Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans.
Vol. I-X. Rossiter Johnson, editor. Boston MA: The Biographical Society. 1904.

McARTHUR, John, soldier, was born in Erskine, Scotland, Nov. 17, 1826; son of John and Isabella (Neilson) McArthur. He attended the public schools and worked in his father’s blacksmith shop until 1849. He was married in 1848 to Christina Cuthbertson, of Erskine, Scotland; immigrated to the United States in 1849 and obtained employment in Chicago, Ill., in 1849 as a boiler-maker and subsequently established a business of his own. He was captain of the “Highland Guards” attached to the state militia, and in 1861 they volunteered and reported at Springfield, where he was elected and commissioned colonel of the 12th Illinois volunteers. He commanded the 1st brigade, 2d division of the army under Gen. U. S. Grant, at the assault on Fort Donelson, Feb. 14, 1862, and he was promoted brigadier-general, March 21, 1862. He commanded the 2d brigade, 2d division, Army of the Tennessee at the battle of Shiloh, April 6-7, 1862, where he was wounded. He commanded the 1st brigade, 6th division, Army of the Tennessee, at Corinth, Oct. 3-4, 1862, and the 6th division, 17th corps, Army of the Tennessee, during the Vicksburg campaign, May 1 to July 4, 1863. He was in command of the 1st division of A. J. Smith’s detachment of the Army of the Tennessee in the battle of Nashville, Dec. 15-16, 1864, and on Dec. 16, impatient at the delay in the attack, McArthur received Smith’s silent approval to charge the hill in front of General Couch’s command, which that commander had been refused the privilege of charging, and withdrawing McMillen’s brigade from the trenches, he marched it by flank in front of Couch’s position and charged the hill with fixed bayonets. The hill was capped by a redoubt manned by Bate’s division and mounted with Whitworth’s guns, and in the face of tremendous fire McArthur, without firing a shot, gained the summit and planted the flag. His gallantry won for him the brevet of major-general. He was president of the board of commissioners of public works of Chicago during the fire of 1871; postmaster of the city, 1873-77, and in in 1901 he was a retired manufacturer.

McCLERNAND, John Alexander, representative, was born near Hardinsburg, Ky., May 30, 1812, the only son of Dr. John and Fatima (Cummins) Seaton McClernand, and grandson of Alexander McClernand, of Antrim, Ireland. His father, a political exile, left Ireland in 1801, landed in Philadelphia Pa., and settled near Hardinsburg, Ky., from whence he removed in 1813 to Shawneetown, Ill., where he died in 1816. Johnwas brought up on a farm, studied law under Henry Eddy, 1829-32, and was admitted to the bar. In 1832 he volunteered for service in the Black Hawk war and engaged in trading on the Ohio and Mississippi river, 1833-34. He resumed his law practice and established the Democrat at Shawneetown, Ill., in 1835, and was a representative in the Illinois legislature, 1836-42, where he defended President Jackson against an attack by Governor Duncan. He was married in 1843 to Sarah, daughter of Colonel Dunlap, of Jacksonville, Ill. He was appointed by the legislature commissioner and treasurer of the Illinois and Michigan canal. He was a presidential elector on the Van Buren and Johnson ticket in 1840, and a Democratic representative from Illinois in the 28th, 29th, 30th, 31st, 36th and 37th congresses, 1843-51, and 1859-61. He resigned his seat in the 37th congress to enter the U.S. volunteer army, He raised a brigade made up of Illinois men with the aid of N. B. Buford, John A. Logan and Philip B. Fouke, and was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers by President Lincoln in 1861. At the battle of Belmont he commanded the 1st brigade of Grant’s army, and at the capture of Fort Donelson the 1st division made up of Oglesby’s, W. H. L. Wallace’s and William R. Morrison’s brigades. He was promoted major-general of volunteers, March 21, 1862. He commanded the 1st division, Army of the Tennessee, at the battle of Shiloh, April 6-7, 1862. In the Vicksburg campaign, May 1-July 4, 1863, he commanded the 13th army corps. He took part in the engagements at Port Gibson, April 30 to May 1, 1862; Champion Hills, May 16, 1863; and Black River Bridge, May 17, 1863, and at the siege of Vicksburg. He was charged by General Grant with not supporting the troops engaged in the battle of Champion Hills, and his action caused General Grant to countermand an order he had given General Hovey on the field, and McClernand was relieved of his command soon after the surrender of Vicksburg. He was reinstated by President Lincoln, Jan. 31, 1864, but resigned from the army on account of ill health, Nov. 30, 1864, and resumed the practice of law at Springfield, Ill., in 1865. He was circuit judge for the Sangamon district, 1870-73; chairman of the Democratic national convention at St. Louis, Mo., in 1876, and was appointed a member of the Utah commission by President Cleveland in 1886. He died in Springfield, Ill., Sept. 20, 1900.

McCOOK, Henry Christopher, clergyman, was born in New Lisbon, Ohio, July 3, 1837; third son of Dr. John and Catharine Julia (Sheldon) McCook. He attended the public schools of his native town and learned the printer’s trade. He was graduated from Jefferson college, Pa., in 1859; taught school in New Lisbon, Salem and Steubenville, Ohio, 1859-60, and was graduated from the Western Theological seminary in 1863. He was married, Sept. 11, 1861, to Emma C., daughter of Dr. George and Anna (Crowe) Herter. He was licensed and ordained by the presbytery of Steubenville in 1861, and was a home missionary in Illinois and Missouri. He assisted in organizing the 41st Illinois volunteer regiment, in which he enlisted as 1st lieutenant in 1861, and served subsequently as chaplain. In 1862 he left the service and returned to Clinton, Ill., as pastor of the Presbyterian church. He served as city missionary in St. Louis, Mo., until 1869, when he became pastor of the Tabernacle Presbyterian church of Philadelphia. He was chaplain of the 2d regiment, Pennsylvania volunteer infantry, during the Spanish-American war, and served in Santiago de Cuba with the 5th army corps on special duty. He was the founder of the National Relief commission for the Spanish-American war. He was elected president of the American Society of Entomology; vice-president of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and president of the American Presbyterian Historical society. Lafayette college conferred upon him the honorary degree of D.D. in 1880, and that of Sc.D. in 1888. His published books include: Object and Outline Teaching (1870); Teacher’s Commentary on the Last Year of Our Lord’s Ministry (1871); The Lost Days of Jesus (1872); Historic Ecclesiastical Emblems of Pan-Presbyterianism (1880); The Women Friends of Jesus (1884); The Latimers, a Scotch-Irish Historical Romance of the Western Insurrection (1899); The Martial Graves of our Fallen Heroes in Santiago de Cuba (1899). He also edited the “Tercentenary Book” (1873). His most widely known works are those on Natural History of the Agricultural Ant of Texas (1880); The Mound-Making Ants of the Alleghanies (1877); Honey and Occident Ants (1882); Tenants of an Old Farm (1884); American Spiders and Their Spinning-Works (Vols. I., II., III., folio, 1888).

