BABCOCK, Amos C., was born at Penn Yan, N. Y., Jan. 20, 1828, the son of a member of Congress from that State; at the age of 18, having lost his father by death, came West, and soon after engaged in mercantile business in partnership with a brother at Canton, Ill. In 1854 he was elected by a majority of one vote, as an Anti-Nebraska Whig, to the lower branch of the Nineteenth General Assembly, and, in the following session, took part in the election of United States Senator which resulted in the choice of Lyman Trumbull. Although a personal and political friend of Mr. Lincoln, Mr. Babcock, as a matter of policy, cast his vote for his townsman, William Kellogg, afterwards Congressman from that district, until it was apparent that a concentration of the Anti-Nebraska vote on Trumbull was necessary to defeat the election of a Democrat. In 1862 he was appointed by President Lincoln the first Assessor of Internal Revenue for the Fourth District, and, in 1863, was commissioned by Governor Yates Colonel of the One Hundred and Third Illinois Volunteers, but soon resigned. Colonel Babcock served as Delegate-at-large in the Republican National Convention of 1868, which nominated General Grant for the Presidency, and the same year was made Chairman of the Republican State Central Committee, also conducting the campaign two years later. He identified himself with the Greeley movement in 1872, but, in 1876, was again in line with his party and restored to his old position on the State Central Committee, serving until 1878. Among business enterprises with which he was connected was the extension, about 1854, of the Buda branch of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad from Yates City to Canton, and the erection of the State Capitol at Austin, Tex., which was undertaken, in conjunction with Abner Taylor and J. V. and C. B. Farwell, about 1881 and completed in 1888, for which the firm received over 3,000,000 acres of State lands in the “Pan Handle” portion of Texas. In 1889 Colonel Babcock took up his residence in Chicago, which continued to be his home until his death from apoplexy, Feb. 25, 1899.

BABCOCK, Andrew J., soldier, was born at Dorchester, Norfolk County, Mass., July 19, 1830; began life as a coppersmith at Lowell; in 1851 went to Concord, N. H., and, in 1856, removed to Springfield, Ill., where, in 1859, he joined a military company called the Springfield Greys, commanded by Capt. (afterwards Gen.) John Cook, of which he was First Lieutenant. This company became the nucleus of Company I, Seventh Illinois Volunteers, which enlisted on Mr. Lincoln’s first call for troops in April, 1861. Captain Cook having been elected Colonel, Babcock succeeded him as Captain, on the re-enlistment of the regiment in July following becoming Lieutenant-Colonel, and, in March, 1862, being promoted to the Colonelcy “for gallant and meritorious service rendered at Fort Donelson.” A year later he was compelled to resign on account of impaired health. Died at St. Paul, Minn., Jan. 12, 1911.

BACON, George E., lawyer and legislator, born at Madison, Ind., Feb. 4, 1851; was brought to Illinois by his parents at three years of age, and, in 1876, located at Paris, Edgar County; in 1879 was admitted to the bar and held various minor offices, including one term as State’s Attorney. In 1886 he was elected as a Republican to the State Senate and re-elected four years later, but finally removed to Aurora, where he died, July 6, 1896. Mr. Bacon was a man of recognized ability, as shown by the fact that, after the death of Senator John A. Logan, he was selected by his colleagues of the Senate to pronounce the eulogy on the deceased statesman.

BAGBY, John C., jurist and Congressman, was born at Glasgow, Ky., Jan. 24, 1819. After passing through the common schools of Barren County, Ky., he studied civil engineering at Bacon College, graduating in 1840. Later he read law and was admitted to the bar in 1845. In 1846 he commenced practice at Rushville, Ill., confining himself exclusively to professional work until nominated and elected to Congress in 1874, by the Democrats of the (old) Tenth District. In 1885 he was elected to the Circuit Bench for the Sixth Circuit. Died, April 4, 1896.

BAILEY, Joseph Mead, legislator and jurist, was born at Middlebury, Wyoming County, N. Y., June 22, 1833, graduated from Rochester (N. Y.) University in 1854, and was admitted to the bar in that city in 1855. In August, 1856, he removed to Freeport, Ill., where he soon built up a profitable practice. In 1866 he was elected a Representative in the Twenty-fifth General Assembly, being re-elected in 1868. Here he was especially prominent in securing restrictive legislation concerning railroads. In 1876 he was chosen a Presidential Elector for his district on the Republican ticket. In 1877 he was elected a Judge of the Thirteenth judicial district, and re-elected in 1879 and in 1885. In January, 1878, and again in June, 1879, he was assigned to the bench of the Appellate Court, being presiding Justice from June, 1879, to June, 1880, and from June, 1881, to June, 1882. In 1879 he received the degree of LL.D. from the Universities of Rochester and Chicago. In 1888 he was elected to the bench of the Supreme Court. Died in office, Oct. 16, 1895.

BAILHACHE, John, pioneer journalist, was born in the Island of Jersey, May 8, 1787; after gaining the rudiments of an education in his mother tongue (the French), he acquired a knowledge of English and some proficiency in Greek and Latin in an academy near his paternal home, when he spent five years as a printer’s apprentice. In 1810 he came to the United States, first locating at Cambridge, Ohio, but, in 1812, purchased a half interest in “The Fredonian” at Chillicothe (then the State Capital), soon after becoming sole owner. In 1815 he purchased “The Scioto Gazette” and consolidated the two papers under the name of “The Scioto Gazette and Fredonian Chronicle.” Here he remained until 1828, meantime engaging temporarily in the banking business, also serving one term in the Legislature (1820), and being elected Associate Justice of the Court of Common Pleas for Ross County. In 1828 he removed to Columbus, assuming charge of “The Ohio State Journal,” served one term as Mayor of the city, and for three consecutive years was State Printer. Selling out “The Journal” in 1836, he came west, the next year becoming part owner, and finally sole proprietor, of “The Telegraph” at Alton, Ill., which he conducted alone or in association with various partners until 1854, when he retired, giving his attention to the book and job branch of the business. He served as Representative from Madison County in the Thirteenth General Assembly (1842-44). As a man and a journalist Judge Bailhache commanded the highest respect, and did much to elevate the standard of journalism in Illinois, “The Telegraph,” during the period of his connection with it, being one of the leading papers of the State. His death occurred at Alton, Sept. 3, 1857, as the result of injuries received the day previous, by being thrown from a carriage in which he was riding. – Maj. William Henry (Bailhache), son of the preceding, was born at Chillicothe, Ohio, August 14, 1826, removed with his father to Alton, Ill., in 1836, was educated at Shurtleff College, and learned the printing trade in the office of “The Telegraph,” under the direction of his father, afterwards being associated with the business department. In 1855, in partnership with Edward L. Baker, he became one of the proprietors and business manager of “The State Journal” at Springfield. During the Civil War he received from President Lincoln the appointment of Captain and Assistant Quartermaster, serving to its close and receiving the brevet rank of Major. After the war he returned to journalism and was associated at different times with “The State Journal” and “The Quincy Whig,” as business manager of each, but retired in 1873; in 1881 was appointed by President Arthur, Receiver of Public Moneys at Santa Fe., N. M., remaining four years. Prior to 1899 he removed to San Diego, Cal., there engaged in newspaper work, and, under the administration of President McKinley, was Special Agent of the Treasury Department. Died March 12, 1905. – Preston Heath (Bailhache), another son, was born in Columbus, Ohio, February 21, 1835; served as a Surgeon during the Civil War, later became a Surgeon in the regular army and has held positions in marine hospitals at Baltimore, Washington and New York, and has visited Europe in the interest of sanitary and hospital service. At present (1899) he occupies a prominent position at the headquarters of the United States Marine Hospital Service in Washington. – Arthur Lee (Bailhache), a third son, born at Alton, Ill., April 12, 1839; at the beginning of the Civil War was employed in the State commissary service at Camp Yates and Cairo, became Adjutant of the Thirty-eighth Illinois Volunteers, and died at Pilot Knob, Mo., Jan. 9, 1862, as the result of disease and exposure in the service.

BAKER, David Jewett, lawyer and United States Senator, was born at East Haddam, Conn., Sept. 7, 1792. His family removed to New York in 1800, where he worked on a farm during boyhood, but graduated from Hamilton College in 1816, and three years later was admitted to the bar. In 1819 he came to Illinois and began practice at Kaskaskia, where he attained prominence in his profession and was made Probate Judge of Randolph County. His opposition to the introduction of slavery into the State was so aggressive that his life was frequently threatened. In 1830 Governor Edwards appointed him United States Senator, to fill the unexpired term of Senator McLean, but he served only one month when he was succeeded by John M. Robinson, who was elected by the Legislature. He was United States District Attorney from 1833 to 1841 (the State then constituting but one district), and thereafter resumed private practice. Died at Alton, August 6, 1869. – Henry Southard (Baker), son of the preceding, was born at Kaskaskia, Ill., Nov. 10, 1824, received his preparatory education at Shurtleff College, Upper Alton, and, in 1843, entered Brown University, R. I., graduating therefrom in 1847; was admitted to the bar in 1849, beginning practice at Alton, the home of his father, Hon. David J. Baker. In 1854 he was elected as an Anti-Nebraska candidate to the lower branch of the Nineteenth General Assembly, and, at the subsequent session of the General Assembly, was one of the five Anti-Nebraska members whose uncompromising fidelity to Hon. Lyman Trumbull resulted in the election of the latter to the United States Senate for the first time – the others being his colleague, Dr. George T. Allen of the House, and Hon. John M. Palmer, afterwards United States Senator, Burton C. Cook and Norman B. Judd in the Senate. He served as one of the Secretaries of the Republican State Convention held at Bloomington in May, 1856, was a Republican Presidential Elector in 1864, and, in 1865, became Judge of the Alton City Court, serving until 1881. In 1876 he presided over the Republican State Convention, served as delegate to the Republican National Convention of the same year and was an unsuccessful candidate for Congress in opposition to William R. Morrison. Judge Baker was the orator selected to deliver the address on occasion of the unveiling of the statue of Lieut.-Gov. Pierre Menard, on the capitol grounds at Springfield, in January, 1888. About 1888 he retired from practice, dying at Alton, March 5, 1897. – Edward L. (Baker), second son of David Jewett Baker, was born at Kaskaskia, Ill., June 3, 1829; graduated at Shurtleff College in 1847; read law with his father two years, after which he entered Harvard Law School and was admitted to the bar at Springfield in 1855. Previous to this date Mr. Baker had become associated with William H. Bailhache, in the management of “The Alton Daily Telegraph,” and, in July, 1855, they purchased “The Illinois State Journal,” at Springfield, of which Mr. Baker assumed the editorship, remaining until 1874. In 1869 he was appointed United States Assessor for the Eighth District, serving until the abolition of the office. In 1873 he received the appointment from President Grant of Consul to Buenos Ayres, South America, and, assuming the duties of the office in 1874, remained there for twenty-three years, proving himself one of the most capable and efficient officers in the consular service. On the evening of the 20th of June, 1897, when Mr. Baker was about to enter a railway train already in motion at the station in the city of Buenos Ayres, he fell under the cars, receiving injuries which necessitated the amputation of his right arm, finally resulting in his death in the hospital at Buenos Ayres, July 8, following. His remains were brought home at the Government expense and interred in Oak Ridge Cemetery, at Springfield, where a monument has since been erected in his honor, bearing a tablet contributed by citizens of Buenos Ayres and foreign representatives in that city expressive of their respect for his memory. – David Jewett (Baker), Jr., a third son of David Jewett Baker, Sr., was born at Kaskaskia, Nov. 20,1834; graduated from Shurtleff College in 1854, and was admitted to the bar in 1856. In November of that year he removed to Cairo and began practice. He was Mayor of that city in 1864-65, and, in 1869, was elected to the bench of the Nineteenth Judicial Circuit. The Legislature of 1873 (by Act of March 28) having divided the State into twenty-six circuits, he was, elected Judge of the Twenty-sixth, on June 2, 1873. In August, 1878, he resigned to accept an appointment on the Supreme Bench as successor to Judge Breese, deceased, but at the close of his term on the Supreme Bench (1879), was re-elected Circuit Judge, and again in 1885. During this period he served for several years on the Appellate Bench. In 1888 he retired from the Circuit Bench by resignation and was elected a Justice of the Supreme Court for a term of nine years. Again, in 1897, he was a candidate for re-election, but was defeated by Carroll C. Boggs. Soon after retiring from the Supreme Bench he removed to Chicago and engaged in general practice, in partnership with his son, John W. Baker. He fell dead almost instantly in his office, March 13, 1899. In all, Judge Baker had spent some thirty years almost continuously on the bench, and had attained eminent distinction both as a lawyer and a jurist.

BAKER, Edward Dickinson, soldier and United States Senator, was born in London, Eng., Feb. 24, 1811; emigrated to Illinois while yet in his minority, first locating at Belleville, afterwards removing to Carrollton and finally to Sangamon County, the last of which he represented in the lower house of the Tenth General Assembly, and as State Senator in the Twelfth and Thirteenth. He was elected to Congress as a Whig from the Springfield District, but resigned in December, 1846, to accept the colonelcy of the Fourth Regiment, Illinois Volunteers, in the Mexican War, and succeeded General Shields in command of the brigade, when the latter was wounded at Cerro Gordo. In 1848 he was elected to Congress from the Galena District; was also identified with the construction of the Panama Railroad; went to San Francisco in 1852, but later removed to Oregon, where he was elected to the United States Senate in 1860. In 1861 he resigned the Senatorship to enter the Union army, commanding a brigade at the battle of Ball’s Bluff, where he was killed, October 21,1861.

BAKER, Jehu, lawyer and Congressman, was born in Fayette County, Ky., Nov. 4, 1822. At an early age he removed to Illinois, making his home in Belleville, St. Clair County. He received his early education in the common schools and at McKendree College. Although he did not graduate from the latter institution, he received therefrom the honorary degree of A. M. in 1858, and that of LL. D. in 1882. For a time he studied medicine, but abandoned it for the study of law. From 1861 to 1865 he was Master in Chancery for St. Clair County. From 1865 to 1869 he represented the Belleville District as a Republican in Congress. From 1876 to 1881 and from 1882 to 1885 he was Minister Resident in Venezuela, during the latter portion of his term of service acting also as Consul-General. Returning home, he was again elected to Congress (1886) from the Eighteenth District, but was defeated for re-election, in 1888, by William S. Forman, Democrat. Again, in 1896, having identified himself with the Free Silver Democracy and People’s Party, he was elected to Congress from the Twentieth District over Everett J. Murphy, the Republican nominee, serving until March 3, 1899. He was author of an annotated edition of Montesquieu’s “Grandeur and Decadence of the Romans.” Died March 1, 1903.

BALDWIN, Elmer, agriculturist and legislator, was born in Litchfield County, Conn., March 8, 1806; at 16 years of age began teaching a country school, continuing this occupation for several years during the winter months, while working on his father’s farm in the summer. He then started a store at New Milford, which he managed for three years, when he sold out on account of his health and began farming. In 1833 he came west and purchased a considerable tract of Government land in La Salle County, where the village of Farm Ridge is now situated, removing thither with his family the following year. He served as Justice of the Peace for fourteen consecutive terms, as Postmaster twenty years and as a member of the Board of Supervisors of La Salle County six years. In 1856 he was elected as a Republican to the House of Representatives, was re-elected to the same office in 1866, and to the State Senate in 1872, serving two years. He was also appointed, in 1869, a member of the first Board of Public Charities, serving as President of the Board. Mr. Baldwin is author of a “History of La Salle County,” which contains much local and biographical history. Died, Nov. 18, 1895.

BALDWIN, Theron, clergyman and educator, was born in Goshen, Conn., July 21, 1801; graduated at Yale College in 1827; after two years’ study in the theological school there, was ordained a home missionary in 1829, becoming one of the celebrated “Tale College Band,” or “Western College Society,” of which he was Corresponding Secretary during most of his life. He was settled as a Congregationalist minister at Vandalia for two years, and was active in procuring the charter of Illinois College at Jacksonville, of which he was a Trustee from its organization to his death. He served for a number of years, from 1831, as Agent of the Home Missionary Society for Illinois, and, in 1838, became the first Principal of Monticello Female Seminary, near Alton, which he conducted five years. Died at Orange, N. J., April 10, 1870.

BALLARD, Addison, merchant, was born of Quaker parentage in Warren County, Ohio, November, 1822. He located at La Porte, Ind., about 1841, where he learned and pursued the carpenter’s trade; in 1849 went to California, remaining two years, when he returned to La Porte; in 1853 removed to Chicago and embarked in the lumber trade, which he prosecuted until 1887, retiring with a competency. Mr. Ballard served several years as one of the Commissioners of Cook County, and, from 1876 to 1882, as Alder – man of the City of Chicago, and again in the latter office, 1894-96. Died June 27, 1905.

BALTES, Peter Joseph, Roman Catholic Bishop of Alton, was born at Ensheim, Rhenish Bavaria, April 7, 1827; was educated at the colleges of the Holy Cross, at Worcester, Mass., and of St. Ignatius, at Chicago, and at Lavalle University, Montreal, and was ordained a priest in 1853, and consecrated Bishop in 1870. His diocesan administration was successful, but regarded by his priests as somewhat arbitrary. He wrote numerous pastoral letters and brochures for the guidance of clergy and laity. His most important literary work was entitled “Pastoral Instruction,” first edition, N. Y., 1875; second edition (revised and enlarged), 1880. Died at Alton, Feb. 15, 1886.

BALTIMORE & OHIO SOUTHWESTERN RAILWAY. This road (constituting a part of the Baltimore & Ohio system) is made up of two principal divisions, the first extending across the State from East St. Louis to Belpre, Ohio, and the second (known as the Springfield Division) extending from Beardstown to Shawneetown. The total mileage of the former (or main line) is 537 miles, of which 147 1/2 are in Illinois, and of the latter (wholly within Illinois) 228 miles. The main line (originally known as the Ohio & Mississippi Railway) was chartered in Indiana in 1848, in Ohio in 1849, and in Illinois in 1851. It was constructed by two companies, the section from Cincinnati to the Indiana and Illinois State line being known as the Eastern Division, and that in Illinois as the Western Division, the gauge, as originally built, being six feet, but reduced in 1871 to standard. The banking firm of Page & Bacon, of St. Louis and San Francisco, were the principal financial backers of the enterprise. The line was completed and opened for traffic, May 1, 1857. The following year the road became financially embarrassed; the Eastern Division was placed in the hands of a receiver in 1860, while the Western Division was sold under foreclosure, in 1862, and reorganized as the Ohio & Mississippi Railway under act of the Illinois Legislature passed in February, 1861. The Eastern Division was sold in January, 1867; and, in November of the same year, the two divisions were consolidated under the title of the Ohio & Mississippi Railway. – The Springfield Division was the result of the consolidation, in December, 1869, of the Pana, Springfield & Northwestern and the Illinois & Southeastern Railroad – each having been chartered in 1867 – the new corporation taking the name of the Springfield & Illinois Southeastern Railroad, under which name the road was built and opened in March, 1871. In 1873, it was placed in the hands of receivers; in 1874 was sold under foreclosure, and, on March 1, 1875, passed into the hands of the Ohio & Mississippi Railway Company. In November, 1876, the road was again placed in the hands of a receiver, but was restored to the Company in 1884. – In November, 1893, the Ohio & Mississippi was consolidated with the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern Railroad, which was the successor of the Cincinnati, Washington & Baltimore Railroad, the reorganized Company taking the name of the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern Railway Company. The total capitalization of the road, as organized in 1898, was $84,770,531. Several branches of the main line in Indiana and Ohio go to increase the aggregate mileage, but being wholly outside of Illinois are not taken into account in this statement.

BALTIMORE & OHIO & CHICAGO RAILROAD, part of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad System, of which only 8.21 out of 265 miles are in Illinois. The principal object of the company’s incorporation was to secure entrance for the Baltimore & Ohio into Chicago. The capital stock outstanding exceeds $1,500,000. The total capital (including stock, funded and floating debt) is $20,329,166 or $76,728 per mile. The gross earnings for the year ending June 30, 1898, were $3,383,016 and the operating expenses $2,493,452. The income and earnings for the portion of the line in Illinois for the same period were $209,208 and the expenses $208,096.

BANGS, Mark, lawyer, was born in Franklin County, Mass., Jan. 9, 1822; spent his boyhood on a farm in Western New York, and, after a year in an institution at Rochester, came to Chicago in 1844, later spending two years in farm Work and teaching in Central Illinois. Returning east in 1847, he engaged in teaching for two years at Springfield, Mass., then spent a year in a dry goods store at Lacon, Ill., meanwhile prosecuting his legal studies. In 1851 he began practice, was elected a Judge of the Circuit Court in 1859; served one session as State Senator (1870-72); in 1873 was appointed Circuit Judge to fill the unexpired term of Judge Richmond, deceased, and, in 1875, was appointed by President Grant United States District Attorney for the Northern District, remaining in office four years. Judge Bangs was also a member of the first Anti-Nebraska State Convention of Illinois, held at Springfield in 1854; in 1862 presided over the Congressional Convention which nominated Owen Lovejoy for Congress for the first time; was one of the charter members of the “Union League of America,” serving as its President, and, in 1868, was a delegate to the National Convention which nominated General Grant for President for the first time. After retiring from the office of District Attorney in 1879, he removed to Chicago, where he was engaged in practice until his death, June 23, 1902.

BANKSON, Andrew, pioneer and early legislator, a native of Tennessee, settled on Silver Creek, in St. Clair County, Ill., four miles south of Lebanon, about 1808 or 1810, and subsequently removed to Washington County. He was a Colonel of “Rangers” during the War of 1812, and a Captain in the Black Hawk War of 1832. In 1822 he was elected to the State Senate from Washington County, serving four years, and at the session of 1822-23 was one of those who voted against the Convention resolution which had for its object to make Illinois a slave State. He subsequently removed to Iowa Territory, but died, in 1853, while visiting a son-in-law in Wisconsin.

