Division, extending from Kankakee southeast to the Indiana State line (34 miles); the Alton Branch, from Wann Junction, on the main line, to Alton (4 miles). Besides these, it enjoys with the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, joint ownership of the Kankakee & Seneca Railroad, which it operates. The system is uniformly of standard gauge, and about 280 miles are of double track. It is laid with heavy steel rails (sixty-five, sixty-seven and eighty pounds), laid on white oak ties, and is amply ballasted with broken stone and gravel. Extensive repair shops are located at Mattoon. The total capital of the entire system on June 30, 1898 – including capital stock and bonded and floating debt – was $97,149,361. The total earnings in Illinois for the year were $3,773,193, and the total expenditures in the State $3,611,437. The taxes paid the same year were $124,196. The history of this system, so far as Illinois is concerned, begins with the consolidation, in 1889, of the Cincinnati, Indianapolis, St. Louis & Chicago, the Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati & Indianapolis, and the Indianapolis & St. Louis Railway Companies. In 1890, certain leased lines in Illinois (elsewhere mentioned) were merged into the system. (For history of the several divisions of this system, see St. Louis, Alton & Terre Haute, Peoria & Eastern, Cairo & Vincennes, and Kankakee & Seneca Railroads.)

CLIMATOLOGY. Extending, as it does, through six degrees of latitude, Illinois affords a great diversity of climate, as regards not only the range of temperature, but also the amount of rainfall. In both particulars it exhibits several points of contrast to States lying between the same parallels of latitude, but nearer the Atlantic. The same statement applies, as well, to all the North Central and the Western States. Warm winds from the Gulf of Mexico come up the Mississippi Valley, and impart to vegetation in the southern portion of the State, a stimulating influence which is not felt upon the seaboard. On the other hand, there is no great barrier to the descent of the Arctic winds, which, in winter, sweep down toward the Gulf, depressing the temperature to a point lower than is customary nearer the seaboard on the same latitude. Lake Michigan exerts no little influence upon the climate of Chicago and other adjacent districts, mitigating both summer heat and winter cold. If a comparison be instituted between Ottawa and Boston – the latter being one degree farther north, but 570 feet nearer the sea-level, the springs and summers are found to be about five degrees warmer, and the winters three degrees colder, at the former point. In comparing the East and West in respect of rainfall, it is seen that, in the former section, the same is pretty equally distributed over the four seasons, while in the latter, spring and summer may be called the wet season, and autumn and winter the dry. In the extreme West nearly three-fourths of the yearly precipitation occurs during the growing season. This is a climatic condition highly favorable to the growth of grasses, etc., but detrimental to the growth of trees. Hence we find luxuriant forests near the seaboard, and, in the interior, grassy plains. Illinois occupies a geographical position where these great climatic changes begin to manifest themselves, and where the distinctive features of the prairie first become fully apparent. The annual precipitation of rain is greatest in the southern part of the State, but, owing to the higher temperature of that section, the evaporation is also more rapid. The distribution of the rainfall in respect of seasons is also more unequal toward the south, a fact which may account, in part at least, for the increased area of woodlands in that region. While Illinois lies within the zone of southwest winds, their flow is affected by conditions somewhat abnormal. The northeast trades, after entering the Gulf, are deflected by the mountains of Mexico, becoming inward breezes in Texas, southerly winds in the Lower Mississippi Valley, and southwesterly as they enter the Upper Valley. It is to this aerial current that the hot, moist summers are attributable. The north and northwest winds, which set in with the change of the season, depress the temperature to a point below that of the Atlantic slope, and are attended with a diminished precipitation.

CLINTON, the county-seat of De Witt County, situated 23 miles south of Bloomington, at intersection of the Springfield and the Champaign-Havana Divisions with the main line of the Illinois Central Railroad; lies in a productive agricultural region; has machine shops, flour and planing mills, brick and tile works, water works, electric lighting plant, piano-case factory, banks, three newspapers, six churches, and two public schools. Pop. (1890), 2,598; (1900), 4,452; (1910), 5,105.

CLINTON COUNTY, organized jn 1824, from portions of Washington, Bond and Fayette Counties, and named in honor of De Witt Clinton. It is situated directly east of St. Louis, has an area of 487 square miles, and a population (1910) of 22,832. It is drained by the Kaskaskia River and by Shoal, Crooked, Sugar and Beaver Creeks. Its geological formation is similar to that of other counties in the same section. Thick layers of limestone lie near the surface, with coal seams underlying the same at varying depths. The soil is varied, being at some points black and loamy and at others (under timber) decidedly clayey. The timber has been mainly cut for fuel because of the inherent difficulties attending coal-mining. Two railroads cross the county from east to west, but its trade is not important. Agriculture is the chief occupation, corn, wheat and oats being the staple products.

CLOUD, Newton, clergyman and legislator, was born in North Carolina, in 1805, and, in 1827, settled in the vicinity of Waverly, Morgan County, Ill., where he pursued the vocation of a farmer, as well as a preacher of the Methodist Church. He also became prominent as a Democratic politician, and served in no less than nine sessions of the General Assembly, besides the Constitutional Convention of 1847, of which he was chosen President. He was first elected Representative in the Seventh Assembly (1830), and afterwards served in the House during the sessions of the Ninth, Tenth, Eleventh, Thirteenth, Fifteenth and Twenty-seventh, and as Senator in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth. He was also Clerk of the House in 1844-45, and, having been elected Representative two years later, was chosen Speaker at the succeeding session. Although not noted for any specially aggressive qualities, his consistency of character won for him general respect, while his frequent elections to the Legislature prove him to have been a man of large influence.

CLOWRY, Robert C., Telegraph Manager, was born in 1838; entered the service of the Illinois & Mississippi Telegraph Company as a messenger boy at Joliet in 1852, became manager of the office at Lockport six months later, at Springfield in 1853, and chief operator at St. Louis in 1854. Between 1859 and ’63, he held highly responsible positions on various Western lines, but the latter year was commissioned by President Lincoln Captain and Assistant Quartermaster, and placed in charge of United States military lines with headquarters at Little Rock, Ark.; was mustered out in May, 1866, and immediately appointed District Superintendent of Western Union lines in the Southwest. From that time his promotion was steady and rapid. In 1875 he became Assistant General Superintendent; in 1878, Assistant General Superintendent of the Central Division at Chicago; in 1880, succeeded General Stager as General Superintendent, and, in 1885, was elected Director, member of the Executive Committee and Vice-President, his territory extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific.

COAL AND COAL-MINING. Illinois contains much the larger portion of what is known as the central coal field, covering an area of about 37,000 square miles, and underlying sixty counties, in but forty-five of which, however, operations are conducted on a commercial scale. The Illinois field contains fifteen distinct seams. Those available for commercial mining generally lie at considerable depth and are reached by shafts. The coals are all bituminous, and furnish an excellent steam-making fuel. Coke is manufactured to a limited extent in La Salle and some of the southern counties, but elsewhere in the State the coal does not yield a good marketable coke. Neither is it in any degree a good gas coal, although used in some localities for that purpose, rather because of its abundance than on account of its adaptability. It is thought that, with the increase of cheap transportation facilities, Pittsburg coal will be brought into the State in such quantities as eventually to exclude local coal from the manufacture of gas. In the report of the Eleventh United States Census, the total product of the Illinois coal mines was given as 12,104,272 tons, as against 6,115,377 tons reported by the Tenth Census. The value of the output was estimated at 811,735,203, or $0.97 per ton at the mines. The total number of mines was stated to be 1,072, and the number of tons mined was nearly equal to the combined yield of the mines of Ohio and Indiana. The mines are divided into two classes, technically known as “regular” and “local.” Of the former, there were 358, and of the latter, 714. These 358 regular mines employed 23,934 men and boys, of whom 21,350 worked below ground, besides an office force of 389, and paid, in wages, $8,694,397. The total capital invested in these 358 mines was $17,630,351. According to the report of the State Bureau of Labor Statistics for 1898, 881 mines were operated during the year, employing 35,026 men and producing 18,599,299 tons of coal, which was 1,473,459 tons less than the preceding year – the reduction being due to the strike of 1897. Five counties of the State produced more than 1,000,000 tons each, standing in the following order: Sangamon, 1,763,803; St. Clair, 1,600,752; Vermilion, 1,520,099; Macoupin, 1,264,926; La Salle, 1,165,490.

COAL CITY, a town in Grundy County, on the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway, 29 miles by rail south-southwest of Joliet. Large coal mines are operated here, and the town is an important shipping point for their product. It has a bank, a weekly newspaper and five churches. Pop. (1890), 1,672; (1900), 2,607; (1910), 2,667.

COBB, Emery, capitalist, was born at Dryden, Tompkins County, N. Y., August 20, 1831; at 16, began the study of telegraphy at Ithaca, later acted as operator on Western New York lines, but, in 1852, became manager of the office at Chicago, continuing until 1865, the various companies having meanwhile been consolidated into the Western Union. He then made an extensive tour of the world, and, although he had introduced the system of transmitting money by telegraph, he declined all invitations to return to the key-board. Having made large investments in lands about Kankakee, where he now resides, he has devoted much of his time to agriculture and stock-raising; was also, for many years, a member of the State Board of Agriculture, President of the Short-Horn Breeders’ Association, and, for twenty years (1873-93), a member of the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois. He has done much to improve the city of his adoption by the erection of buildings, the construction of electric street-car lines and the promotion of manufactures.

COBB, Silas B., pioneer and real-estate operator, was born at Montpelier, Vt., Jan. 23, 1812; came to Chicago in 1833 on a schooner from Buffalo, the voyage occupying over a month. Being without means, he engaged as a carpenter upon a building which James Kinzie, the Indian trader, was erecting; later he erected a building of his own in which he started a harness-shop, which he conducted successfully for a number of years. He has since been connected with a number of business enterprises of a public character, including banks, street and steam railways, but his largest successes have been achieved in the line of improved real estate, of which he is an extensive owner. He is also one of the liberal benefactors of the University of Chicago, “Cobb Lecture Hall,” on the campus of that institution, being the result of a contribution of his amounting to $150,000. Died in Chicago, April 5, 1900.