McCOOK, Latimer A., surgeon and soldier, was born at Canonsburg, Pa., April 26, 1820; eldest son of Maj. Daniel and Martha (Latimer) McCook. He was educated at Jefferson college, Canonsburg, studied medicine with his uncle, Dr. George McCook (q. v.), and received his degree from Jefferson Medical college of Philadelphia. He entered the army in 1861 as assistant surgeon, and was soon promoted surgeon of the 31st Illinois volunteers with the rank of major. He served throughout all the campaigns of the Army of the Tennessee, and while caring for the wounded of his regiment, during action, he was himself twice wounded; once in the trenches before Vicksburg, and again at Pocotaligo Bridge, S.C., in General Sherman’s movement northward from Savannah, after the march to the sea. He survived the war, but was broken down in health and died from general debility, resulting from wounds and exposure incident to his service in the army, at his home, Pekin, Ill., Aug. 23, 1869.

McDOUGALL, James Alexander, senator, was born in Bethlehem, N.Y., Nov. 19, 1817. He attended the grammar school of Albany, studied law, and removed to Pike county, Ill., in 1837, where he was admitted to practice. He was attorney-general of Illinois, 1842-46; engaged in engineering, and originated and accompanied an exploring expedition through New Mexico and Arizona to California. He settled in San Francisco, where he practiced law, was attorney-general of California, 1850-52; a representative in the state legislature for several terms, a Democratic representative in the 32d congress, 1851-53, and U.S. senator, 1861-67, where he served as chairman of the committee on the Pacific railroad. He was a delegate from California to the Democratic national convention at Chicago, Aug. 29, 1864. At the close of his senatorial term he retired to Albany, N.Y., where he died Sept. 3, 1867.

McKEE, George Colin, representative, was born in Joliet, Ill., Oct. 2, 1836 or 1837. He attended the academic department of Knox college and took a partial collegiate course at the Illinois Liberal institute, 1852-54. He was admitted to the bar in 1858, practiced in Centralia, Ill., where he also held the office of city attorney, 1858-61. He enlisted in April, 1861, in the 11th Illinois infantry for three months, and upon the reorganization of the regiment for three years’ service he became captain of a company. He was wounded at Fort Donelson, at Sbiloh and at Vicksburg. At Vicksburg, his regiment in Reed’s brigade, McArthur’s division, McPherson’s corps, lost heavily, Lieut.-Col. Garrett Nevins, in command, being killed. In the Red River campaign He was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers and enrolled and equipped the 1st brigade, corps d’Afrique, composed of the 1st, 3d, 12th and 22d colored infantry attached to Banks’s army. At the close of the war he settled in Vicksburg, Miss., where he practiced law, and engaged in planting in Madison county, Miss. He was a member of the Mississippi constitutional convention in 1867, was register in bankruptcy and was elected a representative to the 40th congress, 1867-69, but the state was refused representation, he was a representative from the fifth Mississippi district is the 41st, 42d and 43d congresses, serving from Feb. 23, 1870, to March 4, 1875. He subsequently removed to Jackson, Miss., where He practiced law and was postmaster. He died in Jackson, Miss., Nov. 17, 1890.

McKEEGHAN, William Arthur, representative, was born in Cumberland county, N.J., Jan. 19, 1842. His parents removed to Fulton county, Ill., in 1848, where he lived on a farm and attended the public schools. He served throughout the civil war in the 11th Illinois cavalry regiment, and in 1865 settled in Pontiac, Ill., where he engaged in agriculture. He was one of the organizers of the Farmers’ Association and was elected vice-president for the eighth congressional district. He removed to Nebraska in 1880, and settled on a farm near Red Cloud. He was county judge of Webster county, 1885-86; was the unsuccessful candidate for representative in the 50th congress in 1886, being defeated by James Laud, Republican, and was a Democratic representative in the 52d and 53d congresses, 1891-95.

McLAREN, William Edward, third bishop of Chicago and 114th in succession in the American episcopate, was born in Geneva, N.Y., Dec. 13, 1831; son of the Rev. Dr. John Finlay (q.v.) and Mary (McKay) McLaren. He was graduated from Jefferson college, Canonsburg, Pa., in 1851, taught school, 1851-52, and engaged in journalistic work in Cleveland, Ohio, and Pittsburg, Pa., 1852-57. He was graduated from the Western Theological seminary, Allegheny, Pa., B.D., in 1860, and was ordained the same year by the presbytery of Allegheny City and engaged in missionary work in New Granada, 1860-63. He was pastor of the Second church, Peoria, Ill., 1863-67, and of Westminster church, Detroit, Mich., 1867-72. He was ordered deacon in the Protestant Episcopal Church, in St. John’s church, Detroit, Mich., July 29, 1872, and ordained priest in the same church, Oct. 20, 1872, by Bishop McCoskry. He was rector of Trinity church, Cleveland, Ohio, 1872-75; and was elected bishop of Illinois in September, 1875, succeeding Bishop Whirshouse. He was consecrated in the cathedral church of St. Peter and Paul, Chicago, Ill., by Bishops McCcekry, Bedell, Whipple, J. C. Talbot, Clarkson, Spalding, Gillaspie and Welles, Dec. 8, 1875. The diocese of Illinois was divided in 1877, and two new secs, Quincy and Springfield, created. Bishop McLaren continued as bishop of Illinois, which embraced the northern section of the state, the name of which in 1883 was changed to the diocese of Chicago. He founded the Western Theological seminary in Chicago in 1881, with an endowment of $325,000, and Waterman Hall for girls at Sycamore, Ill., in 1885, with an endowment of $200,000. He called together the first diocesan retreat for clergy held in the American church, served as primus of the provincial synod of Illinois, 1878-1901, and became president of the board of trustees of St. Mary’s school, Knoxville, Ill., and of the institutions of his own founding. He was appointed by the presiding bishop in 1898 to investigate the field in Porto Rico with a view to the promotion of church work in the newly acquired colony. He received the honorary degree of D.D. from Racine in 1873 and D.C.L. from the University of the South in 1884. He is the author of: Catholic Dogma, the Antidote of Doubt (1883); Inner Proofs of God (1884); Analysis of Pantheism (1885); The Practics of the Interior Life (1897); The Holy Priest (1899); The Essence of Prayer (1901), and poems, addresses and occasional sermons.

McLEAN, John, senator, was born in North Carolina in 1791. He received a limited education in the schools of Logan county, Ky., where he had removed with his father in 1795. He was admitted to the bar and practiced in Shawneetown, Ill., 1815-30. He was the first representative from Illinois elected to congress and served in the 15th congress, 1817-19. He was a representative in the state legislature in 1820 and upon the resignation of Vivian Edwards from the U.S. senate in 1824, he was appointed by Governor Morrow to fill the vacancy and served, 1824-25. He was elected in 1829 U. S. senator for a full term to expire March 3, 1835; by the unanimous vote of the legislature, and took his seat Dee. 7, 1829. He died in Shawneetown, Ill., Oct. 4, 1830.