BAPTISTS. The first Baptist minister to settle in Illinois was Elder James Smith, who located at New Design, in 1787. He was followed, about 1796-97, by Revs. David Badgley and Joseph Chance, who organized the first Baptist church within the limits of the State. Five churches, having four ministers and 111 members, formed an association in 1807. Several causes, among them a difference of views on the slavery question, resulted in the division of the denomination into factions. Of these perhaps the most numerous was the Regular (or Missionary) Baptists, at the head of which was Rev. John M. Peck, a resident of the State from 1822 until his death (1858). By 1835 the sect had grown, until it had some 250 churches, with about 7,500 members. These were under the ecclesiastical care of twenty-two Associations. Rev. Isaac McCoy, a Baptist Indian missionary, preached at Fort Dearborn on Oct. 9, 1825, and, eight years later, Rev. Allen B. Freeman organized the first Baptist society in what was then an infant settlement. By 1890 the number of Associations had grown to forty, with 1010 churches, 891 ministers and 88,884 members. A Baptist Theological Seminary was for some time supported at Morgan Park, but, in 1895, was absorbed by the University of Chicago, becoming the divinity school of that institution. The chief organ of the denomination in Illinois is “The Standard,” published at Chicago.

BARBER, Hiram, was born in Warren County, N. Y., March 24, 1835. At 11 years of age he accompanied his family to Wisconsin, of which State he was a resident until 1866. After graduating at the State University of Wisconsin, at Madison, he studied law at the Albany Law School, and was admitted to practice. After serving one term as District Attorney of his county in Wisconsin (1861-62), and Assistant Attorney-General of the State for 1865-66, in the latter year he came to Chicago and, in 1878, was elected to Congress by the Republicans of the old Second Illinois District. His home is in Chicago, where he holds the position of Master in Chancery of the Superior Court of Cook County.

BARCLAY, a village in Sangamon County, on the line of the Illinois Central Railroad, 9 miles northeast of the city of Springfield; in a coal-mining district. Population (1910), 252.

BARNSBACK, George Frederick Julius, pioneer, was born in Germany, July 25, 1781; came to Philadelphia in 1797, and soon after to Kentucky, where he became an overseer; two or three years later visited his native country, suffering shipwreck en route in the English Channel; returned to Kentucky in 1802, remaining until 1809, when he removed to what is now Madison (then a part of St. Clair) County, Ill.; served in the War of 1812, farmed and raised stock until 1824, when, after a second visit to Germany, he bought a plantation in St. Francois County, Mo. Subsequently becoming disgusted with slavery, he manumitted his slaves and returned to Illinois, locating on a farm near Edwardsville, where he resided until his death in 1869. Mr. Barnsback served as Representative in the Fourteenth General Assembly (1844-46) and, after returning from Springfield, distributed his salary among the poor of Madison County. – Julius A. (Barnsback), his son, was born in St. Francois County, Mo., May 14, 1826; in 1846 became a merchant at Troy, Madison County; was elected Sheriff in 1860; in 1864 entered the service as Captain of a Company in the One Hundred and Fortieth Illinois Volunteers (100-days men); also served as a member of the Twenty-fourth General Assembly (1865).

BARNUM, William H., lawyer and ex-Judge, was born in Onondaga County, N. Y., Feb. 13, 1840. When he was but two years old his family removed to St. Clair County, Ill., where he passed his boyhood and youth. His preliminary education was obtained at Belleville, Ill., Ypsilanti, Mich., and at the Michigan State University at Ann Arbor. After leaving the institution last named at the end of the sophomore year, he taught school at Belleville, still pursuing his classical studies. In 1862 he was admitted to the bar at Belleville, and soon afterward opened an office at Chester, where, for a time, he held the office of Master in Chancery. He removed to Chicago in 1867, and, in 1879, was elevated to the bench of the Cook County Circuit Court. At the expiration of his term he resumed private practice.

BARRERE, Granville, was born in Highland County, Ohio. After attending the common schools, he acquired a higher education at Augusta, Ky., and Marietta, Ohio. He was admitted to the bar in his native State, but began the practice of law in Fulton County, Ill., in 1856. In 1872 he received the Republican nomination for Congress and was elected, representing his district from 1873 to 1875, at the conclusion of his term retiring to private life. Died at Canton, Ill., Jan. 13, 1889.

BARRINGTON, a village located on the northern border of Cook County, and partly in Lake, at the intersection of the Chicago & Northwestern and the Elgin, Joliet & Eastern Railway, 32 miles northwest of Chicago. It has banks, a local paper, several cheese factories and a milk-bottling plant. Pop. (1890), 848; (1900), 1,162; (1910), 1,444.

BARROWS, John Henry, D. D., clergyman and educator, was born at Medina, Mich., July 11, 1847; graduated at Mount Olivet College in 1867, and studied theology at Yale, Union and Andover Seminaries. In 1869 he went to Kansas, where he spent two and a half years in missionary and educational work. He then (in 1872) accepted a call to the First Congregational Church at Springfield, Ill., where he remained a year, after which he gave a year to foreign travel, visiting Europe, Egypt and Palestine, during a part of the time supplying the American chapel in Paris. On his return to the United States he spent six years in pastoral work at Lawrence and East Boston, Mass., when (in November, 1881) he assumed the pastorate of the First Presbyterian Church of Chicago. Dr. Barrows achieved a world-wide celebrity by his services as Chairman of the “Parliament of Religions,” a branch of the “World’s Congress Auxiliary,” held during the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893. Later, he was appointed Professorial Lecturer on Comparative Religions, under lectureships in connection with the University of Chicago endowed by Mrs. Caroline E. Haskell. One of these, established in Dr. Barrows’ name, contemplated a series of lectures in India, to be delivered on alternate years with a similar course at the University. Courses were delivered at the University in 1895-96, and, in order to carry out the purposes of the foreign lectureship, Dr. Barrows found it necessary to resign his pastorate, which he did in the spring of 1896. After spending the summer’ in Germany, the regular itinerary of the round-the-world tour began at London in the latter part of November, 1896, ending with his return to the United States by way of San Francisco in May, 1897. Dr. Barrows was accompanied by a party of personal friends from Chicago and elsewhere, the tour embracing visits to the principal cities of Southern Europe, Egypt, Palestine, China and Japan, with a somewhat protracted stay in India during the winter of 1896-97. After his return to the United States he lectured at the University of Chicago and in many of the principal cities of the country, on the moral and religious condition of Oriental nations, but, in 1898, was offered the Presidency of Oberlin College, Ohio, which he accepted, entering upon his duties early in 1899. Died June 3, 1902.

BARRY, a city in Pike County, founded in 1836, on the Wabash Railroad, 18 miles east of Hannibal, Mo., and 30 miles southeast of Quincy. The surrounding country is agricultural. The city contains flouring mills, pork-packing plant, a large creamery; also has two local papers, two banks, three churches and a high school, besides schools of lower grade. Population (1890), 1,354; (1900), 1,643; (1910), 1,647.

BARTLETT, Adolphus Clay, merchant, was born of Revolutionary ancestry at Stratford, Fulton County, N. Y., June 22,1844; was educated in the common schools and at Danville Academy and Clinton Liberal Institute, N. Y., and, coming to Chicago in 1863, entered into the employment of the hardware firm of Tuttle, Hibbard & Co., now Hibbard, Spencer, Bartlett & Co., of which, a few years later, he became a partner, and later Vice-President of the Company. Mr. Bartlett has also been a Trustee of Beloit College, President of the Chicago Home for the Friendless and a Director of the Chicago & Alton Railroad and the Metropolitan National Bank, besides being identified with various other business and benevolent associations.

BASCOM, (Rev.) Flavel, D. D., clergyman, was born at Lebanon, Conn., June 8, 1804; spent his boyhood on a farm until 17 years of age, meanwhile attending the common schools; prepared for college under a private tutor, and, in 1824, entered Yale College, graduating in 1828. After a year as Principal of the Academy at New Canaan, Conn., he entered upon the study of theology at Yale, was licensed to preach in 1831 and, for the next two years, served as a tutor in the literary department of the college. Then coming to Illinois (1833), he cast his lot with the “Yale Band,” organized at Yale College a few years previous; spent five years in missionary work in Tazewell County and two years in Northern Illinois as Agent of the Home Missionary Society, exploring new settlements, founding churches and introducing missionaries to new fields of labor. In 1839 he became pastor of the First Presbyterian Church of Chicago, remaining until 1849, when he assumed the pastorship of the First Presbyterian Church at Galesburg, this relation continuing until 1856. Then, after a year’s service as the Agent of the American Missionary Association of the Congregational Church, he accepted a call to the Congregational Church at Princeton, where he remained until 1869, when he took charge of the Congregational Church at Hinsdale. From 1878 he served for a considerable period as a member of the Executive Committee of the Illinois Home Missionary Society; was also prominent in educational work, being one of the founders and, for over twenty-five years, an officer of the Chicago Theological Seminary, a Trustee of Knox College and one of the founders and a Trustee of Beloit College, Wis., from which he received the degree of D. D. in 1869. Dr. Bascom died at Princeton, Ill., August 8, 1890.

BATAVIA, a city in Kane County, on Fox River and branch lines of the Chicago & Northwestern and the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroads, 35 miles west of Chicago; has water power and several prosperous manufacturing establishments employing over 1,000 operatives. The city has fine water-works supplied from an artesian well, electric lighting plant, electric street car lines with interurban connections, two weekly papers, eight churches, two public schools, and private hospital for insane women. Population (1900), 3,871; (1910), 4,436.

BATEMAN, Newton, A. M., LL.D., educator and Editor-in-Chief of the “Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois,” was born at Fairfield, N. J., July 27, 1822, of mixed English and Scotch ancestry; was brought by his parents to Illinois in 1833; in his youth enjoyed only limited educational advantages, but graduated from Illinois College at Jacksonville in 1843, supporting himself during his college course wholly by his own labor. Having contemplated entering the Christian ministry, he spent the following year at Lane Theological Seminary, but was compelled to withdraw on account of failing health, when he gave a year to travel. He then entered upon his life-work as a teacher by engaging as Principal of an English and Classical School in St. Louis, remaining there two years, when he accepted the Professorship of Mathematics in St. Charles College, at St. Charles, Mo., continuing in that position four years (1847-51). Returning to Jacksonville, Ill., in the latter year, he assumed the principalship of the main public school of that city. Here he remained seven years, during four of them discharging the duties of County Superintendent of Schools for Morgan County. In the fall of 1857 he became Principal of Jacksonville Female Academy, but the following year was elected State Superintendent of Public Instruction, having been nominated for the office by the Republican State Convention of 1858, which put Abraham Lincoln in nomination for the United States Senate. By successive re-elections he continued in this office fourteen years, serving continuously from 1859 to 1875, except two years (1863-65), as the result of his defeat for re-election in 1862. He was also endorsed for the same office by the State Teachers’ Association in 1856, but was not formally nominated by a State Convention. During his incumbency the Illinois common school system was developed and brought to the state of efficiency which it has so well maintained. He also prepared some seven volumes of biennial reports, portions of which have been republished in five different languages of Europe, besides a volume of “Common School Decisions,” originally published by authority of the General Assembly, and of which several editions have since been issued. This volume has been recognized by the courts, and is still regarded as authoritative on the subjects to which it relates. In addition to his official duties during a part of this period, for three years he served as editor of “The Illinois Teacher,” and was one of a committee of three which prepared the bill adopted by Congress creating the National Bureau of Education. Occupying a room in the old State Capitol at Springfield adjoining that used as an office by Abraham Lincoln during the first candidacy of the latter for the Presidency, in 1860, a close intimacy sprang up between the two men, which enabled the “Schoolmaster,” as Mr. Lincoln playfully called the Doctor, to acquire an insight into the character of the future emancipator of a race, enjoyed by few men of that time, and of which he gave evidence by his lectures full of interesting reminiscence and eloquent appreciation of the high character of the “Martyr President.” A few months after his retirement from the State Superintendency (1875), Dr. Bateman was offered and accepted the Presidency of Knox College at Galesburg, remaining until 1893, when he voluntarily tendered his resignation. This, after having been repeatedly urged upon the Board, was finally accepted; but that body immediately, and by unanimous vote, appointed him President Emeritus and Professor of Mental and Moral Science, under which he continued to discharge his duties as a special lecturer as his health enabled him to do so. During his incumbency as President of Knox College, he twice received a tender of the Presidency of Iowa State University and the Chancellorship of two other important State institutions. He also served, by appointment of successive Governors between 1877 and 1891, as a member of the State Board of Health, for four years of this period being President of the Board. In February, 1878, Dr. Bateman, unexpectedly and without solicitation on his part, received from President Hayes an appointment as “Assay Commissioner” to examine and test the fineness and weight of United States coins, in accordance with the provisions of the act of Congress of June 22, 1874, and discharged the duties assigned at the mint in Philadelphia. Never of a very strong physique, which was rather weakened by his privations while a student and his many years of close confinement to mental labor, towards the close of his life Dr. Bateman suffered much from a chest trouble which finally developed into “angina pectoris,” or heart disease, from which, as the result of a most painful attack, he died at his home in Galesburg, Oct. 21, 1897. The event produced the most profound sorrow, not only among his associates in the Faculty and among the students of Knox College, but a large number of friends throughout the State, who had known him officially or personally, and had learned to admire his many noble and beautiful traits of character. His funeral, which occurred at Galesburg on Oct. 25, called out an immense concourse of sorrowing friends. Almost the last labors performed by Dr. Bateman were in the revision of matter for this volume, in which he manifested the deepest interest from the time of his assumption of the duties of its Editor-in-Chief. At the time of his death he had the satisfaction of knowing that his work in this field was practically complete. Dr. Bateman had been twice married, first in 1850 to Miss Sarah Dayton of Jacksonville, who died in 1857, and a second time in October, 1859, to Miss Annie N. Tyler, of Massachusetts (but for some time a teacher in Jacksonville Female Academy), who died, May 28, 1878. – Clifford Bush (Bateman), a son of Dr. Bateman by his first marriage, was born at Jacksonville, March 7, 1854, graduated at Amherst College and later from the law department of Columbia College, New York, afterwards prosecuting his studies at Berlin, Heidelberg and Paris, finally becoming Professor of Administrative Law and Government in Columbia College – a position especially created for him. He had filled this position a little over one year when his career – which was one of great promise – was cut short by death, Feb. 6, 1883. Three daughters of Dr. Bateman survive – all the wives of clergymen. – P. S.

BATES, Clara Doty, author, was born at Ann Arbor, Mich., Dec. 22, 1838; published her first book in 1868; the next year married Morgan Bates, a Chicago publisher; wrote much for juvenile periodicals, besides stories and poems, some of the most popular among the latter being “Blind Jakey” (1868) and “Aesop’s Fables” in verse (1873). She was the collector of a model library for children, for the “World’s Columbian Exposition, 1893. Died in Chicago, Oct. 14, 1895.

BATES, Erastus Newton, soldier and State Treasurer, was born at Plainfield, Mass., Feb. 29, 1828, being descended from Pilgrims of the Mayflower. When 8 years of age he was brought by his father to Ohio, where the latter soon afterward died. For several years he lived with an uncle, preparing himself for college and earning money by teaching and manual labor. He graduated from Williams College, Mass., in 1853, and commenced the study of law in New York City, but later removed to Minnesota, where he served as a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1856 and was elected to the State Senate in 1857. In 1859 he removed to Centralia, Ill., and commenced practice there in August, 1862; was commissioned Major of the Eightieth Illinois Volunteers, being successively promoted to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel and Colonel, and finally brevetted Brigadier-General. For fifteen months he was a prisoner of war, escaping from Libby Prison only to be recaptured and later exposed to the fire of the Union batteries at Morris Island, Charleston harbor. In 1866 he was elected to the Legislature, and, in 1868, State Treasurer, being re-elected to the latter office under the new Constitution of 1870, and serving until January, 1873. Died at Minneapolis, Minn., May 29, 1898, and was buried at Springfield.

BATES, George C., lawyer and politician, was born in Canandaigua, N. Y., and removed to Michigan in 1834; in 1849 was appointed United States District Attorney for that State, but removed to California in 1850, where he became a member of the celebrated “Vigilance Committee” at San Francisco, and, in 1856, delivered the first Republican speech there. From 1861 to 1871, he practiced law in Chicago; the latter year was appointed District Attorney for Utah, serving two years, in 1878 removing to Denver, Colo., where he died, Feb. 11, 1886. Mr. Bates was an orator of much reputation, and was selected to express the thanks of the citizens of Chicago to Gen. B. J. Sweet, commandant of Camp Douglas, after the detection and defeat of the Camp Douglas conspiracy in November, 1864 – a duty which he performed in an address of great eloquence. At an early day he married the widow of Dr. Alexander Wolcott, for a number of years previous to 1830 Indian Agent at Chicago, his wife being a daughter of John Kinzie, the first white settler of Chicago.

BATH, a village of Mason County, on the Jacksonville branch of the Chicago, Peoria & St. Louis Railway, 8 miles south of Havana. Population (1890), 384; (1900), 330; (1910), 475.

BAYLIS, a corporate village of Pike County, on the main line of the Wabash Railway, 40 miles southeast of Quincy; has one newspaper and wagon factory. Pop. (1900), 340; (1910), 385.

BAYLISS, Alfred, Superintendent of Public Instruction, was born about 1846, served as a private in the First Michigan Cavalry the last two years of the Civil War, and graduated from Hillsdale College (Mich.), in 1870, supporting himself during his college course by work upon a farm and teaching. After serving three years as County Superintendent of Schools in La Grange County, Ind., in 1874 he came to Illinois and entered upon the vocation of a teacher in the northern part of the State. He served for some time as Superintendent of Schools for the city of Sterling, afterwards served as Principal of the Township High School until 1898, when he was elected State Superintendent of Public Instruction and re-elected in 1902, serving two consecutive terms. On retirement from the Superintendent’s office in 1907, he became Principal of the State Normal School at Macomb, Ill., but died August 26, 1911.

BEARD, Thomas, pioneer and founder of the city of Beardstown, Ill., was born in Granville, Washington County, N. Y., in 1795, taken to Northeastern Ohio in 1800, and, in 1818, removed to Illinois, living for a time about Edwardsville and Alton. In 1820 he went to the locality of the present city of Beardstown, and later established there the first ferry across the Illinois River. In 1827, in conjunction with Enoch March of Morgan County, he entered the land on which Beardstown was platted in 1829. Died, at Beardstown, in November, 1849.

BEARDSTOWN, a city in Cass County, on the Illinois River, being the intersecting point for the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern and the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railways, and the northwestern terminus of the former. It is 111 miles north of St. Louis and 90 miles south of Peoria. Thomas Beard, for whom the town was named, settled here about 1820 and soon afterwards established the first ferry across the Illinois River. In 1827 the land was patented by Beard and Enoch March, and the town platted, and, during the Black Hawk War of 1832, it became a principal base of supplies for the Illinois volunteers. The city has six churches and three schools (including a high school), two banks and two daily newspapers. Several branches of manufacturing are carried on here – flouring and saw mills, cooperage works, extensive fishing and packing interests, two button factories, one shoe factory, large machine shops, and others of less importance. The river is spanned here by a fine railroad bridge, costing some $300,000. Pop. (1890), 4,226; (1900), 4,827; (1910), 6,107.

BEAUBIEN, Jean Baptiste, the second permanent settler on the site of Chicago, was born at Detroit in 1780, became clerk of a fur-trader on Grand River, married an Ottawa woman for his first wife, and, in 1800, had a trading-post at Milwaukee, which he maintained until 1818. Ho visited Chicago as early as 1804, bought a cabin there soon after the Fort Dearborn massacre of 1812, married the daughter of Francis La Framboise, a French trader, and, in 1818, became agent of the American Fur Company, having charge of trading posts at Mackinaw and elsewhere. After 1823 he occupied the building known as “the factory,” just outside of Fort Dearborn, which had belonged to the Government, but removed to a farm on the Des Plaines in 1840. Out of the ownership of this building grew his claim to the right, in 1835, to enter seventy-five acres of land belonging to the Fort Dearborn reservation. The claim was allowed by the Land Office officials and sustained by the State courts, but disallowed by the Supreme Court of the United States after long litigation. An attempt was made to revive this claim in Congress in 1878, but it was reported upon adversely by a Senate Committee of which the late Senator Thomas F. Bayard was chairman. Mr. Beaubien was evidently a man of no little prominence in his day. He led a company of Chicago citizens to the Black Hawk “War in 1832, was appointed by the Governor the first Colonel of Militia for Cook County, and, in 1850, was commissioned Brigadier-General. In 1858 he removed to Nashville, Tenn., and died there, Jan. 5, 1863. – Mark (Beaubien), a younger brother of Gen. Beaubien, was born in Detroit in 1800, came to Chicago in 1826, and bought a log house of James Kinzie, in which he kept a hotel for some time. Later, he erected the first frame building in Chicago, which was known as the “Sauganash,” and in which he kept a hotel until 1834. He also engaged in merchandising, but was not successful, ran the first ferry across the South Branch of the Chicago River, and served for many years as lighthouse keeper at Chicago. About 1834 the Indians transferred to him a reservation of 640 acres of land on the Calumet, for which, some forty years afterwards, he received a patent which had been signed by Martin Van Buren – he having previously been ignorant of its existence. He was married twice and had a family of twenty-two children. Died, at Kankakee, 111., April 16, 1881. – Madore B. (Beaubien), the second son of General Beaubien by his Indian wife, was born on Grand River in Michigan, July 15, 1809, joined his father in Chicago, was educated in a Baptist Mission School where Niles, Mich., now stands; was licensed as a merchant in Chicago in 1831, but failed as a business man; served as Second Lieutenant of the Naperville Company in the Black Hawk War, and later was First Lieutenant of a Chicago Company. His first wife was a white woman, from whom he separated, afterwards marrying an Indian woman. He left Illinois with the Pottawatomies in 1840, resided at Council Bluffs and, later, in Kansas, being for many years the official interpreter of the tribe and, for some time, one of six Commissioners employed by the Indians to look after their affairs with the United States Government. – Alexander (Beaubien), son of General Beaubien by his white wife, was born in one of the buildings belonging to Fort Dearborn, Jan. 28, 1822. In 1840 he accompanied his father to his farm on the Des Plaines, but returned to Chicago in 1862, and for years past has been employed on the Chicago police force.