COBDEN, a village in Union County, on the Illinois Central Railroad, 42 miles north of Cairo and 15 miles south of Carbondale. Fruits and vegetables are extensively cultivated and shipped to northern markets. This region is well timbered, and Cobden has two box factories employing a considerable number of men; also has several churches, schools and two weekly papers. Pop. (1890), 994; (1900), 1,034; (1910), 988.

COCHRAN, William Granville, legislator and jurist, was born in Ross County, Ohio, Nov. 13, 1844; brought to Moultrie County, Ill., in 1849, and, at the age of 17, enlisted in the One Hundred and Twenty-sixth Regiment Illinois Volunteers, serving in the War of the Rebellion three years as a private. Returning home from the war, he resumed life as a farmer, but early in 1873 began merchandising at Lovington, continuing this business three years, when he began the study of law; in 1879, was admitted to the bar, and has since been in active practice. In 1888 he was elected to the lower house of the General Assembly, was an unsuccessful candidate for the Senate in 1890, but was re-elected to the House in 1894, and again in 1896. At the special session of 1890, he was chosen Speaker, and was similarly honored in 1895. He is an excellent parliamentarian, clear-headed and just in his rulings, and an able debater. In June, 1897, he was elected for a six years’ term to the Circuit bench. He is also one of the Trustees of the Soldiers’ Orphans’ Home at Normal.

CODDING, Ichabod, clergyman and anti-slavery lecturer, was born at Bristol, N. Y., in 1811; at the age of 17 he was a popular temperance lecturer; while a student at Middlebury, Vt., began to lecture in opposition to slavery; after leaving college served five years as agent and lecturer of the Anti-Slavery Society; was often exposed to mob violence, but always retaining his self-control, succeeded in escaping serious injury. In 1842 he entered the Congregational ministry and held pastorates at Princeton, Lockport, Joliet and elsewhere; between 1854 and ’58, lectured extensively through Illinois on the Kansas-Nebraska issue, and was a power in the organization of the Republican party. Died at Baraboo, Wis., June 17, 1866.

CODY, Hiram Hitchcock, lawyer and Judge; born in Oneida County, N. Y., June 11, 1824; was partially educated at Hamilton College, and, in 1843, came with his father to Kendall County, Ill. In 1847, he removed to Naperville, where for six years he served as Clerk of the County Commissioners’ Court. In 1851 he was admitted to the bar; in 1861, was elected County Judge with practical unanimity; served as a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1869-70, and, in 1874, was elected Judge of the Twelfth Judicial Circuit. His residence (1896) was at Pasadena, Cal. Died in Chicago, Dec. 16, 1907.

COLCHESTER, a city of McDonough County, on the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, midway between Galesburg and Quincy; is the center of a rich farming and an extensive coal-mining region, producing more than 100,000 tons of coal annually. A superior quality of potter’s clay is also mined and shipped extensively to other points. The city has brick and drain-tile works, a bank, four churches, two public schools and two weekly papers. Population (1890), 1,643; (1900), 1,635; (1910), 1,445.

COLES, Edward, the second Governor of the State of Illinois, born in Albemarle County, Va., Dec. 15, 1786, the son of a wealthy planter, who had been a Colonel in the Revolutionary War; was educated at Hampden-Sidney and William and Mary Colleges, but compelled to leave before graduation by an accident which interrupted his studies; in 1809, became the private secretary of President Madison, remaining six years, after which he made a trip to Russia as a special messenger by appointment of the President. He early manifested an interest in the emancipation of the slaves of Virginia. In 1815 he made his first tour through the Northwest Territory, going as far west as St. Louis, returning three years later and visiting Kaskaskia while the Constitutional Convention of 1818 was in session. In April of the following year he set out from his Virginia home, accompanied by his slaves, for Illinois, traveling by wagons to Brownsville, Pa., where, taking flat-boats, he descended the river with his goods and servants to a point below Louisville, where they disembarked, journeying overland to Edwardsville. While descending the Ohio, he informed his slaves that they were free, and, after arriving at their destination, gave to each head of a family 160 acres of land. This generous act was, in after years, made the ground for bitter persecution by his enemies. At Edwardsville he entered upon the duties of Register of the Land Office, to which he had been appointed by President Monroe. In 1822 he became the candidate for Governor 6l those opposed to removing the restriction in the State Constitution against the introduction of slavery, and, although a majority of the voters then favored the measure, he was elected by a small plurality over his highest competitor in consequence of a division of the opposition vote between three candidates. The Legislature chosen at the same time submitted to the people a proposition for a State Convention to revise the Constitution, which was rejected at the election of 1824 by a majority of 1,668 in a total vote of 11,612. While Governor Coles had the efficient aid in opposition to the measure of such men as Judge Samuel D. Lockwood, Congressman Daniel P. Cook, Morris Birkbeck, George Forquer, Hooper Warren, George Churchill and others, he was himself a most influential factor in protecting Illinois from the blight of slavery, contributing his salary for his entire term ($4,000) to that end. In 1825 it became his duty to welcome La Fayette to Illinois. Retiring from office in 1826, he continued to reside some years on his farm near Edwardsville, and, in 1830, was a candidate for Congress, but being a known opponent of General Jackson, was defeated by Joseph Duncan. Previous to 1833, he removed to Philadelphia, where he married during the following year, and continued to reside there until his death, July 7, 1868, having lived to see the total extinction of slavery in the United States. (See Slavery and Slave Laws.)

COLES COUNTY, originally a part of Crawford County, but organized in 1830, and named in honor of Gov. Edward Coles, lies central to the eastern portion of the State, and embraces 520 square miles, with a population (1910) of 34,517. The Kaskaskia River (sometimes called the Okaw) runs through the northwestern part of the county, but the principal stream is the Embarras (Embraw). The chief resource of the people is agriculture, although the county lies within the limits of the Illinois coal-belt. To the north and west are prairies, while timber abounds in the southeast. The largest crop is of corn, although wheat, dairy products, potatoes, hay, tobacco, sorghum, wool, etc., are also important products. Broom-corn is extensively cultivated. Manufacturing is carried on to a fair extent, the output embracing sawed lumber, carriages and wagons, agricultural implements, tobacco and snuff, boots and shoes, etc. Charleston, the county-seat, is centrally located, and has a number of handsome public buildings, private residences and business blocks. It was laid out in 1831, and incorporated in 1865; in 1900, its population was 5,488. Mattoon is a railroad center, situated some 130 miles east of St. Louis. It has a population of 9,622, and is an important shipping point for grain and live-stock. Other principal towns are Ashmore, Oakland and Lerna.

COLFAX, a village of McLean County, on the Kankakee and Bloomington branch of the Illinois Central Railroad, 23 miles northeast of Bloomington. Farming and stock-growing are the leading industries; has two banks, one newspaper, three elevators, and a coal mine. Pop. (1910), 965.

COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS, located at Chicago, and organized in 1881. Its first term opened in September, 1882, in a building erected by the trustees at a cost of $60,000, with a faculty embracing twenty-five professors, with a sufficient corps of demonstrators, assistants, etc. The number of matriculates was 152. The institution ranks among the leading medical colleges of the West. Its standard of qualifications, for both matriculates and graduates, is equal to those of other first-class medical schools throughout the country. The teaching faculty, of late years, has consisted of some twenty-five professors, who are aided by an adequate corps of assistants, demonstrators, etc.

COLLEGES, EARLY. The early Legislatures of Illinois manifested no little unfriendliness toward colleges. The first charters for institutions of this character were granted in 1833, and were for the incorporation of the “Union College of Illinois,” in Randolph County, and the “Alton College of Illinois,” at Upper Alton. The first named was to be under the care of the Scotch Covenanters, but was never founded. The second was in the interest of the Baptists, but the charter was not accepted. Both these acts contained jealous and unfriendly restrictions, notably one to the effect that no theological department should be established and no professor of theology employed as an instructor, nor should any religious test be applied in the selection of trustees or the admission of pupils. The friends of higher education, however, made common cause, and, in 1835, secured the passage of an “omnibus bill” incorporating four private colleges – the Alton; the Illinois, at Jacksonville; the McKendree, at Lebanon, and the Jonesboro. Similar restrictive provisions as to theological teaching were incorporated in these charters, and a limitation was placed upon the amount of property to be owned by any institution, but in many respects the law was more liberal than its predecessors of two years previous. Owing to the absence of suitable preparatory schools, these institutions were compelled to maintain preparatory departments under the tuition of the college professors. The college last named above (Jones-boro) was to have been founded by the Christian denomination, but was never organized. The three remaining ones stand, in the order of their formation, McKendree, Illinois, Alton (afterward Shurtleff); in the order of graduating initial classes – Illinois, McKendree, Shurtleff. Preparatory instruction began to be given in Illinois College in 1829, and a class was organized in the collegiate department in 1831. The Legislature of 1835 also incorporated the Jacksonville Female Academy, the first school for girls chartered in the State. From this time forward colleges and academies were incorporated in rapid succession, many of them at places whose names have long since disappeared from the map of the State. It was at this time that there developed a strong party in favor of founding what were termed, rather euphemistically, “Manual Labor Colleges.” It was believed that the time which a student might be able to “redeem” from study, could be so profitably employed at farm or shop-work as to enable him to earn his own livelihood. Acting upon this theory, the Legislature of 1835 granted charters to the “Franklin Manual Labor College,” to be located in either Cook or La Salle County; to the “Burnt Prairie Manual Labor Seminary,” in White County, and the “Chatham Manual Labor School,” at Lick Prairie, Sangamon County. University powers were conferred upon the institution last named, and its charter also contained the somewhat extraordinary provision that any sect might establish a professorship of theology therein. In 1837 six more colleges were incorporated, only one of which (Knox) was successfully organized. By 1840, better and broader views of education had developed, and the Legislature of 1841 repealed all prohibition of the establishing of theological departments, as well as the restrictions previously imposed upon the amount and value of property to be owned by private educational institutions. The whole number of colleges and seminaries incorporated under the State law (1896) is forty-three. (See also Illinois College, Knox College, Lake Forest University, McKendree College, Monmouth College, Jacksonville Female Seminary, Monticello Female Seminary, Northwestern University, Shurtleff College.)