McMURRY, Charles Alexander, educator, was born at Crawfordsville, Ind., Feb. 18, 1857; son of Franklyn M. and Charlotte (Underwood) McMurry, and grandson of James McMurry and of John Underwood. Both grandparents came from Kentucky into central Indiana between 1830 and 1840, and his parents removed to Bloomington, Ill., in 1865. He was graduated from the Illinois State Normal university in 1876; studied two years at Michigan university between 1876 and 1880; taught school three years in Illinois, four years in Pueblo and Denver, Col., and three years at Winona, Minn., Normal school. He studied four years at the Universities of Halle and Jena in Germany, between 1882 and 1888, and received the degree of Ph.D. from Halle in 1887. He was teacher in the practice department of the Illinois State Normal university, 1892-99; superintendent of the Practice School of the Northern Illinois Normal school at De Kalb, 1899-1901; teacher in the summer school of the University of Minnesota, three years; teacher in the summer quarter and in the Teacher’s college at Chicago university four years, and in the summer session of Columbia university, N.Y., one year. He is the author of: General Method (1892); Method of the Recitation (1896); Special Method in Reading, in Literature and History, in Geography, in Science (1893-95); Pioneer History Stories (1893); Course of Study in the Eight Grades (1895); Method of the Recitation (with Frank M. McMurry, 1897). He was editor of the Year Books of the National Herbart society, 1895-1900.

McNAMARA, John, educator, was born in Dromore, county Down, Ireland, Dec. 27, 1824. He was brought by his parents to the United States about 1830. When a young lad he came under the notice of the Rev. William Augustus Muhlenberg, D.D., who took him into his own home and regarded him as a son. He was educated at St. Paul’s college, Flushing, L.I., and matriculated at the General Theological seminary in New York city in the class of 1850, but did not graduate. He was admitted to the diaconate and was assistant to Dr. Muhlenberg at the Church of the Holy Communion, 1848-49, and was ordained priest in June, 1849. He was married, Nov. 18, 1852, to Sarah, daughter of Edward and Caroline (Lawrence) Gould of New York city. He chose a missionary life and in response to an appeal by Bishop Kemper he went west and labored successfully in Missouri, Kansas, Wisconsin and Illinois. He founded Christ church, St. Joseph, Mo.; the Church of the Holy Communion, Lake Geneva, Wis., and Christ church, Waukegan, Ill., and organized mission stations. He was in Kenosha at the outbreak of the civil war, and was made chaplain of the 1st Wisconsin regiment, serving for three years, when he returned to his parish. He was rector of parishes in White Water and La Crosse, and while at the latter place was called in August, 1870, by Bishop Clarkson, to take the presidency of Nebraska college at Nebraska city, a church institution, which position he held, 1870-75. In 1875 he returned to New York at the request of Dr. Muhlenberg and was assistant at St. Luke’s hospital and rector at St. Johnsland, L.I., N.Y., until shortly after Dr. Muhlenberg’s death when he returned to Nebraska (1878) and with the exception of a few months in New Mexico, [p.198] he spent the remainder of his life in the state. He served as delegate to the general convention several times. At the time of his death he was rector of the Church of our Saviour, North Platte, and he was buried at Lake Geneva. His widow became Sister Sarah of the order of St. Monica, Springfield, Ill. He received the honorary degree of D.D. from Nebraska college in 1869. He is the author of: Three Years on the Kansas Border (1852); The Black Code of Kansas (1857), and contributions to church periodicals. He died in North Platte, Neb., Oct. 24, 1885.

McNUTT, Patterson, educator, was born in Switzerland county, Ind., Aug. 27, 1833. He was graduated from the Indiana Asbury (now De Pauw) university, A.B., 1855, A.M., 1858. He was married, Nov. 27, 1855, to Louisa S. Slavens. He was principal of Danville seminary, 1855-58; joined the Illinois conference in 1858; was a professor in the Illinois Wesleyan university, 1858-59, and principal of the Georgetown seminary, 1859-62. He joined the army as captain of the 73rd Illinois volunteers, serving 1862-64. He was president of Marshall college, Ill., 1864-68; president of Baker university, 1869-70; and professor of mathematics, Indiana Asbury university, 1872-83. He was transferred to the St. Louis conference and held pastorates at Warrensburg, Mo., 1883-85, and at Del Norte, Col,, 1885-86. The degree of D.D. was conferred on him by the Illinois Wesleyan university in 1880. He died at DeI Notre, Col., Feb. 9, 1886.

McROBERTS, Samuel, senator, was born in Monroe county, Ill., April 12, 1799; son of James McRoberts, a farmer. He received a good English education from a private tutor and in 1819 was appointed clerk of the circuit court of Monroe county. He entered the law department of Transylvania university, at Lexington, Ky., in 1821, and after attending three full courses of lectures he was admitted to the bar, and settled in practice at Danville, Ill. He was elected by the Illinois legislature one of the five circuit judges of the state in 1824; was elected as a Democrat to the state senate in 1828; was U.S. district attorney for Illinois, 1830-42; receiver of the public moneys at the Danville land office, 1832-39; and solicitor of the general land office at Washington, Ill., 1839-41. He was elected to the U.S. senate, Dec. 16, 1840, for the term expiring March 3, 1847, and took his seat, May 31, 1841. He died at Cincinnati, Ohio, on his way home from Washington, D.C., March 27, 1843.

MANN, James R., representative, was born in McLean county, Ill., Oct. 20, 1856; son of William H. and Elizabeth (Abraham) Mann; grandson of Thomas and Elizabeth Mann, and a descendant of William Mann, of Virginia. He attended the public schools and was graduated from the University of Illinois, M.L., in 1876, and from the Union College of Law, Chicago, in 1881. He was admitted to the bar in 1881 and was a member of the law firm of Mann & Miller, Chicago. He was attorney for the Hyde park and the South park commissioners of Chicago; was a master in chancery and for four years a member of the city council of Chicago. He was a Republican representative from the first Illinois district in the 55th, 56th, 57th and 58th congresses, 1897-1905.

MARSH, Benjamin Franklin, representative, was born in Wythe township, Hancock county, Ill., in 1839. He prepared for college in private schools, was a student at Jubilee college, Ill., 1854-58; studied law with his brother Judge J.W. Harsh of Warsaw, Ill., 1858-60, and was admitted to the bar in 1860. In 1861 he raised a company of cavalry for service in the civil war, but it was not accepted at once and he enlisted as a private in the 10th Illinois volunteers. In July, 1861, the cavalry company was accepted, and he was commissioned its captain and assigned to the 2d Illinois cavalry. He served 1861-65, rising to the rank of colonel. He practiced law in Warsaw, 1866-77; in 1869 he was a Republican candidate for delegate to the state constitutional convention; was a representative in the 45th, 46th and 47th congresses, 1877-83; was defeated for the 48th congress, and after the expiration of his term engaged in farming and stock-raising. He was railroad and warehouse commissioner by appointment of Governor Oglesby, 1889-93; was a delegate to the Republican national convention in 1888; and was a representative in the 53d, 54th, 55th, 56th, 57th congresses, 1893-1903. He was chairman of the committee on militia in the 54th, 55th, 56th and 57th congresses.