BEBB, William, Governor of Ohio, was born in Hamilton County in that State in 1802; taught school at North Bend, the home of William Henry Harrison, studied law and practiced at Hamilton; served as Governor of Ohio, 1846-48; later led a Welsh colony to Tennessee, but left at the outbreak of the Civil War, removing to Winnebago County, Ill., where he had purchased a large body of land. He was a man of uncompromising loyalty and high principle; served as Examiner of Pensions by appointment of President Lincoln and, in 1868, took a prominent part in the campaign which resulted in Grant’s first election to the Presidency. Died at Rockford, Oct. 23, 1873. A daughter of Governor Bebb married Hon. John P. Reynolds, for many years the Secretary of the Illinois State Agricultural Society, and, during the World’s Columbian Exposition, Director-in-Chief of the Illinois Board of World’s Fair Commissioners.

BECKER, Charles St. N., ex-State Treasurer, was born in Germany, June 14, 1840, and brought to this country by his parents at the age of 11 years, the family settling in St. Clair County, Ill. Early in the Civil War he enlisted in the Twelfth Missouri regiment, and, at the battle of Pea Ridge, was so severely wounded that it was found necessary to amputate one of his legs. In 1866 he was elected Sheriff of St. Clair County, and, from 1872 to 1880, he served as clerk of the St. Clair Circuit Court. He also served several terms as a City Councilman of Belleville. In 1888 he was elected State Treasurer on the Republican ticket. Died Jan. 2, 1908.

BECKWITH, Corydon, lawyer and jurist, was born in Vermont in 1823, and educated at Providence, R. I., and Wrentham, Mass. He read law and was admitted to the bar in St. Albans, Vt., where he practiced for two years. In 1853 he removed to Chicago, and, in January, 1864, was appointed by Governor Yates a Justice of the Supreme Court, to fill the five remaining months of the unexpired term of Judge Caton, who had resigned. On retiring from the bench he resumed private practice. Died, August 18, 1890.

BECKWITH, Hiram Williams, lawyer and author, was born at Danville, Ill., March 5, 1833. Mr. Beckwith’s father, Dan W. Beckwith, a pioneer settler of Eastern Illinois and one of the founders of the city of Danville, was a native of Wyalusing, Pa., where he was born about 1789, his mother being, in her girlhood, Hannah York, one of the survivors of the famous Wyoming massacre of 1778. In 1817, the senior Beckwith, in company with his brother George, descended the Ohio River, afterwards ascending the Wabash to where Terre Haute now stands, but finally locating in what is now a part of Edgar County, Ill. A year later he removed to the vicinity of the present site of the city of Danville. Having been employed for a time in a surveyor’s corps, he finally became a surveyor himself, and, on the organization of Vermilion County, served for a time as County Surveyor by appointment of the Governor, and was also employed by the General Government in surveying lands in the eastern part of the State, some of the Indian reservations in that section of the State being set off by him. In connection with Guy W. Smith, then Receiver of Public Moneys in the Land Office at Palestine, Ill., he donated the ground on which the county-seat of Vermilion County was located, and it took the name of Danville from his first name – “Dan.” In 1830 he was elected Representative in the State Legislature for the District composed of Clark, Edgar, and Vermilion Counties, then including all that section of the State between Crawrford County and the Kankakee River. He died in 1835. Hiram, the subject of this sketch, thus left fatherless at less than three years of age, received only such education as was afforded in the common schools of that period. Nevertheless, he began the study of law in the Danville office of Lincoln & Lamon, and was admitted to practice in 1854, about the time of reaching his majority. He continued in their office and, on the removal of Lamon to Bloomington in 1859, he succeeded to the business of the firm at Danville. Mr. Lamon – who, on Mr. Lincoln’s accession to the Presidency in 1861, became Marshal of the District of Columbia – was distantly related to Mr. Beckwith by a second marriage of the mother of the latter. While engaged in the practice of his profession, Mr. Beckwith was for over thirty years a zealous collector of records and other material bearing upon the early history of Illinois and the Northwest, probably becoming the owner of one of the most complete and valuable collections of Americana in Illinois; was also the author of several monographs on historic themes, including “The Winnebago War,” “The Illinois and Indiana Indians,” and “Historic Notes of the Northwest,” published in the “Fergus Series,” besides having edited an edition of “Reynolds’ History of Illinois” (published by the same firm), which he had enriched by the addition of valuable notes. During 1895-96 he contributed a series of valuable articles to “The Chicago Tribune” on various features of early Illinois and Northwest history. In 1890 he was appointed by Governor Fifer a member of the first Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library, serving until the expiration of his term in, 1894, and was re-appointed to the same position by Governor Tanner in 1897, in each case being chosen President of the Board.” Died Dec. 22, 1903.

BEECHER, Charles A., attorney and railway solicitor, was born in Herkimer County, N. Y., August 27, 1829, but, in 1836, removed with his family to Licking County, Ohio, where he lived upon a farm until he reached the age of 18 years. Having taken a course in the Ohio Wesleyan University at Delaware, in 1854 he removed to Illinois, locating at Fairfield, Wayne County, and began the study of law in the office of his brother, Edwin Beecher, being admitted to practice in 1855. In 1867 he united with others in the organization of the Illinois Southeastern Railroad projected from Shawneetown to Edgewood on the Illinois Central in Effingham County. This enterprise was consolidated, a year or two later, with the Pana, Springfield & Northwestern, taking the name of the Springfield & Illinois Southeastern, under which name it was constructed and opened for traffic in 1871. (This line – which Mr. Beecher served for some time as Vice-President – now constitutes the Beardstown & Shawneetown Division of the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern.) The Springfield & Illinois Southeastern Company having fallen into financial difficulty in 1873, Mr. Beecher was appointed receiver of the road, and, for a time, had control of its operation as agent for the bondholders. In 1875 the line was conveyed to the Ohio & Mississippi Railroad (now a part of the Baltimore & Ohio), when Mr. Beecher became General Counsel of the controlling corporation, so remaining until 1888. From that date he continued to be one of the assistant counsel of the Baltimore & Ohio system. His later home was in Cincinnati, although for over a quarter of a century .he had been prominently identified with one of the most important railway enterprises in Southern Illinois. In politics Mr. Beecher had always been a Republican, and was one of the few in Wayne County who voted for Fremont in 1856, and for Lincoln in 1860. He was also a member of the Republican State Central Committee of Illinois from 1860 for a period of ten or twelve years. Died April 11, 1904.

BEECHER, Edward, D. D., clergyman and educator, was born at East Hampton, L. I., August 27, 1803 – the son of Rev. Lyman Beecher and the elder brother of Henry Ward; graduated at Yale College in 1822, taught for over a year at Hartford, Conn., studied theology, and after a year’s service as tutor in Yale College, in 1826 was ordained pastor of the Park Street Congregational Church in Boston. In 1830 he became President of Illinois College at Jacksonville, remaining until 1844, when he resigned and returned to Boston, serving as pastor of the Salem Street Church in that city until 1856, also acting as senior editor of “The Congregationalist” for four years. In 1856 he returned to Illinois as pastor of the First Congregational Church at Galesburg, continuing until 1871, when he removed to Brooklyn, where he resided without pastoral charge, except 1885-89, when he was pastor of the Parkville Congregational Church. While President of Illinois College, that institution was exposed to much hostile criticism on account of his outspoken opposition to slavery, as shown by his participation in founding the first Illinois State Anti-Slavery Society and his eloquent denunciation of the murder of Elijah P. Lovejoy. Next to his brother Henry Ward, he was probably the most powerful orator belonging to that gifted family, and, in connection with his able associates in the faculty of the Illinois College, assisted to give that institution a wide reputation as a nursery of independent thought. Up to a short time before his death, he was a prolific writer, his productions (besides editorials, reviews and contributions on a variety of subjects) including nine or ten volumes, of which the most important are: “Statement of Anti-Slavery Principles and Address to the People of Illinois” (1837); “A Plea for Illinois College”; “History of the Alton Riots” (1838); “The Concord of Ages” (1853); “The Conflict of Ages” (1854); “Papal Conspiracy Exposed” (1854), besides a number of others invariably on religious or anti-slavery topics. Died in Brooklyn, July 28, 1895.

BEECHER, William H., clergyman – oldest son of Rev. Lyman Beecher and brother of Edward and Henry Ward – was born at East Hampton, N. Y., educated at home and at Andover, became a Congregationalist clergyman, occupying pulpits at Newport, R. I., Batavia, N. Y., and Cleveland, Ohio; came to Chicago in his later years, dying at the home of his daughters in that city, June 23, 1889.

BEGGS, (Rev.) Stephen R., pioneer Methodist Episcopal preacher, was born in Buckingham County, Va., March 30, 1801. His father, who was opposed to slavery, moved to Kentucky in 1805, but remained there only two years, when he removed to Clark County, Ind. The son enjoyed but poor educational advantages here, obtaining his education chiefly by his own efforts in what he called “Brush College.” At the age of 21 he entered the ministry of the Methodist Episcopal Church, during the next ten years traveling different circuits in Indiana. In 1831 he was appointed to Chicago, but the Black Hawk War coming on immediately thereafter, he retired to Plainfield. Later he traveled various circuits in Illinois, until 1868, when he was superannuated, occupying his time thereafter in writing reminiscences of his early history. A volume of this character published by him, was entitled “Pages from the Early History of the West and Northwest.” He died at Plainfield, Ill., Sept. 9, 1895, in the 95th year of his age.

BEIDLER, Henry, early settler, was born of German extraction in Bucks County, Pa., Nov. 27, 1812; came to Illinois in 1843, settling first at Springfield, where he carried on the grocery business for five years, then removed to Chicago-and engaged in the lumber trade in connection with a brother, afterwards carrying on a large lumber manufacturing business at Muskegon, Mich., which proved very profitable. In 1871 Mr. Beidler retired from the lumber trade, investing largely in west side real estate in the city of Chicago, which appreciated rapidly in value, making him one of the most wealthy real estate owners in Chicago. Died, March 16, 1893. – Jacob (Beidler), brother of the preceding, was born in Bucks County, Penn., in 1815; came west in 1842, first began working as a carpenter, but later engaged in the grocery business with his brother at Springfield, Ill.; in 1844 removed to Chicago, where he was joined by his brother four years later, when they engaged largely in the lumber trade. Mr. Beidler retired from business in 1891, devoting his attention to large real estate investments. He was a liberal contributor to religious, educational and benevolent institutions. Died in Chicago, March 15, 1898.

BELFIELD, Henry Holmes, educator, was born in Philadelphia, Nov. 17, 1837; was educated at an Iowa College, and for a time was tutor in the same; during the War of the Rebellion served in the army of the Cumberland, first as Lieutenant and afterwards as Adjutant of the Eighth Iowa Cavalry, still later being upon the staff of Gen. E. M. McCook, and taking part in the Atlanta and Nashville campaigns. While a prisoner in the hands of the rebels he was placed under fire of the Union batteries at Charleston. Coming to Chicago in 1866, he served as Principal in various public schools, including the North Division High School. He was one of the earliest advocates of manual training, and, on the establishment of the Chicago Manual Training School in 1884, was appointed its Director – a position which he has continued to occupy. During 1891-92 he made a trip to Europe by appointment of the Government, to investigate the school systems in European countries.

BELKNAP, Hugh Reid, ex-Member of Congress, was born in Keokuk, Iowa, Sept. 1, 1860, being the son of W. W. Belknap, for some time Secretary of War under President Grant. After attending the public schools of his native city, he took a course at Adams Academy, Quincy, Mass., and at Phillips Academy, Andover, when he entered the service of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, where he remained twelve years in various departments, finally becoming Chief Clerk of the General Manager. In 1892 he retired from this position to become Superintendent of the South Side Elevated Railroad of Chicago. He never held any political position until nominated (1894) as a Republican for the Fifty-fourth Congress, in the strongly Democratic Third District of Chicago. Although the returns showed a plurality of thirty-one votes for his Democratic opponent (Lawrence McGann), a recount proved him elected, when, Mr. McGann having voluntarily withdrawn, Mr. Belknap was unanimously awarded the seat. In 1896 he was re-elected from a District usually strongly Democratic, receiving a plurality of 590 votes, but was defeated by his Democratic opponent in 1898, retiring from Congress, March 3, 1899, when he received an appointment as Paymaster in the Army from President McKinley, with the rank of Major.

BELL, Robert, lawyer, was born in Lawrence County, Ill., in 1829, educated at Mount Carmel and Indiana State University at Bloomington, graduating from the law department of the latter in 1855; while yet in his minority edited “The Mount Carmel Register,” during 1851-52 becoming joint owner and editor of the same with his brother, Victor D. Bell. After graduation he opened an office at Fairfield, Wayne County, but, in 1857, returned to Mount Carmel and from 1864 was the partner of Judge E. B. Green, until the appointment of the latter Chief Justice of Oklahoma by President Harrison in 1890. In 1869 Mr. Bell was appointed County Judge of Lawrence County, being elected to the same office in 1894. He was also President of the Illinois Southern Railroad Company until it was merged into the Cairo & Vincennes Road in 1867; later became President of the St. Louis & Mt. Carmel Railroad, now a part of the Louisville, Evansville & St. Louis line, and secured the construction of the division from Princeton, Ind., to Albion, Ill. In 1876 he visited California as Special Agent of the Treasury Department to investigate alleged frauds in the Revenue Districts on the Pacific Coast; in 1878 was an unsuccessful candidate for Congress on the Republican ticket in the strong Democratic Nineteenth District; was appointed, the same year, a member of the Republican State Central Committee for the State-at-large, and, in 1881, officiated by appointment of President Garfield, as Commissioner to examine a section of the Atlantic & Pacific Railroad in New Mexico. Judge Bell is a gifted stump-speaker and is known in the southeastern part of the State as the “Silver-tongued Orator of the Wabash.”

BELLEVILLE, the county-seat of St. Clair County, a city and railroad center, 14 miles south of east from St. Louis. It is one of the oldest towns in the State, having been selected as the county-seat in 1814 and platted in 1815. It lies in the center of a rich agricultural and coal-bearing district and contains numerous factories, including agricultural implements, flouring mills, a nail mill, glass works and shoe factories. It has five newspaper establishments, of which four issue both daily and weekly editions. Its commercial and educational facilities are exceptionally good. Its population is largely of German descent. Population (1890), 15,361; (1900), 17,484, (1910), 21,122.

BELLEVILLE, CENTRALIA & EASTERN RAILROAD. (See Louisville, Evansville & St. Louis (Consolidated) Railroad.)

BELLEVILLE & CARONDELET RAILROAD, a short line of road extending from Belleville to East Carondelet, Ill., 17.3 miles. It was chartered Feb. 20, 1881, and leased to the St. Louis, Alton & Terre Haute Railroad Company, June 1, 1883. The annual rental is $30,000, a sum equivalent to the interest on the bonded debt. The capital stock (1895) is $500,000 and the bonded debt $485,000. In addition to these sums the floating debt swells the entire capitalization to $995,054 or $57,317 per mile.

BELLEVILLE & ELDORADO RAILROAD, a road 50.4 miles in length running from Belleville to Duquoin, Ill. It was chartered Feb. 22, 1861, and completed Oct. 81, 1871. On July 1, 1880, it was leased to the St Louis, Alton & Terre Haute Railroad Company for 486 years, and has since been operated by that corporation in connection with its Belleville branch, from East St. Louis to Belleville. At Eldorado the road intersects the Cairo & Vincennes Railroad and the Shawneetown branch of the St. Louis & Southeastern Railroad, operated by the Louisville & Npshville Railroad Company. Its capital stock (1895) is $1,000,000 and its bonded debt $550,000. The corporate office is at Belleville.

BELLEVILLE & ILL1NOISTOWN RAILROAD. (See St. Louis, Alton & Terre Haute Railroad.)

BELLEVILLE & SOUTHERN ILLINOIS RAILROAD, a road (laid with steel rails) running from Belleville to Duquoin, Ill., 56.4 miles in length. It was chartered Feb. 15, 1857, and completed Dec. 15, 1873. At Duquoin it connects with the Illinois Central and forms a short line between St. Louis and Cairo. Oct. 1, 1866, it was leased to the St. Louis, Alton & Terre Haute Railroad Company for 999 years. The capital stock is $1,692,000 and the bonded debt $1,000,000. The corporate office is at Belleville.

BELLMONT, a village of Wabash County, on the Louisville, Evansville & St. Louis Railway, 9 miles west of Mount Carmel. Population (1880), 350; (1890), 487; (1900), 624; (1910), 550.

BELT RAILWAY COMPANY OF CHICAGO, THE, a corporation chartered, Nov. 22, 1882, and the lessee of the Belt Division of the Chicago & Western Indiana Railroad (which see). Its total trackage (all of standard gauge and laid with 66-pound steel rails) is 93.26 miles, distributed as follows: Auburn Junction to Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Junction, 15.9 miles; branches from Pullman Junction to Irondale, Ill., etc., 5.41 miles; second track, 14.1 miles; sidings, 57.85 miles. The cost of construction has been $524,549; capital stock, $1,200,000. It has no funded debt. The earnings for the year ending June 30, 1895, were $556,847, the operating expenses $378,012, and the taxes $51,009.

BELVIDERE,an incorporated city, the county-seat of Boone County, situated on the Kishwaukee River, and on two divisions of the Chicago & Northwestern Railroad, 78 miles west-northwest of Chicago and 14 miles east of Rockford; is connected with the latter city by electric railroad. The city has twelve churches, five graded schools, and three banks (two national). One daily and one semi-weekly paper are published here. Belvidere also has very considerable manufacturing interests, including manufactories of sewing machines, bicycles, automobiles, besides a large milk-condensing factory and two creameries. Pop. (1890), 3,867; (1900), 6,937; (1910), 7,253.

BEMENT, a village in Piatt County, at intersection of main line and Chicago Division of Wabash Railroad, 20 miles east of Decatur and 166 miles south-southwest of Chicago; in agricultural and stock-raising district; has three grain elevators, broom factory, water-works, electric-light plant, four churches, two banks and a weekly paper. Pop. (1900), 1,484; (1910), 1,530.

BENJAMIN, Reuben Moore, lawyer, born at Chatham Centre, Columbia County, N. Y., June 29, 1833; was educated at Amherst College, Amherst, Mass.; spent one year in the law department of Harvard, another as tutor at Amherst and, in 1856, came to Bloomington, Ill., where, on an examination certificate furnished by Abraham Lincoln, he was licensed to practice. The first public office held by Mr. Benjamin was that of Delegate to the State Constitutional Convention of 1869-70, in which he took a prominent part in shaping the provisions of the new Constitution relating to corporations. In 1873 he was chosen County Judge of McLean County, by repeated re-elections holding the position until 1886, when he resumed private practice. For more than twenty years he has been connected with the law department of Wesleyan University at Bloomington, a part of the time being Dean of the Faculty; is also the author of several volumes of legal textbooks.

BENNETT MEDICAL COLLEGE, an Eclectic Medical School of Chicago, incorporated by special charter and opened in the autumn of 1868. Its first sessions were held in two large rooms; its faculty consisted of seven professors, and there were thirty matriculates. More commodious quarters were secured the following year, and a still better home after the fire of 1871, in which all the college property was destroyed. Another change of location was made in 1874. In 1890 the property then owned was sold and a new college building, in connection with a hospital, erected in a more quiet quarter of the city. A free dispensary is conducted by the college. The teaching faculty (1896) consists of nineteen professors, with four assistants and demonstrators. Women are admitted as pupils on equal terms with men.

BENT, Charles, journalist, was born in Chicago, Dec. 8, 1844, but removed with his family, in 1856, to Morrison, Whiteside County, where, two years later, he became an apprentice to the printing business in the office of “The Whiteside Sentinel.” In June, 1864, he enlisted as a soldier in the One Hundred and Fortieth Illinois (100-days’ regiment) and, on the expiration of his term of service, re-enlisted in the One Hundred and Forty-seventh Illinois, being mustered out at Savannah, Ga., in January, 1866, with the rank of Second Lieutenant. Then resuming his vocation as a printer, in July, 1867, he purchased the office of “The Whiteside Sentinel,” in which he learned his trade, and has since been the editor of that paper, except during 1877-79 while engaged in writing a “History of Whiteside County.” He is a charter member of the local Grand Army Post and served on the staff of the Department Commander; was Assistant Assessor of Internal Revenue during 1870-73, and, in 1878, was elected as a Republican to the State Senate for Whiteside and Carroll Counties, serving four years. Other positions held by him include the office of City Alderman, member of the State Board of Canal Commissioners (1883-85) and Commissioner of the Joliet Penitentiary (1889-93), member of the Republican State Central Committee and (1911) is serving as U. S. Pension Agent.

BENTON, county seat of Franklin County, on Ill. Cent, and Chi. & E. Ill. railroads; has electric-light plant, water-works, saddle and harness factory, two banks, two flouring mills, shale brick and tile works, extensive coal mines in vicinity; has two weekly papers. Pop. (1900), 1,341; (1910), 2,675.