COLLIER, Robert Laird, clergyman, was born in Salisbury, Md., August 7, 1837; graduated at Boston University, 1858; soon after became an itinerant Methodist minister, but, in 1866, united with the Unitarian Church arid officiated as pastor of churches in Chicago, Boston and Kansas City, besides supplying pulpits in various cities in England (1880-85). In 1885, he was appointed United States Consul at Leipsic, but later served as a special commissioner of the Johns Hopkins University in the collection of labor statistics in Europe, meanwhile gaining a wide reputation as a lecturer and magazine writer. His published works include: “Every-Day Subjects in Sunday Sermons” (1869) and “Meditations on the Essence of Christianity” (1876). Died near his birthplace, July 27, 1890.

COLLINS, Frederick, manufacturer, was born in Connecticut, Feb. 24, 1804. He was the youngest of five brothers who came with their parents from Litchfield, Conn., to Illinois, in 1822, and settled in the town of Unionville – now Collinsville – in the southwestern part of Madison County. They were enterprising and public-spirited business men, who engaged, quite extensively for the time, in various branches of manufacture, including flour and whisky. This was an era of progress and development, and becoming convinced of the injurious character of the latter branch of their business, it was promptly abandoned. The subject of this sketch was later associated with his brother Michael in the pork-packing and grain business at Naples, the early Illinois River terminus of the Sangamon & Morgan (now Wabash) Railroad, but finally located at Quincy in 1851, where he was engaged in manufacturing business for many years. He was a man of high business probity and religious principle, as well as a determined opponent of the institution of slavery, as shown by the fact that he was once subjected by his neighbors to the intended indignity of being hung in effigy for the crime of assisting a fugitive female slave on the road to freedom. In a speech made in 1834, in commemoration of the act of emancipation in the West Indies, he gave utterance to the following prediction: “Methinks the time is not far distant when our own country will celebrate a day of emancipation within her own borders, and consistent songs of freedom shall indeed ring throughout the length and breadth of the land.” He lived to see this prophecy fulfilled, dying at Quincy, in 1878. Mr. Collins was the candidate of the Liberty Men of Illinois for Lieutenant-Governor in 1842.

COLLINS, James H., lawyer and jurist, was born in Cambridge, Washington County, N. Y., and taken in early life to Vernon, Oneida County, there he grew to manhood. After speeding a couple of years in an academy, at the age of 18 he began the study of law, was admitted to the bar in 1824, and as a counsellor and solicitor in 1827, coming to Chicago in the fall of 1833, making a part of the journey by the first stage-coach from Detroit to the present Western metropolis. After arriving in Illinois, he spent some time in exploration of the surrounding country, but returning to Chicago in 1834, he entered into partnership with Judge John D. Caton, who had been his preceptor in New York, still later being a partner of Justin Butterfield under the firm name of Butterfield & Collins. He was considered an eminent authority in law and gained an extensive practice, being regarded as especially strong in chancery cases as well as an able pleader. Politically, he was an uncompromising anti-slavery man, and often aided runaway slaves in securing their liberty or defended others who did so. He was also one of the original promoters of the old Galena & Chicago Union Railroad and one of its first Board of Directors. Died, suddenly of cholera, while attending court at Ottawa, in 1854.

COLLINS, Loren C., jurist, was born at Windsor, Conn., August 1, 1848; at the age of 18 accompanied his family to Illinois, and was educated at the Northwestern University. He read law, was admitted to the bar, and soon built up a remunerative practice. He was elected to the Legislature in 1878, and through his ability as a debater and a parliamentarian, soon became one of the leaders of his party on the floor of the lower house. He was re-elected in 1880 and 1882, and, in 1883, was chosen Speaker of the Thirty-third General Assembly. In December, 1884, he was appointed a Judge of the Circuit Court of Cook County, to fill the vacancy created by the resignation of Judge Barnum, was elected to succeed himself in 1885, and re-elected in 1891, but resigned in 1894, since that time devoting his attention to regular practice in the city of Chicago.

COLLINS, William H., retired manufacturer, born at Collinsville, Ill., March 20, 1831; was educated in the common schools and at Illinois College, later taking a course in literature, philosophy and theology at Yale College; served as pastor of a Congregational church at La Salle several years; in 1858, became editor and proprietor of “The Jacksonville Journal,” which he conducted some four years. The Civil War having begun, he then accepted the chaplaincy of the Tenth Regiment Illinois Volunteers, but resigning in 1863, organized a company of the One Hundred and Fourth Volunteers, of which he was chosen Captain, participating in the battles of Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge. Later he served on the staff of Gen. John M. Palmer and at Fourteenth Army Corps headquarters, until after the fall of Atlanta. Then resigning, in November, 1864, he was appointed by Secretary Stanton Provost-Marshal for the Twelfth District of Illinois, continuing in this service until the close of 1865, when he engaged in the manufacturing business as head of the Collins Plow Company at Quincy. This business he conducted successfully some twenty-five years, when he retired. Mr. Collins has served as Alderman and Mayor, ad interim, of the city of Quincy; Representative in the Thirty-fourth and Thirty-fifth General Assemblies – during the latter being chosen to deliver the eulogy on Gen. John A. Logan; was a prominent candidate for the nomination for Lieutenant Governor in 1888, and the same year Republican candidate for Congress in the Quincy District; in 1894, was the Republican nominee for State Senator in Adams County, and, though a Republican, was twice elected Supervisor in a strongly Democratic city. Died July 29, 1910.

COLLINSVILLE, a city on the southern border of Madison County, 13 miles (by rail) east-northeast of St. Louis, on the “Vandalia Line” (T. H. & I. Ry.), about 11 miles south of Edwardsville. The place was originally settled in 1817 by four brothers named Collins from Litchfield, Conn., who established a tan-yard and erected an ox-mill for grinding corn and wheat and sawing lumber. The town was platted by surviving members of this family in 1836. Coal-mining is the principal industry, and one or two mines are operated within the corporate limits. The city has zinc works, as well as flour mills and brick and tile factories, two building and loan associations, a lead smelter, stock bell factory, electric street railways, seven churches, two banks, a high school, and a newspaper office. Population (1890), 3,498; (1900), 4,021; (1910), 7,478.

COLLYER, Robert, clergyman, was born at Keighly, Yorkshire, England, Dec. 8, 1823; left school at eight years of age to earn his living in a factory; at fourteen was apprenticed to a blacksmith and learned the trade of a hammer-maker. His only opportunity of acquiring an education during this period, apart from private study, was in a night-school, which he attended two winters. In 1849 he became a local Methodist preacher, came to the United States the next year, settling in Pennsylvania, where he pursued his trade, preaching on Sundays. His views on the atonement having gradually been changed towards Unitarianism, his license to preach was revoked by the conference, and, in 1859, he united with the Unitarian Church, having already won a wide reputation as an eloquent public speaker. Coming to Chicago, he began work as a missionary, and, in 1860, organized the Unity Church, beginning with seven members, though it has since become one of the strongest and most influential churches in the city. In 1879 he accepted a call to a church in New York City, where he still remains. Of strong anti-slavery views and a zealous Unionist, he served during a part of the Civil War as a camp inspector for the Sanitary Commission. Since the war he has repeatedly visited England, and has exerted a wide influence as a lecturer and pulpit orator on both sides of the Atlantic. He is the author of a number of volumes, including “Nature and Life” (1866); “A Man in Earnest: Life of A. H. Conant” (1868); “A History of the Town and Parish of likely” (1886), and “Lectures to Young Men and “Women” (1886).

COLTON, Chauncey Sill, pioneer, was born at Springfield, Pa., Sept. 21,1800; taken to Massachusetts in childhood and educated at Monson in that State, afterwards residing for many years, during his manhood, at Monson, Maine. He came to Illinois in 1836, locating on the site of the present city of Galesburg, where he built the first store and dwelling house; continued in general merchandise some seventeen or eighteen years, meanwhile associating his sons with him in business under the firm name of C. S. Colton & Sons. Mr. Colton was associated with the construction of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad from the beginning, becoming one of the Directors of the Company; was also a Director of the First National Bank of Galesburg, the first organizer and first President of the Farmers’ and Mechanics’ Bank of that city, and one of the Trustees of Knox College. Died in Galesburg, July 27, 1885. – Francis (Colton), son of the preceding; born at Monson, Maine, May 24, 1834, came to Galesburg with his father’s family in 1836, and was educated at Knox College, graduating in 1855, and receiving the degree of A.M. in 1858. After graduation, he was in partnership with his father some seven years, also served as “Vice-President of the First National Bank of Galesburg, and, in 1866, was appointed by President Johnson United States Consul at Venice, remaining there until 1869. The latter year he became the General Passenger Agent of the Union Pacific Railroad, continuing in that position until 1871, meantime visiting China, Japan and India, and establishing agencies for the Union and Central Pacific Railways in various countries of Europe. In 1872 he succeeded his father as President of the Farmers’ and Mechanics’ Bank of Galesburg, but retired in 1884, and the same year removed to Washington, D. C, where he has since resided. Mr. Colton is a large land owner in some of the Western States, especially Kansas and Nebraska.

COLUMBIA, a town of Monroe County, on Mobile & Ohio Railroad, 15 miles south of St. Louis; has a machine shop, large flour mill, brewery, five cigar factories, electric light plant, telephone system, stone quarry, five churches, and public school. Pop. (1900), 1,197; (1910), 2,076.

COMPANY OF THE WEST, THE, a company formed in France, in August, 1717, to develop the resources of “New France,” in which the “Illinois Country” was at that time included. At the head of the company was the celebrated John Law, and to him and his associates the French monarch granted extraordinary powers, both governmental and commercial. They were given the exclusive right to refine the precious metals, as well as a monopoly in the trade in tobacco and slaves. Later, the company became known as the Indies, or East Indies, Company, owing to the king having granted them concessions to trade with the East Indies and China. On Sept. 27, 1717, the Royal Council of France declared that the Illinois Country should form a part of the Province of Louisiana; and, under the shrewd management of Law and his associates, immigration soon increased, as many as 800 settlers arriving in a single year. The directors of the company, in the exercise of their governmental powers, appointed Pierre Duque de Boisbriant Governor of the Illinois District. He proceeded to Kaskaskia, and, within a few miles of that settlement, erected Fort Chartres. (See Fort Chartres.) The policy of the Indies Company was energetic, and, in the main, wise. Grants of commons were made to various French villages, and Cahokia and Kaskaskia steadily grew in size and population. Permanent settlers were given grants of land and agriculture was encouraged. These grants (which were allodial in their character) covered nearly all the lands in that part of the American Bottom, lying between the Mississippi and the Kaskaskia Rivers. Many grantees held their lands in one great common field, each proprietor contributing, pro rata, to the maintenance of a surrounding fence. In 1721 the Indies Company divided the Province of Louisiana into nine civil and military districts. That of Illinois was numerically the Seventh, and included not only the southern half of the existing State, but also an immense tract west of the Mississippi, extending to the Rocky Mountains, and embracing the present States of Missouri, Kansas, Iowra and Nebraska, besides portions of Arkansas and Colorado. The Commandant, with his secretary and the Company’s Commissary, formed the District Council, the civil law being in force. In 1732, the Indies Company surrendered its charter, and thereafter, the Governors of Illinois were appointed directly by the French crown.