MARSHALL, Samuel S., representative, was born in Gallatin county, Ill., March 18, 1821; son of Daniel and Sophia (Walker) Marshall, natives of Ireland, who settled in Illinois early in the 19th century. He attended Cumberland college, Ky., was admitted to the bar in 1845, and practiced in McLeansboro, Ill. He was a representative in the Illinois legislature in 1847; state’s attorney for the 3d judicial circuit of Illinois, 1847-49, and judge of the 7th judicial circuit, 1851-54. He was a Democratic representative from the ninth Illinois district in the 34th and 35th congresses, 1855-59. His seat in the 34th congress was unsuccessfully contested under the clause in the state constitution, declaring all judges in the state ineligible to any other office, state or federal, during the term for which they were elected and for one year after. He was judge of the 12th Illinois circuit, 1861-64; and again represented his district in the 39th, 40th, 41st, 42d and 43d congresses, serving 1865-75. He was a delegate from the state at large to the Democratic national conventions of 1860 and 1864, and to the Loyalists’ convention, Philadelphia, Pa., in 1866. He received the entire Democratic vote of the joint assembly of the Illinois legislature for U.S. senator in 1861, and the Democratic vote of the U.S. house of representatives for speaker of that body in 1867, and was president of the board of managers of Hamilton college, 1875-80. He never married. He died in Hamilton county, Ill., July 26, 1890.

MASON, Edward Gay, historian, was born in Bridgeport, Conn., Aug. 23, 1839; son of Roswell B. and Harriet L. Mason. Roswell B. Mason removed from Connecticut to Chicago, Ill., when that place was a village; was a civil engineer, mayor of the city, and was influential in encouraging business enterprises. Edward Gay Mason was prepared for college in Chicago and was graduated at Yale in 1860. He was admitted to the bar in 1863 and in March, 1865, formed a law partnership under the firm name of Mattocks & Mason. He subsequently practiced in partnership with his brothers Alfred and Henry, under the firm name of Mason Brothers. He was married, Dec. 25, 1867, to Julia M. Starkweather of Chicago, Ill. He was president of the Chicago Bar association, the Chicago Literary club, the University Club of Chicago, and the Chicago Historical society, 1887-98, and was a member of various historical societies; a fellow of Yale, 1891-98, and was named as a probable successor to President Timothy Dwight of Yale in 1898. He contributed historical articles to magazines and is the author of numerous papers on the early history of Illinois collected and published as Chapters from Illinois History (1901). He died in Chicago, Ill., Dec. 18, 1898.

MASON, William Ernest, senator, was born in Franklinville, N.Y., July 7, 1850; son of Lewis J. and Nancy (Winslow) Mason. He removed to Bentonsport, Van Buren county, Iowa, with his parents in 1858, attended school there until 1863 and Birmingham college, 1863-65. His father died in 1865; and he taught school in Bentonsport, 1865-68, and in Des Moines, Iowa, 1868-70. He commenced the study of law in the office of the Hon. Thomas M. Withrow of Des Moines in 1870 and removed with him to Chicago, Ill., where he was admitted to the bar in 1872, and practiced until 1897. He was married, June 11, 1873, to Julia Edith, daughter of George White of Des Moines. He was a representative in the Illinois legislature in 1879; state senator, 1882-85;[p.294] a Republican representative from the 3d district of Illinois in the 50th and 51st congresses, 1887-91; was defeated for the 52d congress by Allen Cathcart Durborow, Jr., of Chicago, and was elected to the U.S. senate Jan. 20, 1897, as successor to Gen. John M. Palmer, whose term expired March 3, 1897, for the term expiring March 31, 1903. He served as chairman of the committee on manufactures, and as a member of the committees on claims, fisheries, immigrating, post offices and post roads, commerce, and organization, conduct and expenditure of the executive department.

MATHEWS, William Smythe Babcock, editor and composer, was born in Loudon, N.H., May 8, 1837; son of the Rev. S. S. and Elizabeth Smythe (Babcock) Mathews; grandson of the Rev. William Smythe Babcock and great2-grandson of Dr. Joshua Babcock of Westerly, R.I., Yale, 1724, chief-justice of Rhode Island, fellow of Brown university, 1764-73. He acquired a classical and musical education and began teaching music at Appleton academy, Mt. Vernon, N.H., in 1852. He subsequently taught in western New York and Illinois and in 1860 became adjunct professor of music in Wesleyan Female college, Macon, Ga. He located in Chicago in 1867, where he taught, and was organist of Centenary M. E. church, 1867-93. He began writing for Dwight’s Journal of Music in 1859; edited the Musical Independent, 1868-71; was musical critic of the Chicago Herald, 1880-83; of the Chicago Morning News, 1883-86; and of the Chicago Tribune, 1887. In 1891 he founded and became editor-in-chief of Music, published in Chicago. He is the author of: How to Understand Music (1880, 2d vol., 1888); Primer of Musical Forms (1890); Music and Its Ideals (1897); Popular History of Music (1891); The Great in Music (1900); Dictionary of Musical Terms (1895); Primer of Music (1895); The Masters and Their Music (1898), and many collections of music for pedagogic purposes.

MATTESON, Joel Aldrich, governor of Illinois, was born in Watertown, N.Y., Aug. 2, 1808. He attended the public schools of Jefferson county, taught school in Brownsville, N.Y., and was foreman of the construction of the Charleston and Augusta railroad in South Carolina, 1831-34. In 1834 he settled in Illinois, where he was a state senator for three terms and governor of the state, 1853-57. He was the unsuccessful Democratic candidate for U.S. senator during his term as governor. He was a contractor in building the Illinois and Michigan canal, and upon the failure of the state to reimburse him, he purchased from the state all the iron held for public improvements and the advance in the price prevented his becoming bankrupt. He was president of the Chicago and Alton railroad and conducted several banks on the line of the road. He died in Chicago, Ill., Jan. 31, 1883.

MEDILL, Joseph, journalist, was born on St. John river within the disputed territory at that time claimed by Maine, but afterward ceded to New Brunswick, April 6,1823; son of William and Margaret Medill, who came from Scotland. He removed to Massillon, Stark county, Ohio, with his parents in 1832, attended the district schools, and worked on his father’s farm. He studied under a clergyman at Canton, Ohio, and was graduated at Massillon academy in 1843. He was admitted to the bar in 1846, practiced law at New Philadelphia, Ohio, and in 1849 entered the news, paper field. He published the Republican, a Free Soil paper, at Coshocton, Ohio, 1849-51, and established the Forest City at Cleveland, Ohio, in 1851, as a Whig organ. In 1858 the Forest City was united with the Free Democrat and was named the Cleveland Leader. He agitated the subject of forming a new national party in 1853, and in 1854 assisted in organizing the Republican party in Cleveland. He sold his interest in the Leader to Edwin Cowles, and in January, 1855, removed to Chicago, Ill., where with John C. Vaughan, former proprietor of the Free Democrat, and Mr. Ray, of Galena, Ill., he purchased the Chicago Tribune, assumed the business and editorial management, advocated radical measures against slavery and made the paper a success. He supported Lincoln’s nomination and election in 1860, and urged the issuance of the emancipation proclamation. He was a member of the Illinois constitutional Convention in 1870; a member of the civil-service commission in 1871; supported Horace Greeley for President in 1872 and favored tariff reform. He was mayor of Chicago from January, 1872, to September, 1873, when he resigned on account of impaired health. He traveled in Europe, 1873-74; purchased a controlling interest from the owners and publishers of the Chicago Tribune in 1874, became its editor-in-chief and reorganized it as the Tribune Publishing company. His stock in the company was valued at $2,500,000 and he had also $2,000,000 in bonds and realty in 1899. He died at San Antonio, Texas, March 16, 1899.