BERDAN, James, lawyer and County Judge, was born in New York City, July 4, 1805, and educated at Columbia and Yale Colleges, graduating from the latter in the class of 1824. His father, James Berdan, Sr., came west in the fall of 1819 as one of the agents of a New York Emigration Society, and, in January, 1820, visited the vicinity of the present site of Jacksonville, Ill., but died soon after his return, in part from exposure incurred during his long and arduous winter journey. Thirteen years later (1832) his son, the subject of this sketch, came to the same region, and Jacksonville became his home for the remainder of his life. Mr. Berdan was a well-read lawyer, as well as a man of high principle and sound culture, with pure literary and social tastes. Although possessing unusual capabilities, his refinement of character and dislike of ostentation made him seek rather the association and esteem of friends than public office. In 1849 he was elected County Judge of Morgan County, serving by a second election until 1857. Later he was Secretary for several years of the Tonica & Petersburg Railroad (at that time in course of construction), serving until it was merged into the St. Louis, Jacksonville & Chicago Railroad, now constituting a part of the Jacksonville division of the Chicago & Alton Railroad; also served for many years as a Trustee of Illinois College. In the latter years of his life he was, for a considerable period, the law partner of ex-Governor and ex-Senator Richard Yates. Judge Berdan was the ardent political friend and admirer of Abraham Lincoln, as well as an intimate friend and frequent correspondent of the poet Longfellow, besides being the correspondent, during a long period of his life, of a number of other prominent literary men. Pierre Irving, the nephew and biographer of Washington Irving, was his brother-in-law through the marriage of a favorite sister. Judge Berdan died at Jacksonville, August 24, 1884.

BERGEN, (Rev.) John G., pioneer clergyman, was born at Hightstown, N. J., Nov. 27, 1790; studied theology, and, after two years’ service as tutor at Princeton and sixteen years as pastor of a Presbyterian church at Madison, N. J., in 1828 came to Springfield, Ill., and assisted in the erection of the first Protestant church in the central part of the State, of which he remained pastor until 1848. Died, at Springfield, Jan. 17, 1872.

BERGGREN, Augustus W., legislator, born in Sweden, August 17, 1840; came to the United States at 16 years of age and located at Oneida, Knox County, Ill., afterwards removing to Galesburg; held various offices, including that of Sheriff of Knox County (1873-81), State Senator (1881-89) – serving as President pro tem, of the Senate 1887-89, and was Warden of the State penitentiary at Joliet, 1888-91. He was for many years the very able and efficient President of the Covenant Mutual Life Association of Illinois, and is now its Treasurer.

BERGIER, (Rev.) J., a secular priest, born in France, and an early missionary in Illinois. He labored among the Tamaroas, being in charge of the mission at Cahokia from 1700 to his death in 1710.

BERRY, Orville F., lawyer and legislator, was born in McDonough County, Ill., Feb. 16, 1852; early left an orphan and, after working for some time on a farm, removed to Carthage, Hancock County, where he read law and was admitted to the bar in 1877; in 1883 was elected Mayor of Carthage and twice re-elected; was elected to the State Senate in 1888 and ’92, and, in 1891, took a prominent part in securing the enactment of the compulsory education clause in the common school law. Mr. Berry presided over the Republican State Convention of 1896, the same year was a candidate for re-election to the State Senate, but the certificate was awarded to his Democratic competitor, who was declared elected by 164 plurality. On a contest before the Senate at the first session of the Fortieth General Assembly, the seat was awarded to Mr. Berry on the ground of illegality in the rulings of the Secretary of State affecting the vote of his opponent.

BERRY, (Col.) William W., lawyer and soldier, was born in Kentucky, Feb. 22, 1834, and educated at Oxford, Ohio. His home being then in Covington, he studied law in Cincinnati, and, at the age of 23, began practice at Louisville, Ky., being married two years later to Miss Georgie Hewitt of Frankfort. Early in 1861 he entered the Civil War on the Union side as Major of the Louisville Legion, and subsequently served in the Army of the Cumberland, marching to the sea with Sherman and, during the period of his service, receiving four wounds. After the close of the war he was offered the position of Governor of one of the Territories, but, determining not to go further west than Illinois, declined. For three years he was located and in practice at Winchester, Ill., but removed to Quincy in 1874, where he afterwards resided. He always took a warm interest in politics and, in local affairs, was a leader of his party. He was an organizer of the G. A. R. Post at Quincy and its first Commander, and, in 1884-85, served as Commander of the State Department of the G. A. R. He organized a Young Men’s Republican Club, as he believed that the young minds should take an active part in politics. He was one of the committee of seven appointed by the Governor to locate the Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Home for Illinois, and, after spending six months inspecting various sites offered, the institution was finally located at Quincy; was also Trustee of Knox College, at Galesburg, for several years. He was frequently urged by his party friends to run for public office, but it was so much against his nature to ask for even one vote, that he would not consent. He died at his home in Quincy, much regretted, May 6, 1895.

BESTOR, George C., legislator, born in Washington City, April 11, 1811; was assistant document clerk in the House of Representatives eight years; came to Illinois in 1835 and engaged in real-estate business at Peoria; was twice appointed Postmaster of that city (1842 and 1861) and three times elected Mayor; served as financial agent of the Peoria & Oquawka (now Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad), and a Director of the Toledo, Peoria & Warsaw; a delegate to the Whig National Convention of 1852; a State Senator (1858-62), and an ardent friend of Abraham Lincoln. Died, in Washington, May 14, 1872, while prosecuting a claim against the Government for the construction of gunboats during the war.

BERWYN, a city (suburb of Chicago) on the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy and the Illinois Central Railroads; is a popular residence section; has one local paper. Pop. (1910), 5,841.

BETHANY, a village of Moultrie County, on Peoria Division Ill. Cent. Railroad, 18 miles southeast of Decatur; in farming district; has one newspaper and four churches. Pop., mostly American born, (1890), 688; (1900), 873; (1910), 859.

BETTIE STUART INSTITUTE, an institution for young ladies at Springfield, Ill., founded in 1868 by Mrs. Mary McKee Homes, who conducted it for some twenty years, until her death. Its report for 1898 shows a faculty of ten instructors and 125 pupils. Its property is valued at $23,500. Its course of instruction embraces the preparatory and classical branches, together with music, oratory and fine arts.

BEVERIDGE, James H., State Treasurer, was born in Washington County, N. Y., in 1828; served as State Treasurer, 1865-67, later acted as Secretary of the Commission which built the State Capitol. His later years were spent in superintending a large dairy farm near Sandwich, De Kalb County, where he died in January, 1896.

BEVERIDGE, John L., ex-Governor, was born in Greenwich, N. Y., July 6, 1824; came to Illinois, 1842, and, after spending some two years in Granville Academy and Rock River Seminary, went to Tennessee, where he engaged in teaching while studying law. Having been admitted to the bar, he returned to Illinois in 1851, first locating at Sycamore, but three years later established himself in Chicago. During the first year of the war he assisted to raise the Eighth Regiment Illinois Cavalry, and was commissioned first as Captain and still later Major; two years later became Colonel of the Seventeenth Cavalry, which he commanded to the close of the war, being mustered out, February, 1866, with the rank of brevet Brigadier-General. After the war he held the office of Sheriff of Cook County four years; in 1870 was elected to the State Senate, and, in the following year, Congressman-at-large to succeed General Logan, elected to the United States Senate; resigned this office in January, 1873, having been elected Lieutenant-Governor, and a few weeks later succeeded to the governorship by the election of Governor Oglesby to the United States Senate. In 1881 he was appointed, by President Arthur, Assistant United States Treasurer for Chicago, serving until after Cleveland’s first election. His last home was near Los Angeles, Cal., where he died May 3, 1910.

BIENVILLE, Jean Baptiste le Moyne, Sieur le, was born at Montreal, Canada, Feb. 23, 1680, and was the French Governor of Louisiana at the time the Illinois country was included in that province. He had several brothers, a number of whom played important parts in the early history of the province. Bienville first visited Louisiana, in company with his brother Iberville, in 1698, their object being to establish a French colony near the mouth of the Mississippi. The first settlement was made at Biloxi, Dec. 6, 1699, and Sanvolle, another brother, was placed in charge. The latter was afterward made Governor of Louisiana, and, at his death (1701), he was succeeded by Bienville, who transferred the seat of government to Mobile. In 1704 he was joined by his brother Chateaugay, who brought seventeen settlers from Canada. Soon afterwards Iberville died, and Bienville was recalled to France in 1707, but was reinstated the following year. Finding the Indians worthless as tillers of the soil, he seriously suggested to the home government the expediency of trading off the copper-colored aborigines for negroes from the West Indies, three Indians to be reckoned as equivalent to two blacks. In 1713 Cadillac was sent out as Governor, Bienville being made Lieutenant-Governor. The two quarreled. Cadillac was superseded by Epinay in 1717, and, in 1718, Law’s first expedition arrived (see Company of the West), and brought a Governor’s commission for Bienville. The latter soon after founded New Orleans, which became the seat of government for the province (which then included Illinois), in 1723. In January, 1724, he was again summoned to France to answer charges; was removed in disgrace in 1726, but reinstated in 1733 and given the rank of Lieutenant-General. Failing in various expeditions against the Chickasaw Indians, he was again superseded in 1743, returning to France, where he died in 1768.

BIGGS, William, pioneer, Judge and legislator, was born in Maryland in 1753, enlisted in the Revolutionary army, and served as an officer under Colonel George Rogers Clark in the expedition for the capture of Illinois from the British in 1778. He settled in Bellefontaine (now Monroe County) soon after the close of the war. He was Sheriff of St. Clair County for many years, and later Justice of the Peace and Judge of the Court of Common Pleas. He also represented his county in the Territorial Legislatures of Indiana and Illinois. Died, in St. Clair County, in 1827.

BIGGSVILLE, a village of Henderson County, on the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, 15 miles northeast of Burlington; has a bank and one newspaper and a brick yard; considerable grain and live-stock are shipped here. Population (1890), 487; (1900), 417; (1910), 400.

BIG MUDDY RIVER, a stream formed by the union of two branches which rise in Jefferson County. It runs south and southwest through Franklin and Jackson Counties, and enters the Mississippi about five miles below Grand Tower. Its length is estimated at 140 miles.

BILLINGS, Albert Merritt, capitalist, was born in New Hampshire, April 19, 1814, educated in the common schools of his native State and Vermont, and, at the age of 22, became Sheriff of Windsor County, Vt. Later he was proprietor for a time of the mail stage-coach line between Concord, N. H., and Boston, but, having sold out, invested his means in the securities of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway and became identified with the business interests of Chicago. In the ’50’s he became associated with Cornelius K. Garrison in the People’s Gas Company of Chicago, of which he served as President from 1859 to 1888. In 1890 Mr. Billings became extensively interested in the street railway enterprises of Mr. C. B. Holmes, resulting in his becoming the proprietor of the street railway system at Memphis, Tenn., valued, in 1897, at $3,000,000. In early life he had been associated with Commodore Vanderbilt in the operation of the Hudson River steamboat lines of the latter. In addition to his other business enterprises, he was principal owner and, during the last twenty-five years of his life, President of the Home National and Home Savings Banks of Chicago. Died, Feb. 7, 1897, leaving an estate valued at several millions of dollars.

BILLINGS, Henry W., was born at Conway, Mass., July 11, 1814, graduated at Amherst College at twenty years of age, and began the study of law with Judge Foote, of Cleveland, Ohio, was admitted to the bar two years later and practiced there some two years longer. He then removed to St. Louis, Mo., later resided for a time at Waterloo and Cairo, Ill., but, in 1845, settled at Alton; was elected Mayor of that city in 1851, and the first Judge of the newly organized City Court, in 1859, serving in this position six years. In 1869 he was elected a Delegate from Madison County to the State Constitutional Convention of 1869-70, but died before the expiration of the session, on April 19, 1870.

BIRKBECK, Morris, early colonist, was born in England about 1762 or 1763, emigrated to America in 1817, and settled in Edwards County, Ill. He purchased a large tract of land and induced a large colony of English artisans, laborers and farmers to settle upon the same, founding the town of New Albion. He was an active, uncompromising opponent of slavery, and was an important factor in defeating the scheme to make Illinois a slave State. He was appointed Secretary of State by Governor Coles in October, 1824, but resigned at the end of three months, a hostile Legislature having refused to confirm him. A strong writer and a frequent contributor to the press, his letters and published works attracted attention both in this country and in Europe. Principal among the latter were: “Notes on a Journey Through France” (1815); “Notes on a Journey Through America” (1818), and “Letters from Illinois” (1818). Died from drowning in 1825, aged about 63 years. (See Slavery and Slave Laws.)

BISSELL, William H., first Republican Governor of Illinois, was born near Cooperstown, N. Y., on April 25, 1811, graduated in medicine at Philadelphia in 1835, and, after practicing a short time in Steuben County, N. Y., removed to Monroe County, Ill. In 1840 he was elected a Representative in the General Assembly, where he soon attained high rank as a debater. He studied law and practiced in Belleville, St. Clair County, becoming Prosecuting Attorney for that county in 1844. He served as Colonel of the Second Illinois Volunteers during the Mexican War, and achieved distinction at Buena Vista. He represented Illinois in Congress from 1849 to 1855, being first elected as an Independent Democrat. On the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill, he left the Democratic party and, in 1856, was elected Governor on the Republican ticket. While in Congress he was challenged by Jefferson Davis after an interchange of heated words respecting the relative courage of Northern and Southern soldiers, spoken in debate. Bissell accepted the challenge, naming muskets at thirty paces. Mr. Davis’s friends objected, and the duel never occurred. Died in office, at Springfield, Ill., March 18, 1860.

BLACK, John Charles, lawyer and soldier, born at Lexington, Miss., Jan. 29, 1839, at eight years of age came with his widowed mother to Illinois; while a student at Wabash College, Ind., in April, 1861, enlisted in the Union army, serving gallantly and with distinction until Aug. 15, 1865, when, as Colonel of the 37th Ill. Vol. Inf., he retired with the rank of Brevet Brigadier-General; was admitted to the bar in 1857, and after practicing at Danville, Champaign and Urbana, in 1885 was appointed Commissioner of Pensions, serving until 1889, when he removed to Chicago; served as Congressman-at-large (1893-95), and U. S. District Attorney (1895-99); Commander of the Loyal Legion and of the G. A. R. (Department of Illinois); was elected Commander-in-Chief of the Grand Army at the Grand Encampment, 1903. Gen. Black received the honorary degree of A.M. from his Alma Mater and that of LL. D. from Knox College; in January, 1904, was appointed by President Roosevelt member of the U. S. Civil Service Commission, and chosen its President.

BLACKBURN UNIVERSITY, located at Carlinville, Macoupin County. It owes its origin to the efforts of Dr. Gideon Blackburn, who, having induced friends in the East to unite with him in the purchase of Illinois lands at Government price, in 1837 conveyed 16,656 acres of these lands, situated in ten different counties, in trust for the founding of an institution of learning, intended particularly “to qualify young men for the gospel ministry.” The citizens of Carlinville donated funds wherewith to purchase eighty acres of land, near that city, as a site, which was included in the deed of trust. The enterprise lay dormant for many years, and it was not until 1857 that the institution was formally incorporated, and ten years later it was little more than a high school, giving one course of instruction considered particularly adapted to prospective students of theology. At present (1898) there are about 110 students in attendance, a faculty of twelve instructors, and a theological, as well as preparatory and collegiate departments. The institution owns property valued at $110,000, of which $50,000 is represented by real estate and $40,000 by endowment funds.

BLACK HAWK, a Chief of the Sac tribe of Indians, reputed to have been born at Kaskaskia in 1767. (It is also claimed that he was born on Rock River, as well as within the present limits of Hancock County.) Conceiving that his people had been wrongfully despoiled of lands belonging to them, in 1832 he inaugurated what is commonly known as the Black Hawk War. His Indian name was Makabaimishekiakiak, signifying Black Sparrow Hawk. He was ambitious, but susceptible to flattery, and while having many of the qualities of leadership, was lacking in moral force. He was always attached to British interests, and unquestionably received British aid of a substantial sort. After his defeat he was made the ward of Keokuk, another Chief, which humiliation of his pride broke his heart. He died on a reservation set apart for him in Iowa, in 1838, aged 71. His body is said to have been exhumed nine months after death, and his articulated skeleton is alleged to have been preserved in the rooms of the Burlington (Ia.) Historical Society until 1855, when it was destroyed by fire. (See also Black Hawk War: Appendix.)

BLACKSTONE, Timothy B., Eailway President, was born at Branford, Conn., March 28, 1829. After receiving a common school education, supplemented by a course in a neighboring academy, at 18 he began the practical study of engineering in a corps employed by the New York & New Hampshire Railway Company, and the same year became assistant engineer on the Stockbridge & Pittsfield Railway. While thus employed he applied himself diligently to the study of the theoretical science of engineering, and, on coming to Illinois in 1851, was qualified to accept and fill the position of division engineer (from Bloomington to Dixon) on the Illinois Central Railway. On the completion of the main line of that road in 1855, he was appointed Chief Engineer of the Joliet & Chicago Railroad, later becoming financially interested therein, and being chosen President of the corporation on the completion of the line. In January, 1864, the Chicago & Joliet was leased in perpetuity to the Chicago & Alton Railroad Company. Mr. Blackstone then became a Director in the latter organization and, in April following, was chosen its President. This office he filled uninterruptedly until April 1, 1899, when the road passed into the hands of a syndicate of other lines. He was also one of the original incorporators of the Union Stock Yards Company, and was its President from 1864 to 1868. His career as a railroad man was conspicuous for its long service, the uninterrupted success of his management of the enterprises entrusted to his hands and his studious regard for the interests of stockholders. This was illustrated by the fact that, for some thirty years, the Chicago & Alton Railroad paid dividends on its preferred and common stock, ranging from 6 to 8 % per cent per annum, and, on disposing of his stock consequent on the transfer of the line to a new corporation in 1899, Mr. Blackstone rejected offers for his stock – aggregating nearly one-third of the whole – which would have netted him $1,000,000 in excess of the amount received, because he was unwilling to use his position to reap an advantage over smaller stockholders. Died, May 21, 1900.

BLACKWELL, Robert S., lawyer, was born at Belleville, Ill., in 1823. He belonged to a prominent family in the early history of the State, his father, David Blackwell, who was also a lawyer and settled in Belleville about 1819, having been a member of the Second General Assembly (1820) from St. Clair County, and also of the Fourth and Fifth. In April, 1823, he was appointed by Governor Coles Secretary of State, succeeding Judge Samuel D. Lockwood, afterwards a Justice of the Supreme Court, who had just received from President Monroe the appointment of Receiver of Public Moneys at the Edwardsville Land Office. Mr. Blackwell served in the Secretary’s office to October, 1824, during a part of the time acting as editor of “The Illinois Intelligencer,” which had been removed from Kaskaskia to Vandalia, and in which he strongly opposed the policy of making Illinois a slave State. He finally died in Belleville. Robert Blackwell, a brother of David and the uncle of the subject of this sketch, was joint owner with Daniel P. Cook, of “The Illinois Herald” – afterwards “The Intelligencer” – at Kaskaskia, in 1816, and in April, 1817, succeeded Cook in the office of Territorial Auditor of Public Accounts, being himself succeeded by Elijah C. Berry, who had become his partner on “The Intelligencer,” and served as Auditor until the organization of the State Government in 1818. Blackwell & Berry were chosen State Printers after the removal of the State capital to Vandalia in 1820, serving in this capacity for some years. Robert Blackwell located at Vandalia and served as a member of the House from Fayette County in the Eighth and Ninth General Assemblies (1832-36) and in the Senate, 1840-42. Robert S. – the son of David, and the younger member of this somewhat famous and historic family – whose name stands at the head of this paragraph, attended the common schools at Belleville in his boyhood, but in early manhood removed to Galena, where he engaged in mercantile pursuits. He later studied law with Hon. O. H. Browning at Quincy, beginning practice at Rushville, where he was associated for a time with Judge Minshall. In 1852 he removed to Chicago, having for his first partner Corydon Beckwith, afterwards of the Supreme Court, still later being associated with a number of prominent lawyers of that day. He is described by his biographers as “an able lawyer, an eloquent advocate and a brilliant scholar.” “Blackwell on Tax Titles,” from his pen, has been accepted by the profession as a high authority on that branch of law. He also published a revision of the Statutes in 1858, and began an “Abstract of Decisions of the Supreme Court,” which had reached the third or fourth volume at his death, May 16, 1863.

BLAIR, William, merchant, was born at Homer, Cortland County, N. Y., May 20, 1818, being descended through five generations of New England ancestors. After attending school in the town of Cortland, which became his father’s residence, at the age of 14 he obtained employment in a stove and hardware store, four years later (1836) coming to Joliet, Ill., to take charge of a branch store which the firm had established there. The next year he purchased the stock and continued the business on his own account. In August, 1842, he removed to Chicago, where he established the earliest and one of the most extensive wholesale hardware concerns in that city, with which he remained connected nearly fifty years. During this period he was associated with various partners, including C. B. Nelson, E. G. Hall, O. W. Belden, James H. Horton and others, besides, at times, conducting the business alone. He suffered by the fire of 1871 in common with other business men of Chicago, but promptly resumed business and, within the next two or three years, had erected business blocks, successively, on Lake and Randolph Streets, but retired from business in 1888. He was a Director of the Merchants’ National Bank of Chicago from its organization in 1865, as also for a time of the Atlantic & Pacific Telegraph Company and the Chicago Gaslight & Coke Company, a Trustee of Lake Forest University, one of the Managers of the Presbyterian Hospital and a member of the Chicago Historical Society. Died in Chicago, May 10, 1899.