CONCORDIA SEMINARY, an institution located at Springfield, founded in 1874; the successor of an earlier institution under the name of Illinois University. Theological, scientific and preparatory departments are maintained, although there is no classical course. The institution is under control of the German Lutherans. The institution reports $125,000 worth of real property. The members of the Faculty (1898) are five in number, and there were about 171 students in attendance.

CONDEE, Leander D., lawyer, was born in Athens County, Ohio, Sept. 26, 1847; brought by his parents to Coles County, Ill., at the age of seven years, and received his education in the common schools and at St. Paul’s Academy, Kankakee, taking a special course in Michigan State University and graduating from the law department of the latter in 1868. He then began practice at Butler, Bates County, Mo., where he served three years as City Attorney, but, in 1873, returned to Illinois, locating in Hyde Park (now a part of Chicago), where he served as City Attorney for four consecutive terms before its annexation to Chicago. In 1880, he was elected as a Republican to the State Senate for the Second Senatorial District, serving in the Thirty-second and the Thirty-third General Assemblies. In 1892, he was the Republican nominee for Judge of the Superior Court of Cook County, but was defeated with the National and the State tickets of that year, since when he has given his attention to regular practice, maintaining a high rank in his profession.

CONGER, Edwin Hurd, lawyer and diplomatist, was born in Knox County, Ill., March 7, 1843; graduated at Lombard University, Galesburg, in 1865, and immediately thereafter enlisted as a private in the One Hundred and Second Illinois Volunteers, serving through the war and attaining the rank of Captain, besides being brevetted Major for gallant service. Later, he graduated from the Albany Law School and practiced for a time in Galesburg, but, in 1868, removed to Iowa, where he engaged in farming, stock-raising and banking; was twice elected County Treasurer of Dallas County, and, in 1880, State Treasurer, being re-elected in 1882; in 1886, was elected to Congress from the Des Moines District, and twice re-elected (1888 and ’90), but before the close of his last term was appointed by President Harrison Minister to Brazil, serving until 1893. In 1896, he served as Presidential Elector for the State-at-large, and, in 1897, was re-appointed Minister to Brazil, but, in 1898, was transferred to China, where (1899) he now is. He was succeeded at Rio Janeiro by Charles Page Bryan of Illinois. Died March 18, 1907.

CONGREGATIONALISTS, THE. Two Congregational ministers – Rev. S. J. Mills and Rev. Daniel Smith – visited Illinois in 1814, and spent some time at Kaskaskia and Shawneetown, but left for New Orleans without organizing any churches. The first church was organized at Mendon, Adams County, in 1833. followed by others during the same year, at Naperville, Jacksonville and Quincy. By 1836, the number had increased to ten. Among the pioneer ministers were Jabez Porter, who was also a teacher at Quincy, in 1828, and Rev. Asa Turner, in 1830, who became pastor of the first Quincy church, followed later by Revs. Julian M. Sturtevant (afterwards President of Illinois College), Truman M. Post, Edward Beecher and Horatio Foci. Other Congregational ministers who came to the State at an early day were Rev. Salmon Gridley, who finally located at St. Louis; Rev. John M. Ellis, who served as a missionary and was instrumental in founding Illinois College and the Jacksonville Female Seminary at Jacksonville; Revs. Thomas Lippincott, Cyrus L. Watson, Theron Baldwin, Elisha Jenney, William Kirby, the two Lovejoys (Owen and Elijah P.), and many more of whom, either temporarily or permanently, became associated with Presbyterian churches. Although Illinois College was under the united patronage of Presbyterians and Congregationalists, the leading spirits in its original establishment were Congregationalists, and the same was true of Knox College at Galesburg. In 1835, at Big Grove, in an unoccupied log-cabin, was convened the first Congregational Council, known in the denominational history of the State as that of Fox River. Since then some twelve to fifteen separate Associations have been organized. By 1890, the development of the denomination had been such that it had 280 churches, supporting 312 ministers, with 33,126 members. During that year the disbursements on account of charities and home extension, by the Illinois churches, were nearly $1,000,000. The Chicago Theological Seminary, at Chicago, is a Congregational school of divinity, its property holdings being worth nearly $700,000. “The Advance” (published at Chicago) is the chief denominational organ. (See also Religious Denominations.)

CONGRESSIONAL APPORTIONMENT. (See Apportionment, Congressional; also Representatives in Congress.)

CONKLING, James Cook, lawyer, was born in New York City, Oct. 13, 1816; graduated at Princeton College in 1835, and, after studying law and being admitted to the bar at Morristown, N. J., in 1838, removed to Springfield, Ill. Here his first business partner was Cyrus Walker, an eminent and widely known lawyer of his time, while at a later period he was associated with Gen. James Shields, afterwards a soldier of the Mexican War and a United States Senator, at different times, from three different States. As an original Whig, Mr. Conkling early became associated with Abraham Lincoln, whose intimate and trusted friend he was through life. It was to him that Mr. Lincoln addressed his celebrated letter, which, by his special request, Mr. Conkling read before the great Union mass-meeting at Springfield, held, Sept. 3, 1863, now known as the “Lincoln-Conkling Letter.” Mr. Conkling was chosen Mayor of the city of Springfield in 1844, and served in the lower branch of the Seventeenth and the Twenty-fifth General Assemblies (1851 and 1867). It was largely due to his tactful management in the latter, that the first appropriation was made for the new State House, which established the capital permanently in that city. At the Bloomington Convention of 1856, where the Republican party in Illinois may be said to have been formally organized, with Mr. Lincoln and three others, he represented Sangamon County, served on the Committee on Resolutions, and was appointed a member of the State Central Committee which conducted the campaign of that year. In 1860, and again in 1864, his name was on the Republican State ticket for Presidential Elector, and, on both occasions, it became his duty to cast the electoral vote of Mr. Lincoln’s own District for him for President. The intimacy of personal friendship existing between him and Mr. Lincoln was fittingly illustrated by his position for over thirty years as an original member of the Lincoln Monument Association. Other public positions held by him included those of State Agent during the Civil War by appointment of Governor Yates, Trustee of the State University at Champaign, and of Blackburn University at Carlinville, as also that of Postmaster of the city of Springfield, to which he was appointed in 1890, continuing in office four years. High-minded and honorable, of pure personal character and strong religious convictions, public-spirited and liberal, probably no man did more to promote the growth and prosperity of the city of Springfield, during the sixty years of his residence there, than he. His death, as a result of old age, occurred in that city, March 1, 1899. – Clinton L. (Conkling), son of the preceding, was born in Springfield, Oct. 16, 1843; graduated at Yale College in 1864, studied law with his father, and was licensed to practice in the Illinois courts in 1866, and in the United States courts in 1867. After practicing a few years, he turned his attention to manufacturing, but, in 1877, resumed practice and has proved successful. He has devoted much attention of late years to real estate business, and has represented large land interests in this and other States. For many years he was Secretary of the Lincoln Monument Association, and has served on the Board of County Supervisors, which is the only political office he has held. In 1897 he was the Republican nominee for Judge of the Springfield Circuit, but, although confessedly a man of the highest probity and ability, was defeated in a district overwhelmingly Democratic.

CONNOLLY, James Austin, lawyer and Congressman, was born in Newark, N. J., March 8, 1842; went with his parents to Ohio in 1850, where, in 1858-59, he served as Assistant Clerk of the State Senate; studied law and was admitted to the bar in that State in 1861, and soon after removed to Illinois; the following year (1862) he enlisted as a private soldier in the One Hundred and Twenty-third Illinois Volunteers, but was successively commissioned as Captain and Major, retiring with the rank of brevet Lieutenant-Colonel. In 1872 he was elected Representative in the State Legislature from Coles County and re-elected in 1874; was United States District Attorney for the Southern District of Illinois from 1876 to 1885, and again from 1889 to 1893; in 1886 was appointed and confirmed Solicitor of the Treasury, but declined the office; the same year ran as the Republican candidate for Congress in the Springfield (then the Thirteenth) District in opposition to Wm. M. Springer, and was defeated by less than 1,000 votes in a district usually Democratic by 3,000 majority. He declined a second nomination in 1888, but, in 1894, was nominated for a third time (this time for the Seventeenth District), and was elected, as he was for a second term in 1896. He declined a renomination in 1898, returning to the practice of his profession at Springfield at the close of the Fifty-fifth Congress.

CONSTABLE, Charles H., lawyer, was born at Chestertown, Md., July 6, 1817; educated at Belle Air Academy and the University of Virginia, graduating from the latter in 1838. Then, having studied law, he was admitted to the bar, came to Illinois early in 1840, locating at Mount Carmel, Wabash County, and, in 1844, was elected to the State Senate for the district composed of Wabash, Edwards and Wayne Counties, serving until 1848. He also served as a Delegate in the Constitutional Convention of 1847. Originally a Whig, on the dissolution of that party in 1854, he became a Democrat; in 1856, served as Presidential EHector-at-large on the Buchanan ticket and, during the Civil War, was a pronounced opponent of the policy of the Government in dealing with secession. Having removed to Marshall, Clark County, in 1852, he continued the practice of his profession there, but was elected Judge of the Circuit Court in 1861, serving until his death, which occurred, Oct. 9, 1865. While holding court at Charleston, in March, 1863, Judge Constable was arrested because of his release of four deserters from the army, and the holding to bail, on the charge of kidnaping, of two Union officers who had arrested them. He was subsequently released by Judge Treat of the United States District Court at Springfield, but the affair culminated in a riot at Charleston, on March 22, in which four soldiers and three citizens were killed outright, and eight persons were wounded.

CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTIONS. Illinois has had four State Conventions called for the purpose of formulating State Constitutions. Of these, three – those of 1818, 1847 and 1869-70 – adopted Constitutions which went into effect, while the instrument framed by the Convention of 1862 was rejected by the people. A synoptical history of each will be found below:

CONVENTION OF 1818. – In January, 1818, the Territorial Legislature adopted a resolution instructing the Delegate in Congress (Hon. Nathaniel Pope) to present a petition to Congress requesting the passage of an act authorizing the people of Illinois Territory to organize a State Government. A bill to this effect was introduced, April 7, and became a law, April 18, following. It authorized the people to frame a Constitution and organize a State Government – apportioning the Delegates to be elected from each of the fifteen counties into which the Territory was then divided, naming the first Monday of July, following, as the day of election, and the first Monday of August as the time for the meeting of the Convention. The act was conditioned upon a census of the people of the Territory (to> be ordered by the Legislature), showing a population of not less than 40,000. The census, as-taken, showed the required population, but, as finally corrected, this was reduced to 34,620 – being the smallest with which any State was ever admitted into the Union. The election took place on July 6, 1818, and the Convention assembled at Kaskaskia on August 3. It consisted of thirty-three members. Of these, a majority were farmers of limited education, but writh a fair portion of hard common-sense. Five of the Delegates were lawyers, and these undoubtedly wielded a controlling influence. Jesse B. Thomas (afterwards one of the first United States Senators) presided, and Elias Kent Kane, also a later Senator, was among the dominating spirits. It has been asserted that to the latter should be ascribed whatever new matter was incorporated in the instrument, it being copied in most of its essential provisions from the Constitutions of Ohio, Kentucky and Indiana. The Convention completed its labors and adjourned, August 26, the Constitution was submitted te Congress by Delegate John McLean, without the formality of ratification by the people, and Illinois was admitted into the Union as a State by resolution of Congress, adopted Dec. 3, 1818.

CONVENTION OF 1847. – An attempt was made in 1822 to obtain a revision of the Constitution of 1818, the object of the chief promoters of the movement being to secure the incorporation of a provision authorizing the admission of slavery into Illinois. The passage of a resolution, by the necessary two-thirds vote of both Houses of the General Assembly, submitting the proposition to a vote of the people, was secured by the most questionable methods, at the session of 1822, but after a heated campaign of nearly two years, it was rejected at the election of 1824. (See Slavery and Slave Laws; also Coles, Edward.) At the session of 1840-41, another resolution on the subject was submitted to the people, but it was rejected by the narrow margin of 1,039 votes. Again, in 1845, the question was submitted, and, at the election of 1846, was approved. The election of delegates occurred, April 19, 1847, and the Convention met at Springfield, June 19, following. It was composed of 162 members, ninety-two of whom were Democrats. The list of Delegates embraced the names of many who afterwards attained high distinction in public affairs, and the body, as a whole, was representative in character. The Bill of Rights attached to the Constitution of 1818 was but little changed in its successor, except by a few additions, among which was a section disqualifying any person who had been concerned in a duel from holding office. The earlier Constitution, however, was carefully revised and several important changes made. Among these may be mentioned the following: Limiting the elective franchise for foreign-born citizens to those who had become naturalized; making the judiciary elective; requiring that all State officers be elected by the people; changing the time of the election of the Executive, and making him ineligible for immediate re-election; various curtailments of the power of the Legislature; imposing a two-mill tax for payment of the State debt, and providing for the establishment of a sinking fund. The Constitution framed was adopted in convention, August 31, 1847; ratified by popular vote, March 6, 1848, and went into effect, April 1, 1848.

CONVENTION OF 1862. – The proposition for holding a third Constitutional Convention was submitted to vote of the people by the Legislature of 1859, endorsed at the election of 1860, and the election of Delegates held in November, 1861. In the excitement attendant upon the early events of the war, people paid comparatively little attention to the choice of its members. It was composed of forty-five Democrats, twenty-one Republicans, seven “fusionists” and two classed as doubtful. The Convention assembled at Springfield on Jan. 7, 1862, and remained in session until March 24, following. It was in many respects a remarkable body. The law providing for its existence prescribed that the members, before proceeding to business, should take an oath to support the State Constitution. This the majority refused to do. Their conception of their powers was such that they seriously deliberated upon electing a United States Senator, assumed to make appropriations from the State treasury, claimed the right to interfere with military affairs, and called upon the Governor for information concerning claims of the Illinois Central Railroad, which the Executive refused to lay before them. The instrument drafted proposed numerous important changes in the organic law, and was generally regarded as objectionable. It was rejected at an election held, June 17, 1862, by a majority of over 16,000 votes.

CONVENTION OF 1869-70. – The second attempt to revise the Constitution of 1848 resulted in submission to the people, by the Legislature of 1867, of a proposition for a Convention, which was approved at the election of 1868 by a bare majority of 704 votes. The election of Delegates was provided for at the next session (1869), the election held in November and the Convention assembled at Springfield, Dec. 13. Charles Hitchcock was chosen President, John Q. Harmon, Secretary, and Daniel Shepard and A. H. Swain, First and Second Assistants. There were eighty-five members, of whom forty-four were Republicans and forty-one Democrats, although fifteen had been elected nominally as “Independents.” It was an assemblage of some of the ablest men of the State, including representatives of all the learned professions except the clerical, besides merchants, farmers, bankers and journalists. Its work was completed May 13, 1870, and in the main good. Some of the principal changes made in the fundamental law, as proposed by the Convention, were the following: The prohibition of special legislation where a general law may be made to cover the necessities of the case, and the absolute prohibition of such legislation in reference to divorces, lotteries and a score of other matters; prohibition of the passage of any law releasing any civil division (district, county, city, township or town) from the payment of its just proportion of any State tax; recommendations to the Legislature to enact laws upon certain specified subjects, such as liberal homestead and exemption rights, the construction of drains, the regulation of charges on railways (which were declared to be public highways), etc., etc.; declaring all elevators and storehouses public warehouses, and providing for their legislative inspection and supervision. The maintenance of an “efficient system of public schools” was made obligatory upon the Legislature, and the appropriation of any funds – State, municipal, town or district – to the support of sectarian schools was prohibited. The principle of cumulative voting, or “minority representation,” in the choice of members of the House of Representatives was provided for, and additional safe guards thrown around the passage of bills. The ineligibility of the Governor to re-election for a second consecutive term was set aside, and a two-thirds vote of the Legislature made necessary to override an executive veto. The list of State officers was increased by the creation of the Offices of Attorney-General and Superintendent of Public Instruction, these having been previously provided for only by statute. The Supreme Court bench was increased by the addition of four members, making the whole number of Supreme Court judges seven; Appellate Courts authorized after 1874, and County Courts were Blade courts of record. The compensation of all State officers – executive, judicial and legislative – was left discretionary with the Legislature, and no limit was placed upon the length of the sessions of the General Assembly. The instrument drafted by the Convention was ratified at an election held, July 6, 1870, and went into force, August 8, following. Occasional amendments have been submitted and ratified from time to time. (See Constitutions, Elections and Representation; also Minority Representation.)

CONSTITUTIONS. Illinois has had three constitutions – that of 1870 being now (1898) in force. The earliest instrument was that approved by Congress in 1818, and the first revision was made in 1847 – the Constitution having been ratified at an election held, March 5, 1848, and going into force, April 1, following. The term of State officers has been uniformly fixed at four years, except that of Treasurer, which is two years. Biennial elections and sessions of the General Assembly are provided for, Senators holding their seats for four years, and Representatives two years. The State is required to be apportioned after each decennial census into fifty-one districts, each of which elects one Senator and three Representatives. The principle of minority representation has been incorporated into the organic law, each elector being allowed to cast as many votes for one legislative candidate as there are Representatives to be chosen in his district; or ho may divide his vote equally among all the three candidates or between two of them, as he may see fit. One of the provisions of the Constitution of 1870 is the inhibition of the General Assembly from passing private laws. Municipalities are classified, and legislation is for all cities of a class, not for an individual corporation. Individual citizens with a financial grievance must secure payment of their claims under the terms of some general appropriation. The sessions of the Legislature are not limited as to time, nor is there any restriction upon the power of the Executive to summon extra sessions. (See also Constitutional Conventions; Elections; Governors and other State Officers; Judicial System; Suffrage, Etc.)

COOK, Burton C., lawyer and Congressman, was born in Monroe County, N. Y., May 11, 1819; completed his academic education at the Collegiate Institute in Rochester, and after studying law, removed to Illinois (1835), locating first at Hennepin and later at Ottawa. Here he began the practice of his profession, and, in 1846, was elected by the Legislature State’s Attorney for the Ninth Judicial District, serving two years, when, in 1848, he was re-elected by the people under the Constitution of that year, for four years. From 1852 to 1860, he was State Senator, taking part in the election which resulted in making Lyman Trumbull United States Senator in 1855. In 1861 he served as one of the Peace Commissioners from Illinois in the Conference which met at Washington. He may be called one of the founders of the Republican party in this State, having been a member of the State Central Committee appointed at Bloomington in 1856, and Chairman of the State Central Committee in 1862. In 1864, he was elected to Congress, and re-elected in 1866, ’68 and ’70, but resigned in 1871 to accept the splicitorship of the Northwestern Railroad, which he resigned in 1886. He was an intimate friend of Abraham Lincoln, serving as a delegate to both the National Conventions which nominated him for the Presidency, and presenting his name at Baltimore in 1864. His death occurred at Evanston, August 18, 1894.