MERRITT, Wesley, soldier, was born in New York city, June 16, 1836; son of John Willis Merritt, a lawyer, who abandoned that profession for agriculture and removed his family to Illinois in 1840. Wesley attended the school of the Christian Brothers; studied law with Judge Haynie in Salem, Ill., and was graduated at the U.S. Military academy and brevetted 2d lieutenant of dragoons, July 1, 1860. He was promoted 2d lieutenant, Jan. 28, 1861; 1st lieutenant, May 13, 1861, and was transferred to the 2d cavalry, Aug. 3, 1861. He served successively as assistant adjutant-general of the Utah forces, adjutant of the 2d U.S. cavalry, and in the defense of Washington, 1861-62; was aide-de-camp to Gen. John Cook, 1862-63; to Gen. George Stoneman in 1863, and participated in the raids toward Richmond, April 13 to May 2, 1863. He commanded the reserve brigade, 1st division, Pleasonton’s cavalry corps, at Gettysburg; was promoted captain April 5, 1862; brigadier-general of volunteers June 29, 1863, and was brevetted major, U.S.A., July 1, 1863, for Gettysburg. He served in Torbert’s division, Sheridan’s cavalry corps, in the various engagements in Virginia, 1863-64, including Sheridan’s Richmond raid, the battle of Cold Harbor, and the Trevilian raid, and was brevetted lieutenant-colonel, U.S.A., May 11, 1864, for the battle of Yellow Tavern, Va., and colonel, U.S.A., May 28, 1864, for the battle of Hawe’s Shop, Va. He commanded the 1st division of Torbert’s cavalry in the Shenandoah and Richmond campaigns, 1864-65; was brevetted major-general of volunteers, Oct. 19, 1864, for Winchester and Fisher’s Hill, Va.; brigadier-general, U.S.A., March 13, 1865, for Five Forks, Va.; major-general, U.S.A., March 13, 1865, for services during the campaign ending with the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia. He was commissioned major-general of volunteers, April 1, 1865, “for gallant service.” He was present at the surrender of Lee at Appomattox; was successively with the military division of the Southwest, the department of Texas, and the military division of the Gulf, 1865; was mustered out of the volunteer service Feb. 1, 1866; was promoted lieutenant-colonel in the regular army and transferred to the 9th cavalry, July 28, 1866, and served principally on frontier duty in Texas, Dakota, and Wyoming, 1866-82. He was inspector of cavalry, division of the Missouri, 1875-76; was promoted colonel and transferred to the 5th cavalry, July 1, 1876, and served as a member of the court of inquiry at Chicago, Ill., in 1879. He was superintendent of the U.S. Military academy from Sept. 1, 1882, to June 30, 1887; was promoted brigadier-general, U.S.A., April 16, 1887, and commanded the Department of the Missouri, 1887-91 and 1895-97; the Department of Dakota, 1891-95, and the Department of the East, with headquarters at Governor’s Island, New York harbor, 1897-98. He was promoted major-general, U.S.A., April 25, 1895, and was appointed to the command of the forces in the Philippines as military governor in May, 1898. He was a delegate to the U.S. peace commission at Paris in October, 1898, was retired by operation of law, June 16, 1900. He was married in Europe, in 1871, to Caroline Warren of Cincinnati, Ohio, and secondly, in London, Oct. 24, 1898, to Laura, daughter of Norman Williams of Chicago, Ill.

MOORE, Jesse Hale, educator, clergyman, soldier and representative, was born in St. Clair county, Ill., April 22, 1817. He was graduated from McKendree college, Lebanon, Ill., A.B., 1842, A.M., 1845; was a teacher at Nashville, Ill., 1844-46. He was licensed to preach in 1846 and was pastor of the Shelbyville M.E. church. He subsequently became principal of the seminary at Paris, Ky., and was president of Quincy college, Ill., 1854-56, and pastor at Decatur, Ill., 1856-62. In 1862 he resigned and raised the 115th Illinois regiment, which he commanded at Chickamauga and in the pursuit of Hood, and for a time he commanded the 2nd brigade, 1st division, 4th army corps, Thomas’s Army of the Cumberland, in the Tennessee campaign, 1864-65. He was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers in 1865 for gallant and meritorious conduct during the war. He returned to Illinois, was elected presiding elder of the Decatur district in 1868, and was a Republican representative in the 41st and 42nd congresses, 1869-73, being chairman of the committee on invalid pensions during the 42nd congress. The honorary degree of LL.D. was conferred on him by McKendree college in 1871. In 1881 he was appointed U.S. consul at Callao, Peru, where he died, July 11, 1883.

MORGAN, James Dady, soldier, was born in Boston, Mass., Aug. 1, 1810. He attended the public schools, and in 1826 started on a three years’ cruise. After a month’s voyage a mutiny took place, the ship was burned, but he escaped, reached South America, and returned to Boston. He was a merchant in Quincy, Ill., 1834-61; helped to organize the “Quincy Grays,” and was captain of the Quincy riflemen during the Mormon difficulties in Hancock county, Ill., 1844-45. He was captain in the 1st Illinois volunteers in the Mexican war; was commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the 10th Illinois volunteers, in April, 1861; was promoted colonel May 20, 1861, and on July 29, 1861, was mustered into the U.S. service for three years. He served with General Grant and General Pope, and was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers, July 12, 1862, for meritorious services at New Madrid, where he commanded the 1st brigade, 4th division, in Pope’s army, and at Corinth, where he commanded the 1st brigade, 2d division, taking part in its capture in May, 1862. He commanded the 14th army corps at Chattanooga, Tenn., in November, 1862, served in the Chattanooga campaign, distinguishing himself at Buzzard Roost Gap, May 9, 1864, and in the Atlanta campaign, where he succeeded Gen. Jefferson C. Davis to the command of the 2d division when that officer assumed command of the 14th corps. He was Prevented from reinforcing Howard at Ezra Church, July 28, 1864, being held back by Confederate cavalry at Turner’s Ferry. He was sent into Tennessee with his division, Sept. 28, 1864, to oppose General Forrest, and was with Sherman in his march to the sea and through the Carolinas. He was brevetted major-general of volunteers, March 19, 1865, for gallantry at the battle of Bentonville, N.C., was mustered out of the service, Aug. 24, 1865, and returned to Quincy, Ill., where he was a banker for several years. He was president of the Army of the Cumberland and treasurer of the Soldiers’ Home, Quincy. He died in Quincy, Ill., Sept. 12, 1896.