BLAKELY, David, journalist, was born in Franklin County, Vt., in 1834; learned the printer’s trade and graduated from the University of Vermont in 1857. He was a member of a musical family which, under the name of “The Blakely Family,” made several successful tours of the West. He engaged in journalism at Rochester, Minn., and, in 1862, was elected Secretary of State and ex-officio Superintendent of Schools, serving until 1865, when he resigned and, in partnership with a brother, bought “The Chicago Evening Post,” with which he was connected at the time of the great fire and for some time afterward. Later, he returned to Minnesota and became one of the proprietors and a member of the editorial staff of “The St. Paul Pioneer Press.” In his later years Mr. Blakely was President of the Blakely Printing Company, of Chicago, also conducting a large printing business in New York, which was his residence. He was manager for several years of the celebrated Gilmore Band of musicians, and also instrumental in organizing the celebrated Sousa’s Band, of which he was manager up to the time of his decease in New York, Nov. 7, 1896.

BLAKEMAN, Curtiss, sea-captain, and pioneer settler, came from New England to Madison County, Ill., in 1819, and settled in what was afterwards known as the “Marine Settlement,” of which he was one of the founders. This settlement, of which the present town of Marine (first called Madison) was the outcome, took its name from the fact that several of the early settlers, like Captain Blakeman, were sea-faring men. Captain Blakeman became a prominent citizen and represented Madison County in the lower branch of the Third and Fourth General Assemblies (1822 and 1824), in the former being one of the opponents of the pro-slavery amendment of the Constitution. A son of his, of the same name, was a Representative in the Thirteenth, Fifteenth and Sixteenth General Assemblies from Madison County.

BLANCHARD, Jonathan, clergyman and educator, was born in Rockingham, Vt., Jan. 19, 1811; graduated at Middlebury College in 1832; then, after teaching some time, spent two years in Andover Theological Seminary, finally graduating in theology at Lane Seminary, Cincinnati, in 1838, where he remained nine years as pastor of the Sixth Presbyterian Church of that city. Before this time he had become interested in various reforms, and, in 1843, was sent as a delegate to the second “World’s Anti-Slavery Convention in London, serving as the American Vice-President of that body. In 1846 he assumed the Presidency of Knox College at Galesburg, remaining until 1858, during his connection with that institution doing much to increase its capacity and resources. After two years spent in pastoral work, he accepted (1860) the Presidency of “Wheaton College, which he continued to fill until 1882, when he was chosen President Emeritus, remaining in this position until his death, May 14, 1892.

BLANDINSVILLE, a town in McDonough County, on the Toledo, Peoria & Warsaw Railroad, 26 miles southeast of Burlington, Iowa, and 64 miles west by south from Peoria. It is a shipping point for the grain grown in the surrounding country, and has a grain elevator and steam flour and saw mills. It also has banks, one weekly newspaper and several churches. Population (1890), 877; (1900), 995; (1910), 987.

BLANEY, Jerome Van Zandt, early physician, born at Newcastle, Del., May 1, 1820; was educated at Princeton and graduated in medicine at Philadelphia when too young to receive his diploma; in 1842 came west and joined Dr. Daniel Brainard in founding Rush Medical College at Chicago, for a time filling three chairs in that institution; also, for a time, occupied the chair of Chemistry and Natural Philosophy in Northwestern University. In 1861 he was appointed Surgeon, and afterwards Medical Director, in the army, and was Surgeon-in-Chief on the staff of General Sheridan at the time of the battle of Winchester; after the war was delegated by the Government to pay off medical officers in the Northwest, in this capacity disbursing over $600,000; finally retiring with the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. Died, Dec. 11, 1874.

BLATCHFORD, Eliphalet Wickes, LL.D., son of Dr. John Blatchford, was born at Stillwater, N. Y., May 31, 1826; being a grandson of Samuel Blatchford, D.D.,who came to New York from England, in 1795. He prepared for college at Lansingburg Academy. New York, and at Marion College, Mo., finally graduating at Illinois College, Jacksonville, in the class of 1845. After graduating, he was employed for several years in the law offices of his uncles, R. M. and E. H. Blatchford, New York. For considerations of health he returned to the West, and, in 1850, engaged in business for himself as a lead manufacturer in St. Louis, Mo., afterwards associating with him the late Morris Collins, under the firm name of Blatchford & Collins. In 1854 a branch was established in Chicago, known as Collins & Blatchford. After a few years the firm was dissolved, Mr. Blatchford taking the Chicago business, which has continued as E. W. Blatchford & Co. to the present time. While Mr. Blatchford has invariably declined political offices, he has been recognized as a staunch Republican, and the services of few men have been in more frequent request for positions of trust in connection with educational and benevolent enterprises. Among the numerous positions of this character which he has been called to fill are those of Treasurer of the Northwestern Branch of the United States Sanitary Commission, during the Civil War, to which he devoted a large part of his time; Trustee of Illinois College (1866-75); President of the Chicago Academy of Sciences; a member, and for seventeen years President, of the Board of Trustees of the Chicago Eye and Ear Infirmary; Trustee of the Chicago Art Institute; Executor and Trustee of the late Walter L. Newberry, and, since its incorporation, President of the Board of Trustees of The Newberry Library; Trustee of the John Crerar Library; one of the founders and President of the Board of Trustees of the Chicago Manual Training School; life member of the Chicago Historical Society; for nearly forty years President of the Board of Directors of the Chicago Theological Seminary; during his residence in Chicago an officer of the New England Congregational Church; a corporate member of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, and for fourteen years its Vice-President; a charter member of the City Missionary Society, and of the Congregational Club of Chicago; a member of the Chicago Union League, the University, the Literary and the Commercial Clubs, of which latter he has been President. Oct. 7, 1858, Mr. Blatchford was married to Miss Mary Emily Williams, daughter of John C. Williams, of Chicago. Seven children – four sons and three daughters – have blessed this union, the eldest son, Paul, being today one of Chicago’s valued business men. Mr. Blatchford’s life has been one of ceaseless and successful activity in business, and to him Chicago owes much of its prosperity. In the giving of time and money for Christian, educational and benevolent enterprises, he has been conspicuous for his generosity, and noted for his valuable counsel and executive ability in carrying these enterprises to success.

BLATCHFORD, John, D.D., was born at Newfield (now Bridgeport), Conn., May 24, 1799; removed in childhood to Lansingburg, N. Y., and was educated at Cambridge Academy and Union College in that State, graduating in 1820. He finished his theological course at Princeton, N. J., in 1823, after which he ministered successively to Presbyterian churches at Pittstown and Stillwater, N. Y., in 1830 accepting the pastorate of the First Congregational Church of Bridgeport, Conn. In 1836 he came to the West, spending the following winter at Jacksonville, Ill., and, in 1837, was installed the first pastor of the First Presbyterian Church of Chicago, where he remained until compelled by failing health to resign and return to the East. In 1841 he accepted the chair of Intellectual and Moral Philosophy at Marion College, Mo., subsequently assuming the Presidency. The institution having been purchased by the Free Masons, in 1844, he removed to West Ely, Mo., and thence, in 1847, to Quincy, Ill., where he resided during the remainder of his life. His death occurred in St. Louis, April 8, 1855. The churches he served testified strongly to Dr. Blatchford’s faithful, acceptable and successful performance of his ministerial duties. He was married in 1825 to Frances Wickes, daughter of Eliphalet Wickes, Esq., of Jamaica, Long Island, N. Y.

BLEDSOE, Albert Taylor, teacher and lawyer, was born in Frankfort, Ky., Nov. 9, 1809; graduated at West Point Military Academy in 1830, and, after two years’ service at Fort Gibson, Indian Territory, retired from the army in 1832. During 1833-34 he was Adjunct Professor of Mathematics and teacher of French at Kenyon College, Ohio, and, in 1835-36, Professor of Mathematics at Miami University. Then, having studied theology, he served for several years as rector of Episcopal churches in Ohio. In 1838 he settled at Springfield, Ill., and began the practice of law, remaining several years, when he removed to Washington, D. C. Later he became Professor of Mathematics, first (1848-54) in the University of Mississippi, and (1854-61) in the University of Virginia. He then entered the Confederate service with the rank of Colonel, but soon became Acting Assistant Secretary of War; in 1863 visited England to collect material for a work on the Constitution, which was published in 1866, when he settled at Baltimore, where he began the publication of “The Southern Review,” which became the recognized organ of the Methodist Episcopal Church South. Later he became a minister of the Methodist Church. He gained considerable reputation for eloquence during his residence in Illinois, and was the author of a number of works on religious and political subjects, the latter maintaining the right of secession; was a man of recognized ability, but lacked stability of character. Died at Alexandria, Va., Dec. 8, 1877.

BLODGETT, Henry Williams, jurist, was born at Amherst, Mass., in 1821. At the age of 10 years he removed with his parents to Illinois, where he attended the district schools, later returning to Amherst to spend a year at the Academy. Returning home, he spent the years 1839-42 in teaching and surveying. In 1842 he began the study of law at Chicago, being admitted to the bar in 1845, and beginning practice at Waukegan, Ill., where he has continued to reside. In 1852 he was elected to the lower house of the Legislature from Lake County, as an anti-slavery candidate, and, in 1858, to the State Senate, in the latter serving four years. He gained distinction as a railroad solicitor, being employed at different times by the Chicago & Northwestern, the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, the Michigan Southern and the Pittsburg & Fort Wayne Companies. Of the second named road he was one of the projectors, procuring its charter, and being identified with it in the several capacities of Attorney, Director and President. In 1870 President Grant appointed him Judge of the United States District Court for the Northern District of Illinois. This position he continued to occupy for twenty-two years, resigning it in 1892 to accept an appointment by President Cleveland as one of the counsel for the United States before the Behring Sea Arbitrators at Paris, bis last official service. Died Feb. 9, 1905.

BLOOMINGDALE, a village of Du Page County, 30 miles west by north from Chicago. Pop. (1880), 226; (1890), 463; (1900), 235; (1910), 462.

BLOOMINGTON, the county-seat of McLean County, a flourishing city and railroad center, 59 miles northeast of Springfield; is in a rich agricultural and coal-mining district. Besides car shops and repair works employing some 2,000 hands, there are manufactories of stoves, furnaces, plows, flour, etc. Nurseries are numerous in the vicinity and horse breeding receives muoh attention. The city is the seat of Illinois Wesleyan University, has fine public schools, several newspapers (two published daily), besides educational and other publications. The business section suffered a disastrous fire in 1900, but has been rebuilt more substantially than before. The principal streets are paved and electric street cars connect with Normal (two miles distant), the site of the “State Normal University” and “Soldiers’ Orphans’ Home.” Pop. (1900), 23,286; (1910), 25,768.

BLOOMINGTON CONVENTION OF 1856. Although not formally called as such, this was the first Republican State Convention held in Illinois, out of which grew a permanent Republican organization in the State. A mass convention of those opposed to the repeal of the Missouri Compromise (known as an “Anti-Nebraska Convention”) was held at Springfield during the week of the State Fair of 1854 (on Oct. 4 and 5), and, although it adopted a platform in harmony with the principles which afterwards became the foundation of the Republican party, and appointed a State Central Committee, besides putting in nomination a candidate for State Treasurer – the only State officer elected that year – the organization was not perpetuated, the State Central Committee failing to organize. The Bloomington Convention of 1856 met in accordance with a call issued by a State Central Committee appointed by the Convention of Anti-Nebraska editors held at Decatur on February 22, 1856. (See Anti-Nebraska Editorial Convention.) The call did not even contain the word “Republican,” but was addressed to those opposed to the principles of the Nebraska Bill and the policy of the existing Democratic administration. The Convention met on May 29, 1856, the date designated by the Editorial Convention at Decatur, but was rather in the nature of a mass than a delegate convention, as party organizations existed in few counties of the State at that time. Consequently representation was very unequal and followed no systematic rule. Out of one hundred counties into which the State was then divided, only seventy were represented by delegates, ranging from one to twenty-five each, leaving thirty counties (embracing nearly the whole of the southern part of the State) entirely unrepresented. Lee County had the largest representation (twenty-five), Morgan County (the home of Richard Yates) coming next with twenty delegates, while Cook County had seventeen and Sangamon had five. The whole number of delegates, as shown by the contemporaneous record, was 269. Among the leading spirits in the Convention were Abraham Lincoln, Archibald Williams, 0. H. Browning, Richard Yates, John M. Palmer, Owen Lovejoy, Norman B. Judd, Burton C. Cook and others who afterwards became prominent in State politics. The delegation from Cook County included the names of John Wentworth, Grant Goodrich, George Schneider, Mark Skinner, Charles H. Ray and Charles L. Wilson. The temporary organization was effected with Archibald Williams of Adams County in the chair, followed by the election of John M. Palmer of Macoupin, as Permanent President. The other officers were: Vice-Presidents – John A. Davis of Stephenson; William Ross of Pike; James McKee of Cook; John H. Bryant of Bureau; A. C. Harding of Warren; Richard Yates of Morgan; Dr. H. C. Johns of Macon; D. L. Phillips of Union; George Smith of Madison; Thomas A. Marshall of Coles; J. M. Ruggles of Mason; G.D. A. Parks of Will, and John Clark of Schuyler. Secretaries – Henry S. Baker of Madison; Charles L. Wilson of Cook; John Tillson of Adams; Washington Bushnell of La Salle, and B. J. F. Hanna of Randolph. A State ticket was put in nomination consisting of William H. Bissell for Governor (by acclamation); Francis A. Hoffman of Du Page County, for Lieutenant-Governor; Ozias M. Hatch of Pike, for Secretary of State; Jesse K. Dubois of Lawrence, for Auditor; James Miller of McLean, for Treasurer, and William H. Powell of Peoria, for Superintendent of Public Instruction. Hoffman, having been found ineligible by lack of residence after the date of naturalization, withdrew, and his place was subsequently filled by the nomination of John Wood of Quincy. The platform adopted was outspoken in its pledges of unswerving loyalty to the Union and opposition to the extension of slavery into new territory. A delegation was appointed to the National Convention to be held in Philadelphia on June 17, following, and a State Central Committee was named to conduct the State campaign, consisting of James C. Conkling of Sangamon County; Asahel Gridley of McLean; Burton C. Cook of La Salle, and Charles H. Ray and Norman B. Judd of Cook. The principal speakers of the occasion, before the convention or in popular meetings held while the members were present in Bloomington, included the names of O. H. Browning, Owen Lovejoy, Abraham Lincoln, Burton C. Cook, Richard Yates, the venerable John Dixon, founder of the city bearing his name, and Governor Reeder of Pennsylvania, who had been Territorial Governor of Kansas by appointment of President Pierce, but had refused to carry out the policy of the administration for making Kansas a slave State. None of the speeches were fully reported, but that of Mr. Lincoln has been universally regarded by those who heard it as the gem of the occasion and the most brilliant of his life, foreshadowing his celebrated “house-divided-against-itself” speech of June 17, 1858. John L. Scripps, editor of “The Chicago Democratic Press,” writing of it, at the time, to his paper, said: “Never has it been our fortune to listen to a more eloquent and masterly presentation of a subject. For an hour and a half he (Mr. Lincoln) held the assemblage spellbound by the power of his argument, the intense irony of his invective, and the deep earnestness and fervid brilliancy of his eloquence. When he concluded, the audience sprang to their feet and cheer after cheer told how deeply their hearts had been touched and their souls warmed up to a generous enthusiasm.” At the election, in November following, although the Democratic candidate for President carried the State by a plurality of over 9,000 votes, the entire State ticket put in nomination at Bloomington was successful by majorities ranging from 3,000 to 20,000 for the several candidates.

BLUE ISLAND, a village of Cook County, on the Calumet River and the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, the Chicago & Grand Trunk and the Illinois Central Railways, 15 miles south of Chicago. It has a high school, churches and two newspapers, besides brick, smelting and oil works. Pop. (1910), 8,043; annexed to city of Chicago, 1911.

BLUE ISLAND RAILROAD, a short line 3.96 miles in length, lying wholly within Illinois; capital stock $25,000; operated by the Illinois Central Railroad Company. Its funded debt (1895) was $100,000 and its floating debt, $3,779.

BLUE MOUND, a town of Macon County, on the Wabash Railway, 14 miles southeast of Decatur; in rich grain and live-stock region; has three grain elevators, two banks, tile factory and one newspaper. Pop. (1900), 714, (1910), 900.

BLUFFS, a village of Scott County, at the junction of the Quincy and Hannibal branches of the Wabash Railway, 52 miles west of Springfield ; has a bank and a newspaper. Population (1880), 162; (1890), 421, (1900), 539; (1910), 766.

BOAL, Robert, M.D., physician and legislator, born near Harrisburg, Pa., in 1806; was brought by his parents to Ohio when five years old and educated at Cincinnati, graduating from the Ohio Medical College in 1828; settled at Lacon, Ill., in 1836, practicing there until 1862, when, having been appointed Surgeon of the Board of Enrollment for that District, he removed to Peoria. Other public positions held by Dr. Boal have been those of Senator in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth General Assemblies (1844-48), Representative in the Nineteenth and Twentieth (1854-58), and Trustee of the Institution for the Deaf and Dumb at Jacksonville, remaining in the latter position seventeen years under the successive administrations of Governors Bissell, Yates, Oglesby, Palmer and Beveridge – the last five years of his service being President of the Board. He was also President of the State Medical Board in 1882. Dr. Boal continued to practice at Peoria until about 1890, when he retired, and, in 1893, returned to Lacon to reside with his daughter, the widow of the late Colonel Greenbury L. Fort, for eight years Representative in Congress from the Eighth District. Died June 12, 1903.

BOARD OF ARBITRATION, a Bureau of the State Government, created by an act of the Legislature, approved August 2, 1895. It is appointed by the Executive and is composed of three members (not more than two of whom can belong to the same political party), one of whom must be an employer of labor and one a member of some labor organization. The term of office for the members first named was fixed at two years; after March 1, 1897, it became three years, one member retiring annually. A compensation of $1,500 per annum is allowed to each member of the Board, while the Secretary, who must also be a stenographer, receives a salary of $1,200 per annum. When a controversy arises between an individual, firm or corporation employing not less than twenty-five persons, and his or its employes, application may be made by the aggrieved party to the Board for an inquiry into the nature of the disagreement, or both parties may unite in the submission of a case. The Board is required to visit the locality, carefully investigate the cause of the dispute and render a decision as soon as practicable, the same to be at once made public. If the application be filed by the employer, it must be accompanied by a stipulation to continue in business, and order no lock-out for the space of three weeks-after its date. In like manner, complaining employes must promise to continue peacefully at work, under existing conditions, for a like period. The Board is granted power to send for persons and papers and to administer oaths to witnesses. Its decisions are binding upon applicants for six months after rendition, or until either party shall have given the other sixty days’ notice in writing of his or their intention not to be bound thereby. In case the Board shall learn that a disagreement exists between employes and an employer having less than twenty-five persons in his employ, and that a strike or lock-out is seriously threatened, it is made the duty of the body to put itself into communication with both employer and employes and endeavor to effect an amicable settlement between them by mediation. The absence of any provision in the law prescribing penalties for its violation leaves the observance of the law, in its present form, dependent upon the voluntary action of the parties interested.

BOARD OF ADMINISTRATION (STATE). By act of the General Assembly, passed June 15, 1909, the Governor was authorized to appoint a State Board of Administration, with power to assume control of the State charitable institutions which had been under supervision of the Board of Public Charities since 1869. The first members of the new Board, with periods for which they were appointed, were: L. Y. Sherman, President (1909-11); Thomas O’Connor and Benj. R. Burroughs (1909-13); James L. Greene and Frank D. Whipp (1909-15), their successors being appointive for terms of six years each. Members of the Commission are required to give all their time to the duties of the office, receiving a salary of $6,000 per annum, with traveling expenses while on duty, and are authorized to exercise executive and administrative control over all State charitable institutions, to assume property rights of previous Boards over such institutions and expend money appropriated by the Legislature for the same; to accept and hold in trust, on behalf of the State, grants, gifts or bequests of money or property for the benefit of the insane in State hospitals, etc. They are charged with the duty of inspecting, investigating and licensing all institutions where persons are under treatment for mental or nervous diseases; have power of appointment or removal of superintendents or managers of the same; are authorized to inspect county jails, city prisons and houses of correction, to examine sanitary conditions and regulate the admission of patients to the same; and to this end it is required that each State institution under their supervision shall be visited at least once per quarter by some member of the Board. The institutions coming under their jurisdiction by this act are: Schools for the Blind and Deaf, Jacksonville; Industrial Home for the Blind, and Eye and Ear Infirmary, Chicago; Institution for Feeble-Minded, Lincoln; Hospitals for the Insane at Jacksonville, Kankakee, Elgin, Anna, Peoria, Watertown and Chester; Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Home, Quincy; Soldiers’ Widows’ Home, Wilmington; Soldiers’ Orphans’ Home, Normal; State Training School for Girls, Geneseo; and St. Charles School for Boys.

AUXILIARY BOARDS. – Two auxiliary bodies, appointive by the Governor, are provided for to act in co-operation with the Board of Administration: First, a Charities Commission consisting of five members, with practically the same power as the former Board of Public Charities. This commission serves without compensation, except for traveling expenses while on duty, is required to investigate the whole system of State charitable institutions, examine into their condition and management and report their findings and recommendations to the Governor. The second is a system of Boards of Visitors, each Board consisting of three members for each State charitable institution, and appointive under the same conditions as members of the Charities Commission, for a term of six years. These Boards are required to make an inspection of the institu – tions under their supervision, for this purpose a majority of each Board, at least once each quarter, visiting such institutions as have the whole State for a district, in other cases at least once a month, and report thereon to the Charities Commission. PSYCHOPATHIC INSTITUTE. – It is also made the duty of the Board of Administration to establish and maintain a State Psychopathic lnstitute, appoint a Director and a Psychologist, who shall perform their duties under direction of the Board, and all State institutions are required to co-operate with the Institute in such manner as the Board may direct – the object being to secure information in reference to mental diseases for the benefit of managers of institutions for the insane. All the employes of the Board of Administration, the Charities Commission and the Psychopathic Institute, except the managing officers, are placed under the civil service law. OTHER BOARDS. – Sketches of other Boards connected with the administration of State affairs will be found on page 448a of this volume, viz.: Boards of Civil Service, of Equalization, of Health, of Pharmacy, of Pardons and Food Commission.