COOK, Daniel Pope, early Congressman, was born in Scott County, Ky., in 1795, removed to Illinois and began the practice of law at Kaskaskia in 1815. Early in 1816, he became joint owner and editor of “The Illinois Intelligencer,” and at the same time served as Auditor of Public Accounts by appointment of Governor Edwards; the next year (1817) was sent by President Monroe as bearer of dispatches to John Quincy Adams, then minister to London, and, on his return, was appointed a Circuit Judge. On the admission of the State he was elected the first Attorney-General, but almost immediately resigned and, in September, 1819, was elected to Congress, serving as Representative until 1827. Having married a daughter of Governor Edwards, he became a resident of Edwardsville. He was a conspicuous opponent of the proposition to make Illinois a slave State in 1823-24, and did much to prevent the success of that scheme. He also bore a prominent part while in Congress in securing the donation of lands for the construction of the Illinois & Michigan Canal. He was distinguished for his eloquence, and it was during his first Congressional campaign that stump-speaking was introduced into the State. Suffering from consumption, he visited Cuba, and, after returning to his home at Edwardsville and failing to improve, he went to Kentucky, where he died, Oct. 16, 1827. – John (Cook), soldier, born at Edwardsville, Ill., June 12, 1825, the son of Daniel P. Cook, the second Congressman from Illinois, and grandson of Gov. Ninian Edwards, was educated by private tutors and at Illinois College; in 1855 was elected Mayor of Springfield and the following year Sheriff of Sangamon County, later serving as Quartermaster of the State. Raising a company promptly after the firing on Fort Sumter in 1861, he was commissioned Colonel of the Seventh Illinois Volunteers – the first regiment organized in Illinois under the first call for troops by President Lincoln; was promoted Brigadier-General for gallantry at Fort Donelson in March, 1862; in 1864 commanded the District of Illinois, with headquarters at Springfield, being mustered out, August, 1865, with the brevet rank of Major-General. General Cook was elected to the lower house of the General Assembly from Sangamon County, in 1868. His last years were spent near Ransom, Mich. Died Aug. 11, 1910.

COOK COUNTY, situated in the northeastern section of the State, bordering on Lake Michigan, and being the most easterly of the second tier of counties south of the Wisconsin State line. It has an area of 890 square miles; population (1900), 1,838,735; population (1910), 2,405,233; county-seat Chicago. The county was organized in 1831, having originally embraced the counties of Du Page, Will, Lake, McHenry and Iroquois, in addition to its present territorial limits. It was named in honor of Daniel P. Cook, a distinguished Representative of Illinois in Congress. (See Cook, Daniel P.) The first County Commissioners were Samuel Miller, Gholson Kercheval and James Walker who took the oath of office before Justice John S. C. Hogan, on March 8, 1831. William Lee was appointed Clerk and Archibald Clybourne Treasurer. Jedediah Wormley was first County Surveyor, and three election districts (Chicago, Du Page and Hickory Creek) were created. A scow ferry was established across the South Branch, with Mark Beaubien as ferryman. Only non-residents were required to pay toll. Geologists are of the opinion that, previous to the glacial epoch, a large portion of the county lay under the waters of Lake Michigan, which was connected with the Mississippi by the Des Plaines River. This theory is borne out by the finding of stratified beds of coal and gravel in the eastern and southern portions of the county, either underlying the prairies or assuming the form of ridges. The latter, geologists maintain, indicate the existence of an ancient key, and they conclude that, at one time, the level of the lake was nearly forty feet higher than at present. Glacial action is believed to have been very effective in establishing surface conditions in this vicinity. Limestone and building stone are quarried in tolerable abundance. Athens marble (white when taken out, but growing a rich yellow through exposure) is found in the southwest. Isolated beds of peat have also been found. The general surface is level, although undulating in some portions. The soil near the lake is sandy, but in the interior becomes a black mold from one to four feet in depth. Drainage is afforded by the Des Plaines, Chicago and Calumet Rivers, which has been improved by the construction of the Drainage Canal. Manufactures and agriculture are the principal industries outside of the city of Chicago. (See also Chicago.)

COOK COUNTY HOSPITAL, located in Chicago and under control of the Commissioners of Cook County. It was originally erected by the City of Chicago, at a cost of $80,000, and was intended to be used as a hospital for patients suffering from infectious diseases. For several years the building was unoccupied, but, in 1858, it was leased by an association of physicians, who opened a hospital, with the further purpose of affording facilities for clinical instruction to the students of Rush Medical College. In 1863 the building was taken by the General Government for military purposes, being used as an eye and ear hospital for returning soldiers. In 1865 it reverted to the City of Chicago, and, in 1866, was purchased by Cook County. In 1874 the County Commissioners purchased a new and more spacious site at a cost of $145,000, and began the erection of buildings thereon. The two principal pavilions were completed and occupied before the close of 1875; the clinical amphitheater and connecting corridors were built in 1876-77, and an administrative building and two additional pavilions were added in 1882-84. Up to that date the total cost of the buildings had been $719,574, and later additions and improvements have swelled the outlay to more than $1,000,000. It accommodates about 800 patients and constitutes a part of the county machinery for the care of the poor. A certain number of beds are placed under the care of homeopathic physicians. The present (1896) allopathic medical staff consists of fifteen physicians, fifteen surgeons, one oculist and aurist and one pathologist; the homeopathic staff comprises five physicians and five surgeons. In addition, there is a large corps of internes, or house physicians and surgeons, composed of recent graduates from the several medical colleges, who gain their positions through competitive examination and hold them for eighteen months.

COOKE, Edward Dean, lawyer and Congressman, born in Dubuque County, Iowa, Oct. 17, 1849; was educated in the common schools and the high school of Dubuque; studied law in that city and at Columbian University, Washington, D.C., graduating from that institution with the degree of Bachelor of Laws, and was admitted to the bar in Washington in 1873. Coming to Chicago the same year, he entered upon the practice of his profession, which he pursued for the remainder of his life. In 1882 he was elected a Representative in the State Legislature from Cook County, serving one term; was elected as a Republican to the Fifty-fourth Congress for the Sixth District (Chicago), in 1894, and re-elected in 1896. His death occurred suddenly while in attendance on the extra session of Congress in Washington, June 24, 1897.

COOLBAUGH, William Findlay, financier, was born in Pike County, Pa., July 1, 1821; at the age of 15 became clerk in a dry-goods store in Philadelphia, but, in 1842, opened a branch establishment of a New York firm at Burlington, Iowa, where he afterwards engaged in the banking business, also serving in the Iowa State Constitutional Convention, and, as the candidate of his party for United States Senator, being defeated by Hon. James Harlan by one vote. In 1862 he came to Chicago and opened the banking house of W. F. Coolbaugh & Co., which, in 1865, became the Union National Bank of Chicago. Later he became the first President of the Chicago Clearing House, as also of the Bankers’ Association of the West and South, a Director of the Board of Trade, and an original incorporator of the Chamber of Commerce, besides being a member of the State Constitutional Convention of 1869-70. His death by suicide, at the foot of Douglas Monument, Nov. 14, 1877, was a shock to the whole city of Chicago.

COOLEY, Horace S., Secretary of State, was born in Hartford, Conn., in 1806, studied medicine for two years in early life, then went to Bangor, Maine, where he began the study of law; in 1840 he came to Illinois, locating first at Rushville and finally in the city of Quincy; in 1842 took a prominent part in the campaign which resulted in the election of Thomas Ford as Governor – also received from Governor Carlin an appointment as Quartermaster-General of the State. On the accession of Governor French in December, 1846, he was appointed Secretary of State and elected to the same office under the Constitution of 1848, dying before the expiration of his term, April 2, 1850.

CORBUS, (Dr.) J. C., physician, was born in Holmes County, Ohio, in 1833, received his primary education in the public schools, followed by an academic course, and began the study of medicine at Millersburg, finally graduating from the Western Reserve Medical College at Cleveland. In 1855 he began practice at Orville, Ohio, but the same year located at Mendota, Ill., soon thereafter removing to Lee County, where he remained until 1862. The latter year he was appointed Assistant Surgeon of the Seventy-fifth Illinois Volunteer Infantry, but was soon promoted to the position of Surgeon, though compelled to resign the following year on account of ill health. Returning from the army, he located at Mendota. Dr. Corbus served continuously as a member of the State Board of Public Charities from 1873 until the accession of Governor Altgeld to the Governorship in 1893, when he resigned. He was also, for fifteen years, one of the Medical Examiners for his District under the Pension Bureau, and has served as a member of the Republican State Central Committee for the Mendota District. In 1897 he was complimented by Governor Tanner by reappointment to the State Board of Charities, and was made President of the Board. Early in 1899 he was appointed Superintendent of the Eastern Hospital for the Insane at Kankakee, as successor to Dr. William G. Stearns. Died March 17, 1909.

CORNELL, Paul, real-estate operator and capitalist, was born of English Quaker ancestry in Washington County, N. Y., August 5, 1822; at 9 years of age removed with his step-father, Dr. Barry, to Ohio, and five years later to Adams County, Ill. Here young Cornell lived the life of a farmer, working part of the year to earn money to send himself to school the remainder; also taught for a time, then entered the office of W. A. Richardson, at Rushville, Schuyler County, as a law student. In 1845 he came to Chicago, but soon after became a student in the law office of Wilson & Henderson at Joliet, and was admitted to practice in that city. Removing to Chicago in 1847, he was associated, successively, with the late L. C. P. Freer, Judge James H. Collins and Messrs. Skinner & Hoyne; finally entered into a contract with Judge Skinner to perfect the title to 320 acres of land held under tax-title within the present limits of Hyde Park, which he succeeded in doing by visiting the original owners, thereby securing one-half of the property in his own name. He thus became the founder of the village of Hyde Park, meanwhile adding to his possessions other lands, which increased vastly in value. He also established a watch factory at Cornell (now a part of Chicago), which did a large business until removed to California. Mr. Cornell was a member of the first Park Board, and therefore had the credit of assisting to organize Chicago’s extensive park system. Died March 3, 1904.

CORWIN, Franklin, Congressman, was born at Lebanon, Ohio, Jan. 12, 1818, and admitted to the bar at the age of 21. While a resident of Ohio he served in both Houses of the Legislature, and settled in Illinois in 1857, making his home at Peru. He was a member of the lower house of the Twenty-fourth, Twenty-fifth and Twenty-sixth General Assemblies, being Speaker in 1867, and again in 1869. In 1872 he was elected to Congress as a Republican, but, in 1874, was defeated by Alexander Campbell, who made the race as an Independent. Died, at Peru, Ill., June 15, 1879.