MORRIS, Isaac Newton, representative, was born in Bethel, Ohio, Jan. 22, 1812; son of the Hon. Thomas and Rachel (Davis) Morris. He attended Miami university, Ohio; was admitted to the bar in 1885, and began practice in Quincy, Ill., in 1836. He was appointed secretary of state in 1840 by Governor Carlin but declined to serve, and in 1841 was chosen president of the Illinois and Michigan canal company. He was a representative in the Illinois legislature, 1846-48; a Democratic representative in the 35th and 36th congresses, 1857-61, and opposed the admission of Kansas into the union under the Lecompton constitution. He was appointed a member of the Union Pacific railroad commission by President Grant, 1870. He died in Quincy, Oct. 29, 1879.

MORRISON, Robert Francis, jurist, was born in Illinois, 1826. He served throughout the Mexican war as a non-commissioned officer in the regiment of his brother, Col. Don Morrison of St. Louis, and distinguished himself at Buena Vista. He removed to California in 1852, was admitted to the bar in Sacramento, and formed a partnership with J. Neely Johnson. He removed to San Francisco, where he practiced law with James T. Boyd, and later returned to Sacramento, where he was district attorney of Sacramento county. He was again in San Francisco in partnership with Judge Delos Lake, and served as assistant U.S. attorney. In 1869 he was elected judge of the fourth district for the term of six years; was re-elected in 1875 and resigned in 1879, having been elected chief-justice of the supreme court of California, which office he held until his death, in San Francisco, Cal., March 2, 1887.

MORRISON, Theodore Neven, third bishop of Iowa and 119th in succession in the American episcopate, was born in Ottawa, Ill., Feb. 18, 1850; son of the Rev. Theodore Neven and Anna Eliza (Howland) Morrison; grandson of John Huston and Isabella Work (Dickey) Morrison and of Dr. Allen Harrington Howland, and a descendant of John Howland, who married Elizabeth Till, adopted daughter of Governor Carver of the Mayflower. His great-grandfather Morrison came to America in 1799. His father was a pioneer clergyman in Illinois and one of the first graduates of Jubilee college under Bishop Philander Chase. His parents removed to Jacksonville, Ill., and he was graduated from Illinois college, Jacksonville, in 1870, and from the General Theological seminary of the Protestant Episcopal church, New York, in 1878. He was ordered deacon in Chicago, Ill., July 13, 1878; was a missionary at Pekin, Ill., where he erected and paid for a church at a cost of $18,000, 1873-76; was ordained a priest, Feb. 19, 1876, and was rector of the church of the Epiphany, Chicago, 1876-99. During his rectorship a new church was built in 1885 and he was for several years a member of the standing committee of the diocese of Chicago. He was married, Oct. 28, 1879, to Sarah Buck, daughter of the Rev. Arthur Swazey, D.D., of Chicago. He was elected bishop of Iowa, Nov. 30, 1898, as successor to the Rt. Rev. William Stevens Perry, deceased, and was consecrated, Feb. 22, 1899, in the church of the Epiphany, Chicago, by Bishops McLaren, Seymour, Walker, Nicholson, White, Millspaugh and Edsall. The honorary degree of D.D. was conferred on him by Illinois college in 1896.

MORRISON, William Ralls, representative, was born in Monroe county, Ill., Sept. 14, 1825; son of John and Anne (Ralls) Morrison, and grandson of William Morrison, who came from Pennsylvania to Illinois in 1790, was a representative in the state legislature, school commissioner and county judge. He attended McKendree college, served during the war with Mexico as a private and was in the fight at Buena Vista. In 1849 he joined a party of gold seekers and went to California. He returned to Illinois in 1851; studied and practiced law; was clerk of the circuit court of Monroe county, 1852-54, when he resigned; a representative in the state legislature, 1854-60, and again in 1871-72, and was speaker of the house, 1859-60. At the outbreak of the civil war he organized the 49th Illinois volunteer infantry, of which he was colonel. He was severely wounded while leading a charge against a Confederate battery in the capture of Fort Donelson. While in command of his regiment in the field he was elected Democratic representative in the 38th congress, and served, 1863-65. He also served as a representative in the 43d-49th congresses, 1873-87. He was an advocate of free trade; was chairman of the committee on ways and means, 1873-75 and 1883-87, and introduced several tariff measures which came within a few votes of passing the house, and were defeated by Democratic protectionists. He was a delegate to the Union national convention at Philadelphia in 1866; and to the Democratic national conventions of 1856, 1868, 1884 and 1888; and was chairman of the committee on resolutions in the convention of 1884. Upon the expiration of his term in congress he was appointed by President Cleveland a member of the interstate commerce commission, and was re-appointed by President Harrison in 1892. He was chairman of the commission from 1891 until he retired in January, 1898, when he resumed law practice in Waterloo, Ill.

MOULTON, Samuel Wheeler, representative, was born at Hamilton, Mass., Jan. 20, 1821; son of William and Mary (Lunt), grandson of Jonathan and Mary (Tarbox), and of John and Hannah (Killam), great-grandson of John and Mary (Conant), great2-grandson of James and great3-grandson of James Moulton, who came from Yarmouth, England, in 1638, settled in Salem, Mass., in 1645, and later removed to Wenham, Mass. In 1841 Samuel W. Moulton went to Kentucky; taught school there, 1841-42, and in Mississippi, 1843-45. He was married in 1844 to Mary H., daughter of Thomas and Mary Afflick, a native of Scotland, and they had no children. In 1845 he removed to Codes county, Ill., where he was admitted to the bar in 1847. He practiced in Sullivan, 1847-49, and in Shelbyville after 1849, attaining eminence in his profession. He was county school commissioner, 1851-59, and a representative in the general assembly, 1853-59. In 1853, as chairman of the committee on education, he drafted a bill for a system of free schools for the state, which, after long discussion and opposition became a law. He was also active in promoting the state normal university bill which became a law in 1857. He was president of the state board of education for eighteen years; president of the board of trustees of the state reformatory for boys at Pontiac six years, and was influential in establishing the University of Illinois. His efforts in behalf of education gained for him recognition as “the father of the free school system of Illinois.” He was a Buchanan presidential elector in 1856; supported Douglass for President in 1860; was elected president of the grand council of the Union League for the State of Illinois in 1863; was a Republican representative in the 39th congress, 1865-67, and a Democratic representative in the 47th and 48th congresses; 1881-85. In 1896 he repudiated the platform of the Democratic national convention and supported William McKinley for President. A life-size portrait of Mr. Moulton was presented to the county court house by the bar and citizens of Shelby county, and was unveiled June 10, 1898, with impressive ceremonies. In 1902 Mr. Moulton was still in the active practice of law in Shelbyville, Ill.