BOGARDUS, Charles, legislator, was born in Cayuga County, N. Y., March 28, 1841, and left an orphan at six years of age; was educated in the common schools, began working in a store at 12, and, in 1862, enlisted in the One Hundred and Fifty-first New York Infantry, being elected First Lieutenant, and retiring from the service as Lieutenant-Colonel “for gallant and meritorious service” before Petersburg. While in the service he participated in some of the most important battles in Virginia, and was once wounded and once captured. In 1872 he located in Ford County, Ill., where he has been a successful operator in real estate. He has been twice elected to the House of Representatives (1884 and ’86) and three times to the State Senate (1888, ’92 and ’96), and has served on the most important committees in each house, and has proved himself one of the most useful members. At the session of 1895 he was chosen President pro tem. of the Senate.

BOGGS, Carroll C., Justice of the Supreme Court, was born in Fairfield, Wayne County, Ill., Oct. 19, 1844, and still resides in his native town; has held the offices of State’s Attorney, County Judge of Wayne County, and Judge of the Circuit Court for the Second Judicial Circuit, being assigned also to Appellate Court duty. In June, 1897, Judge Boggs was elected a Justice of the Supreme Court to succeed Judge David J. Baker, his term to continue until 1906.

BOLTWOOD, Henry L., the son of William and Electa (Stetson) Boltwood, was born at Amherst, Mass., Jan. 17, 1831; fitted for college at Amherst Academy and graduated from Amherst College in 1853. While in college he taught school every winter, commencing on a salary of $4 per week and “boarding round” among the scholars. After graduating he taught in academics at Limerick, Me., and at Pembroke and Derry, N. H., and in the high school at Lawrence, Mass.; also served as School Commissioner for Rockingham County, N. H. In 1864 he went into the service of the Sanitary Commission in the Department of the Gulf, remaining until the close of the war; was also ordained Chaplain of a colored regiment, but was not regularly mustered in. After the close of the war he was employed as Superintendent of Schools at Griggsville, Ill., for two years, and, while there, in 1867, organized the first township high school ever organized in the State, where he remained eleven years. He afterwards organized the township high school at Ottawa, remaining there five years, after which, in 1883, he organized and took charge of the township high school at Evanston, where he has since been employed in his profession as a teacher. Professor Boltwood has been a member of the State Board of Education and has served as President of the State Teachers’ Association. As a teacher he has given special attention to English language and literature, and to history, being the author of an English Grammar, a High School Speller and “Topical Outlines of General History,” besides many contributions to educational journals. He did a great deal of institute work, both in Illinois and Iowa, and was known somewhat as a tariff reformer. Died Jan. 23, 1906.

BOND, Lester L., lawyer, was born at Ravenna, Ohio, Oct. 27, 1829; educated in the common schools and at an academy, meanwhile laboring in local factories; studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1853, the following year coming to Chicago, where he gave his attention chiefly to practice in connection with patent laws. Mr. Bond served several terms in the Chicago City Council, was Republican Presidential Elector in 1868, and served two terms in the General Assembly 1866-70. Died April 15, 1903.

BOND, Shadrach, first Territorial Delegate in Congress from Illinois and first Governor of the State, was born in Maryland, and, after being liberally educated, removed to Kaskaskia while Illinois was a part of the Northwest Territory. He served as a member of the first Territorial Legislature (of Indiana Territory) and was the first Delegate from the Territory of Illinois in Congress, serving from 1812 to 1814. In the latter year he was appointed Receiver of Public Moneys; he also held a commission as Captain in the War of 1812. On the admission of the State, in 1818, he was elected Governor, and occupied the executive chair until 1822. Died at Kaskaskia, April 13, 1832. – Shadrach Bond, Sr., an uncle of the preceding, came to Illinois in 1781 and was elected Delegate from St. Clair County (then comprehending all Illinois) to the Territorial Legislature of Northwest Territory, in 1799, and, in 1804, to the Legislative Council of the newly organized Territory of Indiana.

BOND COUNTY, a small county lying northeast from St. Louis, having an area of 380 square miles and a population (1910) of 17,075. The first American settlers located here in 1807, coming from the South, and building Hill’s and Jones’s forts for protection from the Indians. Settlement was slow, in 1816 there being scarcely twenty-five log cabins in the county. The county-seat is Greenville, where the first cabin was erected in 1815 by George Davidson. The county was organized in 1817, and named in honor of Gov. Shadrach Bond. Its original limits included the present counties of Clinton, Fayette and Montgomery. The first court was held at Perryville, and, in May, 1817. Judge Jesse B. Thomas presided over the first Circuit Court at Hill’s Station. The first court house was erected at Greenville in 1822. The county contains good timber and farming lands, and at some points, coal is found near the surface.

BONNEY, Charles Carroll, lawyer and reformer, was born in Hamilton, N. Y., Sept. 4, 1831; educated at Hamilton Academy and settled in Peoria, Ill., in 1850, where he pursued the avocation of a teacher while studying law; was admitted to the bar in 1852, but removed to Chicago in 1860, where he was afterwards engaged in practice; served as President of the National Law and Order League in New York in 1885, being repeatedly re-elected, and had also been President of the Illinois State Bar Association, as well as a member of the American Bar Association. Among the reforms which he advocated were the constitutional prohibition of special legislation; an extension of equity practice to bankruptcy and other law proceedings; civil service pensions; State Boards of labor and capital, etc. He also published some treatises in book form, chiefly on legal questions, besides editing a volume of “Poems by Alfred W. Arrington, with a sketch of his Character” (1869). As President of the World’s Congresses Auxiliary, in 1893, Mr. Bonney contributed largely to the success of that very interesting and important feature of the great Columbian Exposition. Died Aug. 23, 1903.

BOONE, Levi D., M. D., early physician, was born near Lexington, Ky., December, 1808 – a descendant of the celebrated Daniel Boone; received the degree of M. D. from Transylvania University and came to Edwardsville, Ill., at an early day, afterwards locating at Hillsboro and taking part in the Black Hawk War as Captain of Cavalry company; came to Chicago in 1836 and engaged in the insurance business, later resuming the practice of his profession, served several terms as Alderman and was elected Mayor in 1860 by a combination of temperance men and Know Nothings; acquired a large property by operations in real estate. Died February 1882.

BOONE COUNTY, the smallest of the “northern tier” of conties, having an area of only 288 square miles, and population (1910) of 15,481. Its surface is chiefly rolling prairie, and the principal products are oats and corn. The settlers came from New York and New England, and among them were included Medkiff, Dunham, Caswell, Cline, Towner, Doty and Whitney. Later (after the Pottawattomies had evacuated the country), came the Shattuck brothers. Maria Hollenbeck and Mrs. Bullard, Oliver Hale, Nathaniel Crosby, Dr. Whiting, H. C. Walker, and the Neeley and Mahoney families. Boone County was cut off from Winnebago, and organized in 1837, being named in honor of Kentucky’s pioneer. The first frame house in the county was erected by S. F. Doty and stood for fifty years in the village of Belvidere on the north side of the Kishwaukee River. The county-seat (Belvidere) was platted in 1837, and an academy built soon after. The first Protestant church was a Baptist society under the pastorate of Rev. Dr. King.

B0URB0NNAIS, a village of Kankakee County, on the Illinois Central Railroad, 5 miles north of Kankakee. Pop. (1900), 595; (1910), 611.

BOUTELL, Henry Sherman, lawyer and Congressman, was born in Boston, Mass., March 14, 1856, graduated from the Northwestern University at Evanston, Ill., in 1874, and from Harvard in 1876; was admitted to the bar in Illinois in 1879, and to that of the Supreme Court of the United States in 1885. In 1884 Mr. Boutell was elected to the lower branch of the Thirty-fourth General Assembly and was one of the “103” who, in the long struggle during the following session, participated in the election of Gen. John A. Logan to the United States Senate for the last time. At a special election held in the Sixth Illinois District in November, 1897, he was elected Representative in Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the sudden death of his predecessor, Congressman Edward D. Cooke, and at the regular election of 1898 was re-elected to the same position, receiving a plurality of 1,116 over his Democratic competitor and a majority of 719 over all.

BOUTON, Nathaniel S., manufacturer, was born in Concord, N. H., May 14, 1828; in his youth farmed and taught school in Connecticut, but in 1852 came to Chicago and was employed by a foundry firm, of which he soon afterwards became a partner, in the manufacture of car-wheels and railway castings. Later he became associated with the American Bridge Company’s works, which was sold to the Illinois Central Railroad Company in 1857, when he bought the Union Car Works, which he operated until 1863. He then became the head of the Union Foundry Works, which having been consolidated with the Pullman Car Works in 1886, he retired, organizing the Bouton Foundry Company. Mr. Bouton was a Republican, was Commissioner of Public Works for the city of Chicago two terms before the Civil War, and served as Assistant Quartermaster in the Eighty-eighth Illinois Infantry from 1862 until after the battle of Chickamauga. Died April 3, 1908.

BOYD, Thomas A., was born in Adams County, Pa., June 25, 1830, and graduated at Marshall College, Mercersburg, Pa., at the age of 18; studied law at Chambersburg and was admitted to the bar at Bedford in his native State, where he practiced until 1856, when he removed to Illinois. In 1861 he abandoned his practice to enlist in the Seventeenth Illinois Infantry, in which he held the position of Captain. At the close of the war he returned to his home at Lewistown, and, in 1866, was elected State Senator and re-elected at the expiration of his term in 1870, serving in the Twenty-fifth, Twenty-sixth and Twenty-seventh General Assemblies., He was also a Republican Representative from his District in the Forty-fifth and Forty-sixth Congresses (1877-81). Died, at Lewistown, May 28, 1897.

BRACEVILLE, a town in Grundy County, 61 miles by rail southwest of Chicago. Coal mining is the principal industry. The town has two banks, two churches and good public schools. Pop. (1890), 2,150; (1900), 1,669; (1910), 971.

BRADFORD, village of Stark County, on Buda and Rushville branch Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railway; is in excellent farming region and has large grain and live-stock trade, excellent high school building, fine churches, good hotels and one newspaper. Pop. (1910), 770.

BRADSBY, William H., pioneer and Judge, was born in Bedford County, Va., July 12, 1787. He removed to Illinois early in life, and was the first postmaster in Washington County (at Covington), the first school-teacher and the first Circuit and County Clerk and Recorder. At the time of his death he was Probate and County Judge. Besides being Clerk of all the courts, he was virtually County Treasurer, as he had custody of all the county’s money. For several years he was also Deputy United States Surveyor, and in that capacity surveyed much of the south part of the State, as far east as “Wayne and Clay Counties. Died at Nashville, Ill., August 21, 1839.

BRADWELL, James Bolesworth, lawyer and editor, was born at Loughborough, England, April 16, 1828, and brought to America in infancy, his parents locating in 1829 or ’30 at Utica, N. Y. In 1833 they emigrated to Jacksonville, Ill., but the following year removed to Wheeling, Cook County, settling on a farm, where the younger Bradwell received his first lessons in breaking prairie, splitting rails and tilling the soil. His first schooling was obtained in a country log-schoolhouse, but, later, he attended the Wilson Academy in Chicago, where he had Judge Lorenzo Sawyer for an instructor. He also took a course in Knox College at Galesburg, then a manual-labor school, supporting himself by working in a wagon and plow shop, sawing wood, etc. In May, 1852, he was married to Miss Myra Colby, a teacher, with whom he went to Memphis, Tenn., the same year, where they engaged in teaching a select school, the subject of this sketch meanwhile devoting some attention to reading law. He was admitted to the bar there, but after a stay of less than two years in Memphis, returned to Chicago and began practice. In 1861 he was elected County Judge of Cook County, and re-elected four years later, but declined a re-election in 1869. The first half of his term occurring during the progress of the Civil War, he had the opportunity of rendering some vigorous decisions which won for him the reputation of a man of courage and inflexible independence, as well as an incorruptible champion of justice. In 1872 he was elected to the lower branch of the Twenty-eighth General Assembly from Cook County, and re-elected in 1874. He was again a candidate in 1882, and by many believed to have been honestly elected, though his opponent received the certificate. He made a contest for the seat, and the majority of the Committee on Elections reported in his favor; but he was defeated through the treachery and suspected corruption of a professed political friend. He is the author of the law making women eligible to school offices in Illinois and allowing them to become Notaries Public, and had always been a champion for equal rights for women in the professions and as citizens. He was a Second Lieutenant of the One Hundred and Fifth Regiment, Illinois Militia, in 1848; presided over the American Woman’s Suffrage Association at its organization in Cleveland; served as President of the Chicago Press Club, of the Chicago Bar Association, and, for a number of years, as Historian of the latter; was one of the founders and President of the Union League Club, besides being associated with many other social and business organizations. He was identified in a business capacity with “The Chicago Legal News,” founded by his wife in 1868, and after her death became its editor. Judge Bradwell’s death occurred Nov. 29, 1907. – Myra Colby (Bradwell), the wife of Judge Bradwell, was born at Manchester, Vt., Feb. 12, 1831 – being descended on her mother’s side from the Chase family to which Bishop Philander Chase and Salmon P. Chase, the latter Secretary of the Treasury and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court by appointment of Abraham Lincoln, belonged. In infancy she was brought to Portage, N. Y., where she remained until she was twelve years of age, when her family removed west. She attended school in Kenosha, Wis., and a seminary at Elgin, afterwards being engaged in teaching. On May 18, 1852, she was married to Judge Bradwell, almost immediately going to Memphis, Tenn., where, with the assistance of her husband, she conducted a select school for some time, also teaching in the public schools, when they returned to Chicago. In the early part of the Civil War she took a deep interest in the welfare of the soldiers in the field and their families at home, becoming President of the Soldiers’ Aid Society, and was a leading spirit in the Sanitary Fairs held in Chicago in 1863 and in 1865. After the war she commenced the study of law and, in 1868, began the publication of “The Chicago Legal News,” with which she remained identified until her death – also publishing biennially an edition of the session laws after, each session of the General Assembly. After passing a most creditable examination, application was made for her admission to the bar in 1871, but denied in an elaborate decision rendered by Judge C. B. Lawrence of the Supreme Court of the State, on the sole ground of sex, as was also done by the Supreme Court of the United States in 1873, on the latter occasion Chief Justice Chase dissenting. She was finally admitted to the bar on March 28, 1892, and was the first lady member of the State Bar Association. Other organizations with which she was identified embraced the Illinois State Press Association, the Board of Managers of the Soldiers’ Home (in war time), the “Illinois Industrial School for Girls” at Evanston, the Washingtonian Home, the Board of Lady Managers of the World’s Columbian Exposition, and Chairman of the Woman’s Committee on Jurisprudence of the World’s Congress Auxiliary of 1893. Although much before the public during the latter years of her life, she never lost the refinement and graces which belong to a true woman. Died, at her home in Chicago, Feb. 14, 1894.

BRAIDWOOD, a city in Will County, incorporated in 1860; is 58 miles from Chicago, on the Chicago & Alton Railroad; an important coalmining point, and in the heart of a rich agricultural region. It has a bank and a weekly paper. Pop. (1000), 3,279; (1910), 1,958.

BRANSON, Nathaniel W., lawyer, was born in Jacksonville, Ill., May 29, 1837; was educated in the private and public schools of that city and at Illinois College, graduating from the latter in 1867; studied law with David A. Smith, a prominent and able lawyer of Jacksonville, and was admitted to the bar in January, 18G0, soon after establishing himself in practice at Petersburg, Menard County, where he continued to reside. In 1867 Mr. Branson was appointed Register in Bankruptcy for the Springfield District – a position which he held thirteen years. He was also elected Representative in the General Assembly in 1872, by re-election in 1874 serving four years in the stormy Twenty-eighth and Twenty-ninth General Assemblies; was a Delegate from Illinois to the National Republican Convention of 1876, and served for several years most efficiently as a Trustee of the State Institution for the Blind at Jacksonville, part of the time as President of the Board. Politically a conservative Republican, and in no sense an office-seeker, the official positions assigned to him came unsought and in recognition of his fitness and qualifications. Died Feb. 21, 1907.

BRAYMAN, Mason, lawyer and soldier, was born in Buffalo, N. Y., May 23, 1813; brought up as a farmer, became a printer and edited “The Buffalo Bulletin,” 1834-35; studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1836; removed west in 1837, was City Attorney of Monroe, Mich., in 1838 and became editor of “The Louisville Advertiser” in 1841. In 1842 he opened a law office in Springfield, Ill., and the following year was appointed by Governor Ford a commissioner to adjust the Mormon troubles, in which capacity he rendered valuable service. In 1844-45 he was appointed to revise the statutes of the State. Later he devoted much attention to railroad enterprises, being attorney of the Illinois Central Railroad, 1851-55; then projected the construction of a railroad from Bird’s Point, opposite Cairo, into Arkansas, which was partially completed before the war, and almost wholly destroyed during that period. In 1861 he entered the service as Major of the Twenty-ninth Illinois Volunteers, taking part in a number of the early battles, including Fort Donelson and Shiloh; was promoted to a colonelcy for meritorious conduct at the latter, and for a time served as Adjutant-General on the staff of General McClernand; was promoted Brigadier-General in September, 1862, at the close of the war receiving the brevet rank of Major-General. After the close of the war he devoted considerable attention to reviving his railroad enterprises in the South; edited “The Illinois State Journal,” 1872-73; removed to Wisconsin and was appointed Governor of Idaho in 1876, serving four years, after which he returned to Ripon, Wis. Died, in Kansas City, Feb. 27, 1895.

BREESE, a village in Clinton County, on Baltimore & Ohio S. W. Railway, 39 miles east of St. Louis; has coal mines, water system, bank and weekly newspaper. Pop. (1910), 2,128.

BREESE, Sidney, statesman and jurist, was born at Whitesboro, N. Y., (according to the generally accepted authority) July 15, 1800. Owing to a certain sensitiveness about his age in his later years, it has been exceedingly difficult to secure authentic data on the subject; but his arrival at Kaskaskia in 1818, after graduating at Union College, and his admission to the bar in 1820, have induced many to believe that the date of his birth should be placed somewhat earlier. He was related to some of the most prominent families in New York, including the Livingstons and the Morses, and, after his arrival at Kaskaskia, began the study of law with his friend Elias Kent Kane, afterwards United States Senator. Meanwhile, having served as Postmaster at Kaskaskia, he became Assistant Secretary of State, and, in December, 1820, superintended the removal of the archives of that office to Vandalia, the new State capital. Later he was appointed Prosecuting Attorney, serving in that position from 1822 till 1827, when he became United States District Attorney for Illinois. He was the first official reporter of the Supreme Court, issuing its first volume of decisions; served as Lieutenant-Colonel of volunteers during the Black Hawk “War (1832); in 1835 was elected to the circuit bench, and, in 1841, was advanced to the Supreme bench, serving less than two years, when he resigned to accept a seat in the United States Senate, to which he was elected in 1843 as the successor of Richard M. Young, defeating Stephen A. Douglas in the first race of the latter for the office. While in the Senate (1843-49) he served as Chairman of the Committee on Public Lands, and was one of the first to suggest the construction of a transcontinental railway to the Pacific. He was also one of the originators and active promoters in Congress of the Illinois Central Railroad enterprise. He was Speaker of the Illinois House of Representatives in 1851; again became Circuit Judge in 1855 and returned to the Supreme bench in 1857 and served more than one term as Chief Justice, the last being in 1873-74. His home during most of his public life in Illinois was at Carlyle. His death occurred at Pinckneyville, June 28, 1878.

BRENTANO, Lorenzo, was born at Mannheim, in the Grand Duchy of Baden, Germany, Nov. 14, 1813; was educated at the Universities of Heidelberg and Freiburg, receiving the degree of LL.D., and attaining high honors, both professional and political. He was successively a member of the Baden Chamber of Deputies and of the Frankfort Parliament, and always a leader of the revolutionist party. In 1849 he became President of the Provisional Republican Government of Baden, but was, before long, forced to find an asylum in the United States. He first settled in Kalamazoo County, Mich., as a farmer, but, in 1859, removed to Chicago, where he was admitted to the Illinois bar, but soon entered the field of journalism, becoming editor and part proprietor of “The Illinois Staats Zeitung.” He held various public offices, being elected to the Legislature in 1862, serving five years as President of the Chicago Board of Education, was a Republican Presidential Elector in 1868, and United States Consul at Dresden in 1872 (a general amnesty having been granted to the participants in the revolution of 1848), and Representative in Congress from 1877 to 1879. Died, in Chicago, Sept. 17, 1891.

BRIDGEPORT, a town of Lawrence County, on the Baltimore & Ohio S. W. Railroad, 14 miles west of Vincennes, Ind., in oil field; has a bank and one weekly paper. Pop. (1900), 487; (1910), 2,703.

BRIDGEPORT, a former suburb (now a part of the city) of Chicago, located at the junction of the Illinois & Michigan Canal with the South Branch of the Chicago River. It is now the center of the large slaughtering and packing industry.

BRIDGEPORT & SOUTH CHICAGO RAILWAY. (See Chicago & Northern Pacific Railroad.)

BRIGHTON, a village of Macoupin County, at the intersection of the Chicago & Alton and the Rock Island and St. Louis branch of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railways; coal is mined here; has a newspaper. Population (1880), 691; (1890), 742; (1900), 660; (1910), 595.

BRIMFIELD, a town of Peoria County, on the Buda and Rushville branch of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railway, 38 miles south of Buda; coal-mining and farming are the chief industries. It has one weekly paper and a bank. Pop. (1890), 719; (1900), 677; (1910), 576.