COUCH, James, pioneer hotel-keeper, was born at Fort Edward, N. Y., August 31, 1800; removed to Chautauqua County, in the same State, where he remained until his twentieth year, receiving a fair English education. After engaging successively, but with indifferent success, as hotel-clerk, stage-house keeper, lumber-dealer, and in the distilling business, in 1836, in company with his younger brother, Ira, he visited Chicago. They both decided to go into business there, first opening a small store, and later entering upon their hotel ventures which proved so eminently successful, and gave the Tremont House of Chicago so wide and enviable a reputation. Mr. Couch superintended for his brother Ira the erection, at various times, of many large business blocks in the city. Upon the death of his brother, in 1857, he was made one of the trustees of his estate, and, with other trustees, rebuilt the Tremont House after the Chicago fire of 1871. In April, 1892, while boarding a street car in the central part of the city of Chicago, he was run over by a truck, receiving injuries which resulted in his death the same day at the Tremont House, in the 92d year of his age. – Ira (Couch), younger brother of the preceding, was born in Saratoga County, N. Y., Nov. 22, 1806. At the age of sixteen he was apprenticed to a tailor, and, in 1826, set up in business on his own account. In 1836, while visiting Chicago with his brother James, he determined to go into business there. With a stock of furnishing goods and tailors’ supplies, newly bought in New York, a small store was opened. This business soon disposed of, Mr. Couch, with his brother, obtained a lease of the old Tremont House, then a low frame building kept as a saloon boarding house. Changed and refurnished, this was opened as a hotel. It was destroyed by fire in 1839, as was also the larger rebuilt structure in 1849. A second time rebuilt, and on a much larger and grander scale at a cost of $75,000, surpassing anything the West had ever known before, the Tremont House this time stood until the Chicago fire in 1871, when it was again destroyed. Mr. Couch at all times enjoyed an immense patronage, and was able to accumulate (for that time) a large fortune. He purchased and improved a large number of business blocks, then within the business center of the city. In 1853 he retired from active business, and, in consequence of impaired health, chose for the rest of his life to seek recreation in travel. In the winter of 1857, while with his family in Havana, Cuba, he was taken with a fever which soon ended his life. His remains now rest in a mausoleum of masonry in Lincoln Park, Chicago.

COULTERVILLE, a town of Randolph County, at the crossing of the Centralia & Chester and the St. Louis & Paducah branch Illinois Central Railways, 49 miles southeast of St. Louis. Farming and coal-mining are the leading industries. The town has two banks, two creameries, and a newspaper. Pop. (1900), 650; (1910), 949.

COUNTIES, UNORGANIZED. (See Unorganized Counties.)

COWDEN, a village of Shelby County, at the intersection of the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern and the Toledo, St. Louis & Western Railways, 60 miles southeast of Springfield. Considerable coal is mined in the vicinity; has a bank and a weekly paper. Population (1880), 350; (1890), 702; (1900), 751; (1910), 711.

COWLES, Alfred, newspaper manager, was born in Portage County, Ohio, May 13, 1832, grew up on a farm and, after spending some time at Michigan University, entered the office of “The Cleveland Leader” as a clerk; in 1855 accepted a similar position on “The Chicago Tribune,” which had just been bought by Joseph Medill and others, finally becoming a stockholder and business manager of the paper, so remaining until his death in Chicago, Dec. 20, 1889.

COX, Thomas, pioneer, Senator in the First General Assembly of Illinois (1818-22) from Union County, and a conspicuous figure in early State history; was a zealous advocate of the policy of making Illinois a slave State; became one of the original proprietors and founders of the city of Springfield, and was appointed the first Register of the Land Office there, but was removed under charges of misconduct; after his retirement from the Land Office, kept a hotel at Springfield. In 1836 he removed to Iowa (then a part of Wisconsin Territory), became a member of the first Territorial Legislature there, was twice re-elected and once Speaker of the House, being prominent in 1840 as commander of the “Regulators” who drove out a gang of murderers and desperadoes who had got possession at Bellevue, Iowa. Died, at Maquoketa, Iowa, 1843.

COY, Irus, lawyer, was born in Chenango County, N. Y., July 25, 1832; educated in the common schools and at Central College, Cortland County, N. Y., graduating in law at Albany in 1857. Then, having removed to Illinois, he located in Kendall County and began practice; in 1868 was elected to the lower house of the General Assembly and, in 1872, served as Presidential Elector on the Republican ticket; removed to Chicago in 1871, later serving as attorney of the Union Stock Yards and Transit Company. Died, in Chicago, Sept. 20, 1897.


CRAFTS, Clayton E., legislator and politician, born at Auburn, Geauga County, Ohio, July 8, 1848; was educated at Hiram College and graduated from the Cleveland Law School in 1868, coming to Chicago in 1869. Mr. Crafts served in seven consecutive sessions of the General Assembly (1883-95, inclusive) as Representative from Cook County, and was elected by the Democratic majority as Speaker, in 1891, and again in ’93.

CRAIG, Alfred M., jurist, was born in Edgar County, Ill., Jan. 15, 1831, graduated from Knox College in 1853, and was admitted to the bar in the following year, commencing practice at Knoxville. He held the offices of State’s Attorney and County Judge, and represented Knox County in the Constitutional Convention of 1869-70. In 1873 he was elected to the bench of the Supreme Court, as successor to Justice C. B. Lawrence, and was re-elected in ’82 and ’91, his last term expiring June 1, 1900. He was a Democrat in politics, but was three times elected as Justice of the Supreme Court in Republican judicial district. Died Sept 6, 1911.

CRAWFORD, Charles H., lawyer and legislator, was born in Bennington, Vt., but reared in Bureau and La Salle Counties, Ill.; had practiced law for twenty years in Chicago, and been three times elected to the State Senate – 1884, ’88 and ’94 – and was author of the Crawford Primary Election Law, enacted in 1885. Died June 4, 1903.

CRAWFORD COUNTY, a southeastern county, bordering on the Wabash, 190 miles nearly due south of Chicago – named for William H. Crawford, a Secretary of War. It has an area of 470 square miles; population (1910), 26,281. The first settlers were the French, but later came emigrants from New England. The soil is rich and well adapted to the production of corn and wheat, which are the principal crops. The county was organized in 1816, Darwin being the first county-seat. The present county-seat is Robinson, with a population (1890) of 1,387; centrally located and the point of intersection of two railroads. Other towns of importance are Palestine (population, 734) and Hutsonville (population, 582). The latter, as well as Robinson, is a grain-shipping point. The Embarras River crosses the southwest portion of the county, and receives the waters of Big and Honey Creeks and Bushy Fork. The county has no mineral resources, but contains some valuable woodland and many well cultivated farms. Tobacco, potatoes, sorghum and wool are among the leading products.

CREAL SPRINGS, a village of Williamson County, on the St. Louis, Alton & Terre Haute Railroad; has a bank and a weekly paper. Population (1890), 539; (1900), 940; (1910), 936.

CREBS, John M., ex-Congressman, was born in Middleburg, Loudoun County, Va., April 7, 1830. When he was but 7 years old his parents removed to Illinois, where he ever after resided. At the age of 21 he began the study of law, and, in 1852, was admitted to the bar, beginning practice in White County. In 1862 he enlisted in the Eighty-seventh Illinois Volunteers, receiving a commission as Lieutenant-Colonel, participating in all the important movements in the Mississippi Valley, including the capture of Vicksburg, and in the Arkansas campaign, a part of the time commanding a brigade. Returning home, he resumed the practice of his profession. In 1866 he was an unsuccessful candidate for State Superintendent of Public Instruction on the Democratic ticket. He was elected to Congress in 1868 and re-elected in 1870, and, in 1880, was a delegate to the Democratic State Convention. Died, June 26, 1890.

CREIGHTON, James A., jurist, was born in White County, Ill., March 7, 1846; in childhood removed with his parents to Wayne County, and was educated in the schools at Fairfield and at the Southern Illinois College, Salem, graduating from the latter in 1868. After teaching for a time while studying law, he was admitted to the bar in 1870, and opened an office at Fairfield, but, in 1877, removed to Springfield. In 1885 he was elected a Circuit Judge for the Springfield Circuit, was re-elected in 1891, 1897, in 1903 and 1909.

CRERAR, John, manufacturer and philanthropist, was born of Scotch ancestry in New York City, in 1827; at 18 years of age was an employe of an iron-importing firm in that city, subsequently accepting a position with Morris K. Jessup & Co., in the same line. Coming to Chicago in 1862, in partnership with J. McGregor Adams, he succeeded to the business of Jessup & Co., in that city, also becoming a partner in the Adams & Westlake Company, iron manufacturers. He also became interested and an official in various other business organizations, including the Pullman Palace Car Company, the Chicago & Alton Railroad, the Illinois Trust and Savings Bank, and, for a time, was President of the Chicago & Joliet Railroad, besides being identified with various benevolent institutions and associations. After the fire of 1871, he was intrusted by the New York Chamber of Commerce with the custody of funds sent for the relief of sufferers by that calamity. His integrity and business sagacity were universally recognized. After his death, which occurred in Chicago, Oct. 19, 1889, it was found that, after making munificent bequests to some twenty religious and benevolent associations and enterprises, aggregating nearly a million dollars, besides liberal legacies to relatives, he had left the residue of his estate, amounting to some $2,000,000, for the purpose of founding a public library in the city of Chicago, naming thirteen of his most intimate friends as the first Board of Trustees. No more fitting and lasting monument of so noble and public-spirited a man could have been devised.

CRETE, a village of Will County, on the Chicago & Eastern Illinois Railroad, 30 miles south of Chicago. Pop. (1900), 760; (1910), 840.

CROOK, George, soldier, was born near Dayton, Ohio, Sept. 8, 1828; graduated at the United States Military Academy, West Point, in 1852, and was assigned as brevet Second Lieutenant to the Fourth Infantry, becoming full Second Lieutenant in 1853. In 1861 he entered the volunteer service as Colonel of the Thirty-sixth Ohio Infantry; was promoted Brigadier-General in 1862 and Major-General in 1864, being mustered out of the service, January, 1866. During the war he participated in some of the most important battles in West Virginia and Tennessee, fought at Chickamauga and Antietam, and commanded the cavalry in the advance on Richmond in the spring of 1865. On being mustered out of the volunteer service he returned to the regular army, was appointed Lieutenant-Colonel of the Twenty-third Infantry, and, for several years, was engaged in campaigns against the hostile Indians in the Northwest and in Arizona. In 1888 he was appointed Major-General and, from that time to his death, was in command of the Military Division of the Missouri, with headquarters at Chicago, where he died, March 19, 1890.