NANCE, Albinus, governor of Nebraska, was born at Lafayette, Ill., March 30, 1848; son of Hiram and Sarah (Smith) Nance; grandson of William and Nancy (Smith) Nance, and of French Huguenot ancestry. He prepared for college in the schools of Lafayette and Kewanee Ill., enlisted as a private in company H., 9th Illinois volunteer cavalry, April 24, 1864, and served until the close of the civil war. He matriculated at Knox college, Galesburg, in the class of 1870, but left at the close of his freshman year and began the study of law. He was admitted to the bar in 1872 and practiced in Osceola, Neb. He was married, Sept. 30, 1875, to Sarah, daughter of Egbert and Mary White of Farragut, Iowa. He was elected governor of Nebraska in 1879, and after the close of his second term in 1883, engaged as a banker and broker in Chicago, Ill.

NEVILLE, William, representative, was born in Washington county, Ill., Dec. 29, 1843; son of Capt. Harvey and Aly (Harrimann) Neville; grandson of John and Milly (Neville) Neville, and great-grandson of William Neville and of James Neville, who were born on Potomac river, in Virginia, about 1750 and 1752, and whose parents came from Durham, England. His parents removed to Randolph county, Ill., in 1851, where he was a student at McKendree college, Lebanon, Ill. He served in the Federal army as sergeant, 142d Illinois volunteer infantry, 1864-65. He was admitted to the bar in 1874, and practiced in Omaha and North Platte, Neb. He was a representative in the Illinois legislature in 1872; removed to Omaha, Neb., in 1874, and was a representative in the Nebraska legislature in 1876. He settled at North Platte, Neb., in 1877, and was married in 1882 to Mary Ann Keith, who died in 1884, and he was married secondly in 1886, to Irene Morrison Rector, granddaughter of Gen. Pitcain Morrison, U.S.A. He was defeated for the 49th congress in 1884, by G. W. E. Dorsey; was judge of the 13th judicial district, 1891-95, and was elected judge of the Nebraska supreme court in 1896, but as the amendment of the constitution providing for an increased court did not pass, he did not take his seat. He was elected by the Democrats, Populists and Silver Republicans of the sixth district of Nebraska, a representative in the 56th congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of W. L. Greene, and was re-elected by the Democrats in 1900 to the 57th congress, serving, 1899-1903.

NICOLAY, John George, author, was born in Essingen, Bavaria, Feb. 26, 1832; son of Jacob and Helena Nicolay. He immigrated to the United States with his parents in 1838, who settled first in Cincinnati, Ohio, and then successively in Indiana, Missouri and Illinois. He received a limited education and was employed as a clerk in a retail store in Whitehall, Ill., 1846-47; in the printing office of the Pittsfield, Ill., Free Press, 1848-56, becoming successively, publisher, editor and proprietor. He was clerk of the secretary of state at Springfield, Ill., 1856-60; private secretary to Abraham Lincoln, 1860-65, [p.72] U.S. consul to Paris, 1865-59, and marshal of the U.S. supreme court, 1872-87. He was a founder of the Literary society and the Columbia Historical society of Washington, and a life member of the American Historical society. He was married in June, 1865, to Therena Bates of Pittsfield, Ill. She died in November, 1885. In collaboration with John Hay, he is the author of: Abraham Lincoln, a history (10 vols. 1890), which first appeared in the Century, 1886-90, and in 1901 was condensed by Mr. Nicolay, and Abraham Lincoln’s Complete Works (2 vols., 1894). He also wrote The Outbreak of the Rebellion (1881), being the first volume of a series entitled: “Campaigns of the Civil War”; the article on President Lincoln in the English edition of the “Encyclopaedia Britannica,” and many articles in the leading magazines and periodicals. He died in Washington, D.C., Sept. 26, 1901.

NIGHTINGALE, Augustus Frederick, educator, was born in Quincy, Mass., Nov. 11, 1843; son of Thomas J. and Alice (Brackett) Nightingale; grandson of Samuel B. and Mehitable (Brackett) Nightingale, and of Joseph G. and Charlotte (Newcomb) Brackett, and a descendant of John Nightingale, who settled in Hull, Mass., 1634 or 1654. He was graduated from Wesleyan university, A.B., 1866, A.M., 1869, and was professor of ancient languages at Upper Iowa university, Fayette, Iowa, 1867-68; acting president of Northwestern Female college, Evanston, Ill., 1868-71; professor of ancient languages and teacher of elocution in Simpson Centenary college, Indianola, Iowa, 1871-72; superintendent of public instruction in Omaha, Neb., 1872-74; principal of Lake View high school, Ravenswood, Ill., 1874-90; assistant superintendent of public instruction in Chicago, Ill., 1890-92; superintendent of the public high schools of Chicago, 1892-1901, and in March, 1902, was elected president of the board of trustees of the University of Illinois. He was married, Aug. 24, 1866, to Fanny Orena, daughter of the Rev. C. H. Chase. He was elected president of the Nebraska State Teachers’ association in 1878; president of the Nebraska State Sabbath School association in 1873; of the Illinois State Teachers’ association in 1887; of the secondary department of the National Educational association in 1888, and president of the North Central association of colleges and secondary schools in 1898. He was a member of the National Educational association and chairman of the national committee on college entrance requirements, 1895-1899. He received from Wesleyan university the degree of Ph.D. in 1891 and of LL.D. in 1901. He is editor of Twentieth Century Text Books (100 vols., 1899 et seq.), and the author of: A Hand Book of Requirements for Admission to the Colleges of the United States (1879); and with George Howland of Two Educational Essays (1881), besides many reports and educational papers.

NIXON, William Penn, editor, was born at Fountain City, Ind., March 19, 1833; son of Samuel and Rhoda (Hubbard) Butler Nixon, and grandson of Barnaby Nixon, a Quaker preacher, and a resident of Virginia. His great grandmother on his mother’s side was a Cherokee Indian. He was graduated from Farmers college, Ohio, in 1853; taught school in Cincinnati, Ohio, 1853-55, and was graduated from the University of Pennsylvania, LL.B., 1859. He practiced law in Cincinnati, Ohio, 1859-68; was a Republican representative in the state legislature, 1864-67; president of the Cincinnati Mutual Life Insurance Co., 1866-71, and in 1868, in connection with his brother, Dr. O. W. Nixon, established the Daily Chronicle, of which he was commercial editor and subsequently publisher and general manager. Upon the consolidation of the paper with the Daily Times, in 1872, he sold his interest and became business manager of the Chicago Inter-Ocean, serving until 1875, and as general-manager and editor-in-chief, 1875-97. In 1897 he sold his controlling interest in the Inter-Ocean, but retained his connection with the company of which he was secretary and treasurer. He was appointed a commissioner of Lincoln park in 1896, and its president in 1897; was president of the associated press for several years; was a delegate at large for the state of Illinois to the Republican national convention of 1896, and was appointed collector of U.S. customs of Chicago in December, 1897. He was twice married, first in September, 1861, to Mary, daughter of Hezekiah and Ruth (Ferris) Stites. She died in 1862, and he was married secondly, June 15, 1869, to Elizabeth, daughter of Charles and Sarah E. Duffield of Chicago, Ill.