BRISTOL, Frank Milton, clergyman, was born in Orleans County, N. Y., Jan. 4, 1851; came to Kankakee, Ill., in boyhood, and having lost his father at 12 years of age, spent the following years in various manual occupations until about nineteen years of age, when, having been converted, he determined to devote his life to the ministry. Through the aid of a benevolent lady, he was enabled to get two years’ (1870-72) instruction at the Northwestern University, at Evanston, afterwards supporting himself by preaching at various points, meanwhile continuing his studies at the University until 1877. After completing his course he served as pastor of some of the most prominent Methodist churches in Chicago, his last charge in the State being at Evanston. In 1897 he was transferred to Washington City, becoming pastor of the Metropolitan M. E. Church, attended by President McKinley Dr. Bristol is an author of some repute and an orator of recognized ability.

BROADWELL, Norman M., lawyer, was born in Morgan County, Ill., August 1, 1825; was educated in the common schools and at McKendree and Illinois Colleges, but compelled by failing health to leave college without graduating; spent some time in the book business, then began the study of medicine with a view to benefiting his own health, but finally abandoned this and, about 1850, commenced the study of law in the office of Lincoln & Herndon at Springfield. Having been admitted to the bar, he practiced for a time at Pekin, but, in 1854, returned to Springfield, where he spent the remainder of his life. In 1860 he was elected as a Democrat to the House of Representatives from Sangamon County, serving in the Twenty-second General Assembly. Other offices held by him included those of County Judge (1863-65) and Mayor of the city of Springfield, to which last position he was twice elected (1867 and again in 1869). Judge Broadwell was one of the most genial of men, popular, high-minded and honorable in all his dealings. Died, in Springfield, Feb. 28, 1893.

BROOKS, John Flavel, educator, was born in Oneida County, New York, Dec. 3, 1801; graduated at Hamilton College, 1828; studied three years in the theological department of Yale College; was ordained to the Presbyterian ministry in 1831, and came to Illinois in the service of the American Home Missionary Society. After preaching at Collinsville, Belleville and other points, Mr. Brooks, who was a member of the celebrated “Yale Band,” in 1837 assumed the principalship of a Teachers’ Seminary at Waverly, Morgan County, but three years later removed to Springfield, where he established an academy for both sexes. Although finally compelled to abandon this, he continued teaching with some interruptions to within a few years of his death, which occurred in 1886. He was one of the Trustees of Illinois College from its foundation up to his death.

BROSS, William, journalist, was born in Sussex County, N. J., Nov. 14, 1813, and graduated with honors from Williams College in 1838, having previously developed his physical strength by much hard work upon the Delaware and Hudson Canal, and in the lumbering trade. For five years after graduating he was a teacher, and settled in Chicago in 1848. There he first engaged in bookselling, but later embarked in journalism. His first publication was “The Prairie Herald,” a religious paper, which was discontinued after two years. In 1852, in connection with John L. Scripps, he founded “The Democratic Press,” which was consolidated with “The Tribune” in 1858, Mr. Bross retaining his connection with the new concern. He was always an ardent free-soiler, and a firm believer in the great future of Chicago and the Northwest. He was an enthusiastic Republican, and, in 1856 and 1860, served as an effective campaign orator. In 1864 he was the successful nominee of his party for Lieutenant-Governor. This was his only official position outside of a membership in the Chicago Common Council in 1855. As a presiding officer, he was dignified yet affable, and his impartiality was shown by the fact that no appeals were taken from his decisions. After quitting public life he devoted much time to literary pursuits, delivering lectures in various parts of the country. Among his best known works are a brief “History of Chicago,” “History of Camp Douglas,” and “Tom Quick.” Died, in Chicago, Jan. 27, 1890.

BROWN, Henry, lawyer and historian, was born at Hebron, Tolland County, Conn., May 13, 1789 – the son of a commissary in the army of General Greene of Revolutionary fame; graduated at Yale College, and, when of age, removed to New York, later studying law at Albany, Canandaigua and Batavia, and being admitted to the bar about 1813, when he settled down in practice at Cooperstown; in 1816 was appointed Judge of Herkimer County, remaining on the bench until about 1824. He then resumed practice at Cooperstown, continuing until 1836, when he removed to Chicago. The following year he was elected a Justice of the Peace, serving two years, and, in 1842, became Prosecuting Attorney of Cook County. During this period he was engaged in writing a “History of Illinois,” which was published in New York in 1844. This was regarded at the time as the most voluminous and best digested work on Illinois history that had as yet been published. In 1846, on assuming the Presidency of the Chicago Lyceum, he delivered an inaugural entitled “Chicago, Present and Future,” which is still preserved as a striking prediction of Chicago’s future greatness. Originally a Democrat, he became a Freesoiler in 1848. Died of cholera, in Chicago, May 16, 1849.

BROWN, James B., journalist, was born in Gilmanton, Belknap County, N. H., Sept. 1, 1833 – his father being a member of the Legislature and Selectman for his town. The son was educated at Gilmanton Academy, after which he studied medicine for a time, but did not graduate. In 1857 he removed West, first settling at Dunleith, Jo Daviess County, Ill., where he became Principal of the public schools; in 1861 was elected County Superintendent of Schools for Jo Daviess County, removing to Galena two years later and assuming the editorship of “The Gazette” of that city. Mr. Brown also served as Postmaster of Galena for several years. Died, Feb. 13, 1896.

BROWN, James N., agriculturist and stockman, was born in Fayette County, Ky., Oct. 1, 1806; came to Sangamon County, Ill., in 1833, locating at Island Grove, where he engaged extensively in farming and stock-raising. He served as Representative in the General Assemblies of 1840, ’42, ’46, and ’52, and in the last was instrumental in securing the incorporation of the Illinois State Agricultural Society, of which he was chosen the first President, being re-elected in 1854. He was one of the most enterprising growers of blooded cattle in the State and did much to introduce them in Central Illinois; was also an earnest and influential advocate of scientific education for the agricultural classes and an efficient colaborer with Prof. J. B. Turner, of Jacksonville, in securing the enactment by Congress, in 1862, of the law granting lands for the endowment of Industrial Colleges, out of which grew the Illinois State University and institutions of like character in other States. Died, Nov. 16, 1868.

BROWN, William, lawyer and jurist, was born June 1, 1819, in Cumberland, England, his parents emigrating to this country when he was eight years old, and settling in Western New York. He was admitted to the bar at Rochester, in October, 1845, and at once removed to Rockford, Ill., where he commenced practice. In 1852 he was elected State’s Attorney for the Fourteenth Judicial Circuit, and, in 1857, was chosen Mayor of Rockford. In 1870 he was elected to the bench of the Circuit Court as successor to Judge Sheldon, later was promoted to the Supreme Court, and was re-elected successively in 1873, in ’79 and ’85. Died, at Rockford, Jan. 15, 1891.

BROWN, William H., lawyer and financier, was born in Connecticut, Dec. 20, 1796; spent his boyhood at Auburn, N. Y., studied law, and, in 1818, came to Illinois with Samuel D. Lockwood (afterwards a Justice of the State Supreme Court), descending the Ohio River to Shawneetown in a flat-boat. Mr. Brown visited Kaskaskia and was soon after appointed Clerk of the United States District Court by Judge Nathaniel Pope, removing, in 1820, to Vandalia, the new State capital, where he remained until 1835. He then removed to Chicago to accept the position of Cashier of the Chicago branch of the State Bank of Illinois, which he continued to fill for many years. He served the city as School Agent for thirteen years (1840-53), managing the city’s school fund through a critical period with great discretion and success. He was one of the group of early patriots who successfully resisted the attempt to plant slavery in Illinois in 1823-24; was also one of the projectors of the Chicago & Galena Union Railroad, was President of the Chicago Historical Society for seven years and connected with many other local enterprises. He was an ardent personal friend of President Lincoln and served as Representative in the Twenty-second General Assembly (1860-62). While making a tour of Europe he died of paralysis at Amsterdam, June 17, 1867.

BROWN COUNTY, situated in the western part of the State, with an area of 306 square miles, and a population (1890) of 11,951; was cut off from Schuyler and made a separate county in May, 1839, being named in honor of Gen. Jacob Brown. Among the pioneer settlers were the Vandeventers and Hambaughs, John and David Six, William McDaniel, Jeremiah Walker, Willis O’Neil, Harry Lester, John Ausmus and Robert H. Curry. The county-seat is Mount Sterling, a town of no little attractiveness. Other prosperous villages are Mound Station and Ripley. The chief occupation of the people is farming, although there is some manufacturing of lumber and a few potteries along the Illinois River. Pop. (1900), 11,557; (1910), 10,397.

BROWNE, Francis Fisher, editor and author, was born in South Halifax, Vt., Dec. 1, 1843, the son of William Goldsmith Browne, who was a teacher, editor and author of the song “A Hundred Years to Come.” In childhood he was brought by his parents to Western Massachusetts, where he attended the public schools and learned the printing trade in his father’s newspaper office at Chicopee, Mass. Leaving school in 1862, he enlisted in the Forty-sixth Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers, in which he served one year, chiefly in North Carolina and in the Army of the Potomac. On the discharge of his regiment he engaged in the study of law at Rochester, N. Y., entering the law department of the University of Michigan in 1866, but abandoning his intenton of entering the legal profession, removed to Chicago in 1867, where he engaged in journalistic and literary pursuits. Between 1869 and ’74 he was editor of “The Lakeside Monthly,” when he became literary editor of “The Alliance,” but, in 1880, he established and assumed the editorship of “The Dial,” a purely literary publication which has gained a high reputation, and of which he has remained in control continuously ever since, meanwhile serving as the literary adviser, for many years, of the well-known publishing house of McClurg & Co. Besides his journalistic work, Mr. Browne has contributed to the magazines and literary anthologies a number of short lyrics, and is the author of “The Everyday Life of Abraham Lincoln” (1886), and a volume of poems entitled, “Volunteer Grain” (1893). He also compiled and edited “Golden Poems by British and American Authors” (1881); “The Golden Treasury of Poetry and Prose” (1886), and the “Laurel Crowned” series of standard poetry (1891-92). Mr. Browne was Chairman of the Committee of the Congress of Authors in the World’s Congress Auxiliary held in connection with The Columbian Exposition in 1893.

BROWNE, Thomas C., early jurist, was born in Kentucky, studied law there and, coming to Shawneetown in 1812, served in the lower branch of the Second Territorial Legislature (1814-16) and in the Council (1816-18), being the first lawyer to enter that body. In 1815 he was appointed Prosecuting Attorney and, on the admission of Illinois as a State, was promoted to the Supreme bench, being re-elected by joint ballot of the Legislature in 1825, and serving continuously until the reorganization of the Supreme Court under the Constitution of 1848, a period of over thirty years. Judge Browne’s judicial character and abilities have been differently estimated. Though lacking in industry as a student, he is represented by the late Judge John D. Caton, who knew him personally, as a close thinker and a good judge of men. While seldom, if ever, accustomed to argue questions in the conference room or write out his opinions, he had a capacity for expressing himself in short, pungent sentences, which indicated that he was a man of considerable ability and had clear and distinct views of his own. An attempt was made to impeach him before the Legislature of 1843 “for want of capacity to discharge the duties of his office,” but it failed by an almost unanimous vote. He was a Whig in politics, but had some strong supporters among Democrats. In 1822 Judge Browne was one of the four candidates for Governor – in the final returns standing third on the list and, by dividing the vote of the advocates of a pro-slavery clause in the State Constitution, contributing to the election of Governor Coles and the defeat of the pro-slavery party. (See Coles, Edward, and Slavery and Slave Laws.) In the latter part of his official term Judge Browne resided at Galena, but, in 1853, removed with his son-in-law, ex-Congressman Joseph P. Hoge, to San Francisco, Cal., where he died a few years later – probably about 1856 or 1858.

BROWNING, Orville Hickman, lawyer, United States Senator and Attorney-General, was born in Harrison County, Ky., in 1810. After receiving a classical education at Augusta in his native State, he removed to Quincy, Ill., and wras admitted to the bar in 1831. In 1832 he served in the Black Hawk War, and from 1836 to 1843, was a member of the Legislature, serving in both houses. A personal friend and political adherent of Abraham Lincoln, he aided in the organization of the Republican party at the memorable Bloomington Convention of 1856. As a delegate to the Chicago Convention in 1860, he aided in securing Mr. Lincoln’s nomination, and was a conspicuous supporter of the Government in the Civil War. In 1861 he wras appointed by Governor Yates United States Senator to fill Senator Douglas’ unexpired term, serving until 1863. In 1866 he became Secretary of the Interior by appointment of President Johnson, also for a time discharging the duties of Attorney-General. Returning to Illinois, he was elected a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1869-70, which was his last participation in public affairs, his time thereafter being devoted to his profession. He died at his home in Quincy, Ill., August 10, 1881.

BRYAN, Silas Lillard, legislator and jurist, born in Culpepper County, Va., Nov. 4, 1822; was left an orphan at an early age, and came west in 1840, living for a time with a brother near Troy, Mo. The following year he came to Marion County, Ill., where he attended school and worked on a farm; in 1845 entered McKendree College, graduating in 1849, and two years later was admitted to the bar, supporting himself meanwhile by teaching. He settled at Salem, Ill., and, in 1852, was elected as a Democrat to the State Senate, in which body he served for eight years, being re-elected in 1856. In 1861 he was elected to the bench of the Second Judicial Circuit, and again chosen in 1867, his second term expiring in 1873. While serving as Judge, he was also elected a Delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1869-70. He was an unsuccessful candidate for Congress on the Greeley ticket in 1872. Died at Salem, March 30, 1880. – William Jennings (Bryan), son of the preceding, was born at Salem, Ill., March 19, 1860. The early life of young Bryan was spent on his father’s farm, but at the age of ten years he began to attend the public school in town; later spent two years in Whipple Academy, 4the preparatory department of Illinois College at Jacksonville, and, in 1881, graduated from the college proper as the valedictorian of his class. Then he devoted two years to the study of law in the Union Law School at Chicago, meanwhile acting as clerk and studying in the law office of ex-Senator Lyman Trumbull. Having graduated in law in 1883, he soon entered upon the practice of his profession at Jacksonville as the partner of Judge E. P. Kirby, a well-known lawyer and prominent Republican of that city. Four years later (1887) found him a citizen of Lincoln, Neb., which has since been his home. He took a prominent part in the politics of Nebraska, stumping the State for the Democratic nominees in 1888 and ’89, and in 1890 received the Democratic nomination for Congress in a district which had been regarded as strongly Republican, and was elected by a large majority. Again, in 1892, he was elected by a reduced majority, but two years later declined a renomination, though proclaiming himself a free-silver candidate for the United States Senate, meanwhile officiating as editor of “The Omaha World-Herald.” In July, 1896, he received the nomination for President from the Democratic National Convention at Chicago, on a platform declaring for the “free and unlimited coinage of silver” at the ratio of sixteen of silver (in weight) to one of gold, and a few weeks later was nominated by the “Populists” at St. Louis for the same office – being the youngest man ever put in nomination for the Presidency in the history of the Government. He conducted an active personal campaign, speaking in nearly every Northern and Middle Western State, but was defeated by his Republican opponent, Maj. William McKinley. Mr. Bryan is an easy and fluent speaker, possessing a voice of unusual compass and power, and is recognized, even by his political opponents, as a man of pure personal character.

BRYAN, Thomas Barbour, lawyer and real estate operator, was born at Alexandria, Va., Dec. 22, 1828, being descended on the maternal side from the noted Barbour family of that State; graduated in law at Harvard, and, at the age of twenty-one, settled in Cincinnati. In 1852 he came to Chicago, where he acquired extensive real estate interests and built Bryan Hall, which became a popular place for entertainments. Being a gifted speaker, as well as a zealous Unionist, Mr. Bryan was chosen to deliver the address of welcome to Senator Douglas, when that statesman returned to Chicago a few weeks before his death in 1861. During the progress of the war he devoted his time and his means most generously to fitting out soldiers for the field and caring for the sick and wounded. His services as President of the great Sanitary Fair in Chicago (1865), where some $300,000 were cleared for disabled soldiers, were especially conspicuous. At this time he became the purchaser (at $3,000) of the original copy of President Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation, which had been donated to the cause. He also rendered valuable service after the fire of 1871, though a heavy sufferer from that event, and was a leading factor in securing the location of the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1890, later becoming Vice-President of the Board of Directors and making a visit to Europe in the interest of the Fair. After the war Mr. Bryan resided in Washington for some time, and, by appointment of President Hayes, served as Commissioner of the District of Columbia. Possessing refined literary and artistic tastes, he has done much for the encouragement of literature and art in Chicago. His home was at Elmhurst, Ill. Died Jan. 25, 1906. – Charles Page (Bryan), son of the preceding, lawyer and foreign minister, was born in Chicago, Oct. 2, 1855, and educated at the University of Virginia and Columbia Law School; was admitted to practice in 1878, and the following year removed to Colorado, where he remained four years, while there serving in both Houses of the State Legislature. In 1883 he returned to Chicago and became a member of the First Regiment of the Illinois National Guard, serving upon the staff of both Governor Oglesby and Governor Fifer; in 1890, was elected to the State Legislature from Cook County, being re-elected in 1892, and in 1894; was also the first Commissioner to visit Europe in the interest of the World’s Columbian Exposition, on his return serving as Secretary of the Exposition Commissioners in 1891-92. In the latter part of 1897 he was appointed by President McKinley Minister to China, but before being confirmed, early in 1898, was assigned as Minister to Brazil, serving until 1902; has since served in similar capacity in Switzerland (1902-03), Portugal (1903-10), Belgium (1910-11); in 1911 was appointed Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Japan.

BRYANT, John Howard, pioneer, brother of William Cullen Bryant, the poet, was born in Cummington, Mass., July 22, 1807, educated at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, N. Y,; removed to Illinois in 1831, and held various offices in Bureau County, including that of Representative in the General Assembly, to which he was elected in 1842, and again in 1858. A practical and enterprising farmer, he was identified with the Illinois State Agricultural Society in its early history, as also with the movement which resulted in the establishment of industrial colleges in the various States. He was one of the founders of the Republican party and a warm personal friend of President Lincoln, being a member of the first Republican State Convention at Bloomington in 1856, and serving as Collector of Internal Revenue by appointment of Mr. Lincoln in 1862-64. In 1872 Mr. Bryant joined in the Liberal Republican movement at Cincinnati, two years later was identified with the “Independent Reform” party, but later co-operated with the Democratic party. He produced two volumes of poems, published, respectively, in 1855 and 1885, besides a number of public addresses. Died at his home at Princeton, Ill., Jan. 14, 1902.

BUCK, Hiram, clergyman, was born in Steuben County, N. Y., in 1818; joined the Illinois Methodist Episcopal Conference in 1843, and continued in its service for nearly fifty years, being much of the time a Presiding Elder. At his death he bequeathed a considerable sum to the endowment funds of the Wesleyan University at Bloomington and the Illinois Conference College at Jacksonville. Died at Decatur, Ill., August 22, 1892.

BUDA,a village in Bureau County, at the junction of the main line with the Buda and Rushville branch of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, and the Sterling and Peoria branch of the Chicago & Northwestern, 12 miles southwest of Princeton and 117 miles west-southwest of Chicago; has excellent water-works, electric-light plant, brick and tile factory, fine churches, graded school, a bank and one newspaper Dairying is carried on quite extensively and a good-sized creamery is located here. Population (1890), 990; (1900), 873; (1910), 887.

BUF0RD, Napoleon Bonaparte, banker and soldier, was born in Woodford County, Ky., Jan. 13,1807; graduated at West Point Military Academy, 1827, and served for some time as Lieutenant of Artillery; entered Harvard Law School in 1831, served as Assistant Professor of Natural and Experimental Philosophy there (1834-35), then resigned his commission, and, after some service as an engineer upon public works in Kentucky, established himself as an iron-founder and banker at Rock Island, Ill., in 1857 becoming President of the Rock Island & Peoria Railroad. In 1861 he entered the volunteer service, as Colonel of the Twenty-seventh Illinois, serving at various points in Western Kentucky and Tennessee, as also in the siege of Vicksburg, and at Helena, Ark., where he was in command from September, 1863, to March, 1865. In the meantime, by promotion, he attained to the rank of Major-General by brevet, being mustered out in August, 1865. He subsequently held the post of Special United States Commissioner of Indian Affairs (1868), and that of Inspector of the Union Pacific Railroad (1867-69). Died, March 28, 1883.

BULKLEY, (Rev.) Justus, educator, was born at Leicester, Livingston County, N. Y., July 23, 1819, taken to Allegany County, N. Y., at 3 years of age, where he remained until 17, attending school in a log school-house in the winter and working on a farm in the summer. His family then removed to Illinois, finally locating at Barry, Pike County. In 1842 he entered the preparatory department of Shurtleff College at Upper Alton, graduating there in 1847. He was immediately made Principal of the preparatory department, remaining two years, when he was ordained to the Baptist ministry and became pastor of a church at Jerseyville. Four years later he was appointed Professor of Mathematics in Shurtleff College, but remained only two years, when he accepted the pastorship of a church at Carrollton, which he continued to fill nine years, when, in 1864, he was called to a church at Upper Alton. At the expiration of one year he was again called to a professorship in Shurtleff College, this time taking the chair of Church History and Church Polity, which he continued to fill for a period of thirty-four years; also serving for a time as Acting President during a vacancy in that office. During this period he was frequently called upon to preside as Moderator at General Associations of the Baptist Church, and he became widely known, not only in that denomination, but elsewhere. Died at Upper Alton, Jan. 16, 1899.