CROSIAR, Simon, pioneer, was born near Pittsburg, Pa., in the latter part of the last century; removed to Ohio in 1815 and to Illinois in 1819, settling, first at Cap au Gris, a French village on the Mississippi just above the mouth of the Illinois in what is now Calhoun County; later lived at Peoria (1824), at Ottawa (1826), at Shippingport near the present city of La Salle (1829), and at Old Utica (1834); in the meanwhile built one or two mills on Cedar Creek in La Salle County, kept a storage and commission house, and, for a time, acted as Captain of a steamboat plying on the Illinois. Died, in 1846.

CRYSTAL LAKE, a village in McHenry County, at the intersection of two divisions of the Chicago & Northwestern Railway, 43 miles northwest of Chicago. Population (1880), 546, (1890), 781; (1900), 950; (1910), 1,242.

CUBA, a town in Fulton County, distant 38 miles west-southwest of Peoria, and about 8 miles north of Lewistown. The entire region (including the town) is underlaid with a good quality of bituminous coal, of which the late State Geologist Worthen asserted that, in seven townships of Fulton County, there are 9,000,000 tons to the square mile, within 150 feet of the surface. Brick and cigars are made here, and the town has two banks, a newspaper, three churches and good schools. Population (1890), 1,114; (1900), 1,198; (1910), 2,019.

CULLEN, William, editor and Congressman, born in the north of Ireland, March 4, 1826; while yet a child was brought by his parents to Pittsburg, Pa., where he was educated in the public schools. At the age of 20 he removed to La Salle County, Ill., and began life as a farmer. Later he took up his residence at Ottawa. He has served as Sheriff of La Salle County, and held other local offices, and was for many years a part owner and senior editor of “The Ottawa Republican.” From 1881 to 1885, as a Republican, he represented the Eighth Illinois Distri6t in Congress.

CULLOM, Richard Northcraft, farmer and legislator, was born in the State of Maryland, October 1, 1795, but early removed to Wayne County, Ky., where he was married to Miss Elizabeth Coffey, a native of North Carolina. In 1830 he removed to Illinois, settling near Washington, Tazewell County, where he continued to reside during the remainder of his life. Although a farmer by vocation, Mr. Cullom was a man of prominence and a recognized leader in public affairs. In 1836 he was elected as a Whig Representative in the Tenth General Assembly, serving in the same body with Abraham Lincoln, of whom he was an intimate personal and political friend. In 1840 he was chosen a member of the State Senate, serving in the Twelfth and Thirteenth General Assemblies, and, in 1852, was again elected to the House. Mr. Cullom’s death occurred in Tazewell County, Dec. 4, 1872, his wife having died Dec. 5, 1868. Mr. and Mrs. Cullom were the parents of Hon. Shelby M. Cullom.

CULLOM, Shelby Moore, United States Senator, was born in Wayne County, Ky., Nov. 22, 1829. His parents removed to Tazewell County, Ill., in 1830, where his father became a member of the Legislature and attained prominence as a public man. After two years spent in Rock River Seminary at Mount Morris, varied by some experience as a teacher, in 1853 the subject of this sketch went to Springfield to enter upon the study of law in the office of Stuart & Edwards. Being admitted to the bar two years afterward, he was almost immediately elected City Attorney, and, in 1856, was a candidate on the Fillmore ticket for Presidential Elector, at the same time being elected to the Twentieth General Assembly for Sangamon County, as he was again, as a Republican, in 1860, being supported alike by the Fillmore men and the Free-Soilers. At the session following the latter election, he was chosen Speaker of the House, which was his first important political recognition. In 1862 he was appointed by President Lincoln a member of the War Claims Commission at Cairo, serving in this capacity with Governor Boutwell of Massachusetts and Charles A. Dana of New York. He was also a candidate for the State Senate the same year, but then sustained his only defeat. Two years later (1864) he was a candidate for Congress, defeating his former preceptor, Hon. John T. Stuart, being re-elected in 1866, and again in 1868, the latter year over B. S. Edwards. He was a delegate to the National Republican Convention of 1872, and, as Chairman of the Illinois delegation, placed General Grant in nomination for the Presidency, holding the same position again in 1884 and in 1892; was elected to the Illinois House of Representatives in 1872 and in 1874, being chosen Speaker a second time in 1873, as he was the unanimous choice of his party for Speaker again in 1875; in 1876 was elected Governor, was re-elected in 1880, and, in 1883, elected to the United States Senate as successor to Hon. David Davis. By four successive re-elections since 1885, he is now serving his fifth term, which will expire in 1913. In 1898, by special appointment of President McKinley, Senator Cullom served upon a Commission to investigate the condition of the Hawaiian Islands and report a plan of government for this new division of the American Republic. Other important measures with which his name has been prominently identified have been the laws for the suppression of polygamy in Utah and for the creation of the Inter-State Commerce Commission. At present he is Chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Affairs, and has been a prominent member of other important Committees. His career has been conspicuous for his long public service, the large number of important offices which he has held, the almost unbroken uniformity of his success when a candidate, and his complete exemption from scandals of every sort. No man in the history of the State has been so frequently elected to the United States Senate, and only three – Senators Douglas, Trumbull and Logan – were each elected for three terms; though only one of these (Senator Trumbull) lived to serve out the full period for which he was elected.

CUMBERLAND COUNTY, situated in the southeast quarter of the State, directly south of Coles County, from which it was cut off in 1843. Its area is 350 square miles, and population (1900), 16,124. The county-seat was at Greenup until 1855, when it was transferred to Prairie City, which was laid off in 1854 and incorporated as a town in 1866. The present county-seat is at Toledo (population, 1890, 676). The Embarras River crosses the county, as do also three lines of railroad. Neoga, a mining town, has a population of 829. The county received its name from the Cumberland Road, which, as originally projected, passed through it. Pop. (1910), 14,281.

CUMMINS, (Rev.) David, Bishop of the Reformed Protestant Episcopal Church, was born near Smyrna, Del., Dec. 11, 1822; graduated at Dickinson College, Pa., in 1841, and became a licentiate in the Methodist ministry, but, in 1846, took orders in the Episcopal Church; afterwards held rectorships in Baltimore, Norfolk, Richmond and the Trinity Episcopal Church of Chicago, in 1866 being consecrated Assistant Bishop of the Diocese of Kentucky. As a recognized leader of the Low-Church or Evangelical party, he early took issue with the ritualistic tendencies of the High-Church party, and, having withdrawn from the Episcopal Church in 1873, became the first Bishop of the Reformed Episcopal organization. He was zealous, eloquent and conscientious, but overtaxed his strength in his new field of labor, dying at Lutherville, Md., June 26, 1876. A memoir of Bishop Cummins, by his wife, was published in 1878.

CUMULATIVE VOTE. (See Minority Representation.)

CURTIS, Harvey, clergyman and educator, was born in Adams, Jefferson County, N. Y., May 30, 1806; graduated at Middlebury College, Vt., in 1831, with the highest honors of his class; after three years at Princeton Theological Seminary, was ordained pastor of the Congregational church at Brandon, Vt., in 1836. In 1841 he accepted an appointment as agent of the Home Missionary Society for Ohio and Indiana, between 1843 and 1858 holding pastorates at Madison, Ind., and Chicago. In the latter year he was chosen President of Knox College, at Galesburg, dying there, Sept. 18, 1862.

CURTIS, William Elroy, journalist, was born at Akron, Ohio, Nov. 5, 1850; graduated at Western Reserve College in 1871, meanwhile learning the art of typesetting; later served as a reporter on “The Cleveland Leader” and, in 1872, took a subordinate position on “The Chicago Inter Ocean,” finally rising to that of managing-editor. While on “The Inter Ocean” he accompanied General Custer in his campaign against the Sioux, spent several months investigating the “Ku-Klux” and “White League” organizations in the South, and, for some years, was “The Inter Ocean” correspondent in Washington. Having retired from “The Inter Ocean,” he became Secretary of the “Pan-American Congress” in Washington, and afterwards made the tour of the United States with the South and Central American representatives in that Congress. During the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago he had general supervision of the Latin-American historical and archaeological exhibits. Mr. Curtis has visited nearly every Central and South American country and has written elaborately on these subjects for the magazines and for publication in book form; has also published a “Life of Zachariah Chandler” and a “Diplomatic History of the United States and Foreign Powers.” Mr. Curtis spent his last years as correspondent of ” The Chicago Record-Herald,” writing extensively from various parts of the world. Died Sept. 6, 1911.

CUSHMAN, (Col.) William H. W., financier and manufacturer, was born at Freetown, Mass., May 13, 1813; educated at the American Literary, Scientific and Military Academy, Norwich, Vt., at 18 began a mercantile career at Middlebury, and, in 1824, removed to La Salle County, Ill., where he opened a country store, also built a mill at Vermilionville; later was identified with many large financial enterprises which generally proved successful, thereby accumulating a fortune at one time estimated at $3,000,000. He was elected as a Democrat to the Thirteenth and Fourteenth General Assemblies (1842 and ’44) and, for several years, held a commission as Captain of the Ottawa Cavalry (militia). The Civil War coming on, he assisted in organizing the Fifty-third Illinois Volunteers, and was commissioned its Colonel, but resigned Sept. 3, 1862. He organized and was principal owner of the Bank of Ottawa, which, in 1865, became the First National Bank of that city; was the leading spirit in the Hydraulic Company and the Gas Company at Ottawa, built and operated the Ottawa Machine Shops and Foundry, speculated largely in lands in La Salle and Cook Counties – his operations in the latter being especially large about Riverside, as well as in Chicago; was a principal stockholder in the bank of Cushman & Hardin in Chicago, had large interests in the lumber trade in Michigan, and was one of the builders of the Chicago, Paducah & Southwestern Railroad. The Chicago fire of 1871, however, brought financial disaster upon him, which finally dissipated his fortune and destroyed his mental and physical health. His death occurred at Ottawa, Oct. 28, 1878.

Source: Biographical and Memorial Edition of the Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois, Volume I, by Newton Bateman, LL.D. and Paul Selby, A. M. and Special Authors and Contributors. Chicago: Munsell Publishing Company Publishers, 1915.