BULL, Lorenzo, banker, Quincy, Ill., was born in Hartford, Conn., March 21, 1819, being the eldest son of Lorenzo and Elizabeth Goodwin Bull. His ancestors on both sides were of the party who, under Thomas Hooker, moved from the vicinity of Boston and settled Hartford in 1634. Leaving Hartford in the spring of 1833, he arrived at Quincy, Ill., entirely without means, but soon after secured a position with Judge Henry H. Snow, who then held most of the county offices, being Clerk of the County Commissioners’ Court, Clerk of the Circuit Court, Recorder, Judge of Probate, Notary Public and Justice of the Peace. Here the young clerk made himself acquainted with the people of the county (at that time few in number), with the land-system of the country and with the legal forms and methods of procedure in the courts. He remained with Judge Snow over two years, receiving for his services, the first year, six dollars per month, and, for the second, ten dollars per month, besides his board in Judge Snow’s family. He next accepted a situation with Messrs. Holmes, Brown & Co., then one of the most prominent mercantile houses of the city, remaining through various changes of the firm until 1844, when he formed a partnership with his brother under the firm name of L. & C. H. Bull, and opened a store for the sale of hardware and crockery, which was the first attempt made in Quincy to separate the mercantile business into different departments. Disposing of their business in 1861, the firm of L. & C. H. Bull embarked in the private banking business, which they continued in one location for about thirty years, when they organized the State Savings Loan & Trust Company, in which he held the position of President until 1898, when he retired. Mr. Bull has always been active in promoting the improvement and growth of the city; was one of the five persons who built most of the horse railroads in Quincy, and was, for about twenty years, President of the Company. The Quincy waterworks were sometime owned entirely by himself and his son. He never sought or held political office, but at one time was the active President of five distinct business corporations. He was also for some five years one of the Trustees of Illinois College at Jacksonville. He was married in 1844 to Miss Margaret H. Benedict, daughter of Dr. Wm. M. Benedict, of Milbury, Mass., and they had five children. In politics he was a Republican, and in religious associations a Congregationalism. Died Mar. 2, 1905. – Charles Henry (Bull), brother of the preceding, was born in Hartford, Conn., Dec. 16, 1822, and removed to Quincy, Ill., in June, 1837. He commenced business as a clerk in a general store, where he remained for seven years, when he entered into partnership with his brother, Lorenzo Bull, in the hardware and crockery business, to which was subsequently added dealing in agricultural implements. This business was continued until the year 1861. wThen it was sold out, and the brothers established themselves as private oankers under the same firm name. A few years later they organized the Merchants1 and Farmers’ National Bank, which was mainly owned and altogether managed by them. Five or six years later this bank was wound tip, when they returned to private banking, continuing in this business until 1891, when it was merged in the State Savings Loan & Trust Company, organized under the laws of Illinois with a capital of $300,000, held equally by Lorenzo Bull, Charles H. Bull and Edward J. Parker, respectively, as President, Vice-President and Cashier. Near the close of 1898 the First National Bank of Quincy was merged into the State Savings Loan & Trust Company with J. H. Warfield, the President of the former, as President of the consolidated concern. Mr. Bull was one of the parties who originally organized the Quincy, Missouri & Pacific Railroad Company in 1869 – a road intended to be built from Quincy, Ill., across the State of Missouri to Brownsville, Neb., and of which he was (1898) the President, the name having been changed to the Quincy, Omaha & Kansas City Railway. He was also identified with the construction of the system of street railways in Quincy, and continued active in their management for about twenty years. He was also active in various other public and private enterprises, and has done much to advance the growth and prosperity of the city. Died Nov. 27, 1908.

BUNKER HILL, a city of Macoupin County, on the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad, 37 miles northeast of St. Louis; has electric-lighting plant, telephone service, coal mine, flouring mill, wagon and various other manufactories, two banks, two newspapers, opera house, numerous churches, public library, a military academy and fine public schools, and many handsome residences; is situated on high ground in a rich agricultural and dairying region and an important shipping-point. Pop. (1910), 1,046.

BUNN, Jacob, banker and manufacturer, was born in Hunterdon County, N. J., in 1814; came to Springfield in 1836, and, four years later, began business as a grocer, to which he afterwards added that of private banking, continuing until 1878. During a part of this time his bank was one of the best known and widely regarded as one of the most solid institutions of its kind in the State. Though crippled by the financial revulsion of 1873-74 and forced investments in depreciated real estate, he paid dollar for dollar. After retiring from banking in 1878, he assumed charge of the Springfield Watch Factory, in which he was a large stockholder, and of which he became the President. Mr. Bunn was, between 1866 and 1870, a principal stockholder in “The Chicago Republican” (the predecessor of “The Inter-Ocean”), and was one of the bankers who came to the aid of the State Government with financial assistance at the beginning of the Civil War. Died at Springfield, Oct. 16, 1897. – John W. (Bunn), brother of the preceding and successor to the grocery business of J. & J. W. Bunn, has been a prominent business man of Springfield. Served many years as Treasurer of the State Agricultural Board and of Illinois State University; is now President of the Marine Bank, Springfield.

BUNSEN, George, German patriot and educator, was born at Frankfort-on-the-Maine, Germany, Feb. 18, 1794, and educated in his native city and at Berlin University; while still a student took part in the Peninsular War which resulted in the downfall of Napoleon, but resuming his studies in 1816, graduated three years later. He then founded a boys’ school at Frankfort, which he maintained fourteen years, when, having been implicated in the republican revolution of 1833, he was forced to leave the country, locating the following year on a farm in St. Clair County, Ill. Here he finally became a teacher in the public schools, served in the State Constitutional Convention of 1847, was elected School Commissioner of St. Clair County, and, having removed to Belleville in 1855, there conducted a private school for the instruction of teachers while discharging the duties of his office; later was appointed a member of the first State School Board, serving until 1860, and taking part in the establishment of the Illinois State Normal University, of which he was a zealous advocate. He was also a contributor to “The Illinois Teacher,” and, for several years prior to his death, served as Superintendent of Schools at Belleville without compensation. Died, November, 1872.

BURCHARD, Horatio C., ex Congressman, was born at Marshall, Oneida County, N. Y., Sept. 22, 1825; graduated at Hamilton College, N. Y., in 1850, and later removed to Stephenson County, Ill., making his home at Freeport. By profession he was a lawyer, but had also been largely interested in mercantile pursuits. From 1857 to 1860 he was School Commissioner of Stephenson County; from 1863 to 1866 a member of the State Legislature, and from 1869 to 1879 a Representative in Congress, being each time elected as a Republican, for the first time as the successor of E. B. Washburne. After retiring from Congress, he served for six years (1879-85) as Director of the United States Mint at Philadelphia, with marked ability. During the World’s Columbian Exposition at Chicago (1893), Mr. Burchard was in charge of the Bureau of Awards in connection with the Mining Department, afterwards resuming practice of his profession. Died Mar. 14, 1908.

BURDETTE, Robert Jones, journalist and humorist, was born in Greensborough, Pa., July 30,1844, and taken to Peoria, Ill., in early life, where he was educated in the public schools. In 1862 he enlisted as a private in the Forty-seventh Illinois Volunteers and served to the end of the war; adopted journalism in 1869, being employed upon “The Peoria Transcript” and other papers of that city. Later he became associated with “The Burlington (Iowa) Hawkeye,” upon which he gained a wide reputation as a genial humorist. Several volumes of his sketches have been published, but in recent years he has devoted his attention chiefly to lecturing, with occasional contributions to the literary press.

BUREAU COUNTY, set off from Putnam County in 1837, near the center of the northern half of the State, Princeton being made the county-seat. Coal had been discovered in 1834, there being considerable quantities mined at Mineral and Selby. Sheffield also has an important coal trade. Public lands were offered for sale as early as 1835, and by 1844 had been nearly all sold. Princeton was platted in 1832, and, in 1890, contained a population of 3,396. The county has an area of 846 square miles, and, according to the census of 1910, a population of 43,975. The pioneer settler was Henry Thomas, who erected the first cabin, in Bureau township, in 1828. He was soon followed by the Ament brothers (Edward, Justus and John L.), and for a time settlers came in rapid succession, among the earliest being Amos Leonard. Daniel Dimmick, John Hall, William Hoskins, Timothy Perkins, Leonard Roth, Bulbona and John Dixon. Serious Indian disturbances in 1831 caused a hegira of the settlers, some of whom never returned. In 1833 a fort was erected for the protection of the whites, and, in 1836, there began a new and large influx of immigrants. Among other early settlers were John H. and Arthur Bryant, brothers of the poet, William Cullen Bryant.

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS, established in 1879, being an outgrowth of the agitation and discontent among the laboring classes, which culminated in 1877-78. The Board consists of five Commissioners, who serve for a nominal compensation, their term of office being two years. They are nominated by the Executive and confirmed by the Senate. The law requires that three of them shall be manual laborers and two employers of manual labor. The Bureau is charged with the collection, compilation and tabulation of statistics relative to labor in Illinois, particularly in its relation to the commercial, industrial, social, educational and sanitary conditions of the working classes. The Commission is required to submit biennial reports. Those already published contain much information of value concerning coal and lead mines, convict labor, manufactures, strikes and lockouts, wages, rent, cost of living, mortgage indebtedness, and kindred topics.

BURGESS, Alexander, Protestant Episcopal Bishop of the diocese of Quincy, was born at Providence, R. I., Oct. 31, 1819. He graduated from Brown University in 1838 and from the General Theological Seminary (New York) in 1841. He was made a Deacon, Nov. 3, 1842, and ordained a priest, Nov. 1, 1843. Prior to his elevation to the episcopate he was rector of various parishes in Maine, at Brooklyn, N. Y., and at Springfield, Mass. He represented the dioceses of Maine, Long Island and Massachusetts in the General Conventions of the Protestant Episcopal Church from 1844 to 1877, and, in the latter year, was President of the House of Deputies. Upon the death of his brother George, Bishop of Maine, he was chosen by the clergy of the diocese to succeed him but declined. When the diocese of Quincy, Ill., was created, he was elected its first Bishop, and consecrated at Christ Church, Springfield, Mass., on May 15, 1878. Besides publishing a memoir of his brother. Bishop Burgess is the author of several Sunday-school question books, carols and hymns, and has been a contributor to periodical church literature. His residence is at Peoria.

BURLEY, Arthur Oilman, merchant, was born at Exeter, N. H., Oct. 4, 1812, received his education in the local schools, and, in 1835, came West, locating in Chicago. For some two years he served as clerk in the boot, shoe and clothing store of John Holbrook, after which he accepted a position with his half-brother, Stephen F. Gale, the proprietor of the first book and stationery store in Chicago. In 1838 he invested his savings in a bankrupt stock of crockery, purchased from the old State Bank, and entered upon a business career which was continued uninterruptedly for nearly sixty years. In that time Mr. Burley built up a business which, for its extent and success, was unsurpassed in its time in the West. His brother in-law, Mr. John Tyrrell, became a member of the firm in 1852, the business thereafter being conducted under the name of Burley & Tyrrell, with Mr. Burley as President of the Company until his death, which occurred, August 27, 1897. – Augustus Harris (Burley), brother of the preceding, was born at Exeter, N. H., March 28, 1819; was educated in the schools of his native State, and, in his youth, was employed for a time as a clerk in Boston. In 1837 he came to Chicago and took a position as clerk or salesman in the book and stationery store of his half-brother, Stephen F. Gale, subsequently became a partner, and, on the retirement of Mr. Gale a few years later, succeeded to the control of the business. In 1857 he disposed of his book and stationery business, and about the same time became one of the founders of the Merchants’ Loan and Trust Company, with which he was connected as a Director several years. Mr. Burley was a member of the volunteer fire department organized in Chicago in 1841. Among the numerous public positions held by him may be mentioned, member of the Board of Public Works (1867-70), the first Superintendent of Lincoln Park (1869), Eepresentative from Cook County in the Twenty-seventh General Assembly (1870-72), City Comptroller during the administration of Mayor Medill (1872-73), and again under Mayor Roche (1887), and member of the City Council (1881-82). Politically, Mr. Burley had been a zealous Republican and served on the Chicago Union Defense Committee in the first year of the Civil War, and was a delegate from the State-at-large to the National Republican Convention at Baltimore in 1864, which nominated Abraham Lincoln for the Presidency a second time. Died Nov. 27, 1903.

BURNHAM, Daniel Hudson, architect, was born at Henderson, N. Y., Sept. 4, 1846; came to Chicago at 9 years of age; attended private schools and the Chicago High School, after which he spent two years at Waltham, Mass., receiving special instruction; returning to Chicago in 1867, he was afterwards associated with various firms. About 1873 he formed a business connection with J. W. Root, architect, which extended to the death of the latter in 1891. The firm of Burnham & Root furnished the plans of a large number of the most conspicuous business buildings in Chicago, but won their greatest distinction in connection with the construction of buildings for the World’s Columbian Exposition, of which Mr. Root was Supervising Architect previous to his death, while Mr. Burnham was made Chief of Construction and, later, Director of Works. In this capacity his authority was almost absolute, but was used with a discretion that contributed greatly to the success of the enterprise.

BURR, Albert G., former Congressman, was born in Genesee County, N. Y., Nov. 8, 1829; came to Illinois about 1832 with his widowed mother, who settled in Springfield. In early life he became a citizen of Winchester, where he read law and was admitted to the bar, also, for a time, following the occupation of a printer. Here he was twice elected to the lower house of the General Assembly (1860 and 1862), meanwhile serving as a member of the State Constitutional Convention of 1862. Having removed to Carrollton, Greene County, he was elected as a Democrat to the Fortieth and Forty-first Congresses (1866 and 1868), serving until March 4, 1871. In August, 1877, he was elected Circuit Judge to fill a vacancy and was re-elected for the regular term in June, 1879, but died in office, June 10, 1882.

BURRELL, Orlando, member of Congress, was born in Bradford County, Pa.; removed with his parents to White County, Ill., in 1834, growing up on a farm near Carmi; received a common school education; in 1850 went to California, driving an ox-team across the plains. Soon after the beginning of the Civil War (1861) he raised a company of cavalry, of which he was elected Captain, and which became a part of the First Regiment Illinois Cavalry; served as County Judge from 1873 to 1881, and was elected Sheriff in 1886. In 1894 he was elected Representative in Congress as a Republican from the Twentieth District, composed of counties which formerly constituted a large part of the old Nineteenth District, and which had uniformly been represented by a Democrat. He suffered defeat as a candidate for re-election in 1896.

BURROUGHS, John Curtis, clergyman and educator, was born in Stamford, N. Y., Dec. 7, 1818; graduated at Yale College in 1842, and Madison Theological Seminary in 1846. After five years spent as pastor of Baptist churches at Waterford and West Troy, N. Y., in 1852 he assumed the pastorate of the First Baptist Church of Chicago; about 1856 was elected to the presidency of the Chicago University, then just established, having previously declined the presidency of Shurtleff College at Upper Alton. Resigning his position in 1874, he soon after became a member of the Chicago Board of Education, and, in 1884, was elected Assistant Superintendent of Public Schools of that city, serving until his death, April 21, 1892.

BUSEY, Samuel T., banker and ex-Congressman, was born at Greencastle, Ind., Nov. 16, 1835; in infancy was brought by his parents to Urbana, Ill., where he was educated and has since resided. From 1857 to 1859 he was engaged in mercantile pursuits, but during 1860-61 attended a commercial college and read law. In 1862 he was chosen Town Collector, but resigned to enter the Union Army, being commissioned Second Lieutenant by Governor Yates, and assigned to recruiting service. Having aided in the organization of the Seventy-sixth Illinois Volunteers, he was commissioned its Lieutenant-Colonel, August 12, 1862; was afterward promoted to the colonelcy, and mustered out of service at Chicago, August 6, 1865, with the rank of Brevet Brigadier-General. In 1866 he was an unsuccessful candidate for the General Assembly on the Democratic ticket; and for Trustee of the State University in 1888. From 1880 to 1889 he was Mayor and President of the Board of Education of Urbana. In 1867 he opened a private bank, which he conducted for twenty-one years. In 1890 he was elected to Congress from the Fifteenth Illinois District, defeating Joseph G. Cannon, Republican, by whom he was in turn defeated for the same office in 1892. Died Aug. 12, 1909.

BUSHNELL, a flourishing city and manufacturing center in McDonough County, 11 miles northeast of Macomb, at the junction of two branches of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy with the Toledo, Peoria & Western Railroads; has numerous manufactories, including wooden pumps, flour, agricultural implements, wagons and carriages, tank and fence-work, rural mail boxes, mattresses, brick, besides egg and poultry packing houses; also has water-works and electric lights, grain elevators, three banks, several churches, graded public and high schools, two newspapers and a public library. Pop. (1910), 2,619.

BUSHNELL, Nehemiah, lawyer, was born in the town of Westbrook, Conn., Oct. 9, 1813, graduated at Yale College in 1835, studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1837, coming in December of the same year to Quincy, Ill., where, for a time, he assisted in editing “The Whig” of that city, later forming a partnership with O. H. Browning, which was never fully broken until his death. In his practice he gave much attention to land titles in the “Military Tract”; in 1851 was President of the portion of the Northern Cross Railroad between Quincy and Galesburg (now a part of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy), and later of the Quincy Bridge Company and the Quincy & Palmyra (Mo.) Railroad. In 1872 he was elected by the Republicans the “minority” Representative from Adams County in the Twenty-eighth General Assembly, but died during the succeeding session, Jan. 31, 1873. He was able, high-minded and honorable in public and private life.

BUSHNELL, Washington, lawyer and Attorney-General, was born in Madison County, N. Y., Sept. 30, 1825; in 1837 came with his father to Lisbon, Kendall County, Ill., where he worked on a farm and taught at times; studied law at Poughkeepsie, N. Y., was admitted to the bar and established himself in practice at Ottawa, Ill. The public positions held by him were those of State Senator for La Salle County (1861-69) and Attorney-General (1869-73); was also a member of the Republican National Convention of 1864, besides being identified with various business enterprises at Ottawa. Died, June 30, 1885.

BUTLER, William, State Treasurer, was born in Adair County, Ky., Dec. 15, 1797; during the war of 1812, at the age of 16 years, served as the messenger of the Governor of Kentucky, carrying dispatches to Gen. William Henry Harrison in the field; removed to Sangamon County, Ill., in 1828, and, in 1836, was appointed Clerk of the Circuit Court by Judge Stephen T. Logan. In 1859 he served as foreman of the Grand Jury which investigated the “canal scrip frauds” charged against ex-Governor Matteson, and it was largely through his influence that the proceedings of that body were subsequently published in an official form. During the same year Governor Bissell appointed him State Treasurer to fill a vacancy caused by the resignation of James Miller, and he was elected to the same office in 1860. Mr. Butler was an ardent supporter of Abraham Lincoln, whom he efficiently befriended in the early struggles of the latter in Springfield. He died in Springfield, Jan. 11, 1876.

BUTTERFIELD, Justin, early lawyer, was born at Keene, N. H., in 1790. He studied at “Williams College, and was admitted to the bar at Watertown, N. Y., in 1812. After some years devoted to practice at Adams and at Sackett’s Harbor, N. Y., he removed to New Orleans, where he attained a high rank at the bar. In 1835 he settled in Chicago and soon became a leader in his profession there also. In 1841 he was appointed by President Harrison United States District Attorney for the District of Illinois, and, in 1849, by President Taylor Commissioner of the General Land Office, one of his chief competitors for the latter place being Abraham Lincoln. This distinction he probably owed to the personal influence of Daniel Webster, then Secretary of State, of whom Mr. Butterfield was a personal friend and warm admirer. While Commissioner, he rendered valuable service to the State in securing the canal land grant. As a lawyer he was logical and resourceful, as well as witty and quick at repartee, yet his chief strength lay before the Court rather than the jury. Numerous stories are told of his brilliant sallies at the bar and elsewhere. One of the former relates to his address before Judge Nathaniel Pope, of the United States Court at Springfield, in a habeas-corpus case to secure the release of Joseph Smith, the Mormon prophet, who was under arrest under the charge of complicity in an attempt to assassinate Governor Boggs of Missouri. Rising to begin his argument, Mr. Butterfield said: “I am to address the Pope” (bowing to the Court), “surrounded by angels” (bowing still lower to a party of ladies in the audience), “in the presence of the holy apostles, in behalf of the prophet of the Lord.” On another occasion, being asked if he was opposed to the war with Mexico, he replied, “I opposed one war” – meaning his opposition as a Federalist to the War of 1812 – “but learned the folly of it. Henceforth I am for war, pestilence and famine.” He died, Oct. 25, 1855.

BYFORD, William H., physician and author, was born at Eaton, Ohio, March 20, 1817; in 1830 came with his widowed mother to Crawford County, Ill., and began learning the tailor’s trade at Palestine; later studied medicine at Vincennes and practiced at different points in Indiana. Meanwhile, having graduated at the Ohio Medical College, Cincinnati, in 1850, he assumed a professorship in a Medical College at Evansville, Ind., also editing a medical journal. In 1857 he removed to Chicago, where he accepted a chair in Rush Medical College, but two years later became one of the founders of the Chicago Medical College, where he remained twerty years. He then (1879) returned to Rush, assuming the chair of Gynecology. In 1870 he assisted in founding the Woman’s Medical College of Chicago, remaining President of the Faculty and Board of Trustees until his death, May 21,1890. He published a number of medical works which are regarded as standard by the profession, besides acting as associate of Dr. N. S. Davis in the editorship of “The Chicago Medical Journal” and as editor-in-chief of “The Medical Journal and Examiner,” the successor of the former. Dr. Byford was held in the highest esteem as a physician and a man, both by the general public and his professional associates.

BYRON, a village of Ogle County, in a picturesque region on Rock River, at junction of the Chicago Great Western and the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railways, 83 miles west-northwest from Chicago; is in rich farming and dairying district; has two banks and one weekly paper. Population (1890), 698; (1900), 1,015; (1910), 932.


Source: Biographical and Memorial Edition of the Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois, Volume I, by Newton Bateman, LL.D. and Paul Selby, A. M. and Special Authors and Contributors. Chicago: Munsell Publishing Company Publishers, 1915.