OFFICER, Thomas, educator, was born in Washington, Pa., Dec. 28, 1822; son of Robert and Margaret (Scott) Officer, and a descendant of Thomas Officer. He was graduated at Washington college, Pa., A.B., 1840, A.M., 1843; was a teacher in the Deaf and Dumb institute, Columbus, Ohio, 1840-45; principal of the Illinois Deaf and Dumb Institute, Jacksonville, 1845-55; president of the board of directors of the Iowa Deaf and Dumb institute, Council Bluffs, Iowa; ruling elder of the Presbyterian church, Council Bluffs, 1856-1900, and was engaged in banking, 1857-1900. He was married, Aug. 8, 1848, to Elizabeth M., daughter of Nathan Puny of Washington city, Pa. He died in Council Bluffs, Iowa, Sep. 12, 1900.

OGLESBY, Richard James, governor of Illinois, was born in Oldham county, Ky., July 25, 1824. His parents died in 1832, and he removed to Decatur, Ill., in 1836 with his uncle Willis Oglesby, working there as a farm-hand and carpenter. He studied law under Judge Silas W. Robinson at Springfield, Ill., 1844-45, and was licensed to practice in 1845. He joined the 4th Illinois volunteers for service in the Mexican war and was commissioned 1st lieutenant. He saw service at Vera Cruz and at Cerro Gordo, resuming his law practice in Decatur, Ill, in 1847. He was graduated at the Louisville, Ky., law school, LL.B., 1849; engaged in seeking gold in California, 1849-51, and in 1851, having gained $4,500 in California, he again took up the practice of law in Decatur. He traveled in Europe, Egypt and the Holy Land, 1856-57. In 1858 he was the unsuccessful Republican candidate for representative in the 36th congress, was elected in 1860 to the Illinois senate, resigning his seat, April [p.116] 25, 1861, to accept the colonelcy of the 8th Illinois volunteers. He commanded the 1st brigade, 1st division, under General Grant, at Forts Henry and Donelson, and with his brigade was the first to enter Fort Henry. He was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers, March 21, 1862, for gallantry at the capture of Fort Donelson. He was in command of the 2d brigade, 2d division, Army of West Tennessee, at the battle of Corinth, and was severely wounded, Oct. 3, 1862. He was promoted major-general of volunteers in November, 1862, and returned to active service in April, 1863, when he commanded the left wing of the 161h Army corps. He resigned in May, 1864. He was three times elected governor of Illinois on the Republican ticket, serving, 1865-69, 1873 and 1885-89. He resigned in 1873 to take his seat in the U.S. senate as successor to Lyman Trumbull, and served in that body until March 3, 1879, declining re-election, and retiring to private life, 1889. He died in Elkhart, Ill., April 24, 1899.

OSBORN, Thomas Ogden, soldier, was born in Jersey, Licking county, Ohio, Aug. 11, 1832; son of Samuel and Hannah (Meeker) Osborn. He attended Delaware college; was graduated from the University of Ohio, A.B. 1854, A.M. 1857; studied law with Gen. Lew Wallace at Crawfordsville, Ind., and began practice in Chicago, Ill., in 1859. He organized the 39th Illinois regiment, of which he became lieutenant-colonel and colonel. He was detailed to guard the Baltimore and Ohio railroad and engaged Jackson’s forces during the raid into Morgan county, Va., in 1861, and succeeded in delaying him for several hours, afterward making a successful retreat across the Potomac. He engaged in the battle of Winchester, Va., March 23, 1862, and commanded a brigade made up of the 39th Illinois, 13th Indiana and 62nd and 67th Ohio regiments in the operations against the forts in Charleston harbor in 1863. In 1864 he accompanied General Butler up the James river, his regiment occupying the right of the 1st brigade, 1st division, 10th army corps. He was wounded at Drewry’s Bluff, May 12, 1864, and commanded the 1st brigade, 1st division, 24th army corps at the siege of Petersburg, Va., 1864-65. On April 2, 1865, his brigade was one of three to capture Fort Gregg. He was promoted brigadier-general and brevetted major-general of volunteers for gallant services throughout the war. He returned to his law practice in Chicago, where he was treasurer of Cook county and a manager of the National Soldiers’ Home. He was appointed a member of the international committee to settle disputed claims between the United States and Mexico, and was U.S. consul-general and minister-resident to the Argentine Republic, 1874-85, subsequently engaging in railway enterprises in Brazil, but continuing his residence in Chicago. He was elected a member of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion and of various other military associations.

OWEN, Robert Dale, representative and author, was born in Glasgow, Scotland, Nov. 7, 1801; son of Robert and Anne Caroline (Dale) Owen, and grandson of Robert and – (Williams) Owen, and of David Dale, a mill owner and lord provost of Glasgow, Scotland. His father (1771-1858), a prominent British social reformer and the author of many socialistic books, was in America, 1824-27, where he purchased 30,000 acres of land in Indiana and Illinois, and made an unsuccessful attempt to found a colony, which he named New Harmony. Robert Dale Owen was educated by private tutors and at Emanuel von Fellenberg’s school at Hofwyl, Switzerland, 1818-21. He came to the United States in 1824, and aided his father in establishing the colony at New Harmony, Ind., but in 1827, upon the failure of the enterprise, went back to England. Returning to America in the same year he settled in New York, where he published the Free Inquirer, 1828-32, being assisted in the undertaking by Fanny Wright, the abolitionist. In 1832 he again went to New Harmony, Ind. He was a representative in the Indiana legislature, 1835-38, and was influential in securing one half of the appropriation from the surplus U.S. revenue allotted to Indiana for the support of the public schools of that state. He was a Democratic representative from Indiana in the 28th and 29th congresses, 1843-47. While in congress he introduced a resolution relating to the Oregon dispute, which subsequently formed the basis upon which the question was settled in 1846, and a resolution organizing the Smithsonian Institution. He was a member of the constitutional convention of Indiana in 1850, chairman of the committee on rights and privileges, and of the committee on revision. He was again a representative in the state legislature in 1851; appointed by President Pierce charge d’affaires at Naples in 1853, and U.S. minister in 1855, serving until his return to the United States in 1858. Be championed the abolitionist cause, and during the civil war was appointed by Secretary Stanton chairman of a committee to inquire into the condition of the freed slaves. The honorary degree of LL.D. was conferred on him by the Indiana university in 1872, and he was a trustee of the university, 1838-46 and 1849-51. He is the author of: Outline of the System of Education at New Lanark (1824); Moral Physiology (1831); Discussion with Origen Bachelor, on the Personality of God and the Authority of the Bible (1832); Pocahontas: a Drama (1837); Hints on Public Architecture (1849); A Treatise on the Construction of Plank Roads (1850); Footfalls on the Boundary of Another World (1859); The Wrong of Slavery, the Right of Emancipation, and the Future of the African Race in the United States (1864); Beyond the Breakers (1870); Debatable Land Between this World and the Next (1872), and Threading My Way (1874). He died at Lake George, N.Y., June 17, 1877.

PALMER, John McAuley, senator, was born at Eagle Creek, Scott county, Ky., Sept. 13, 1817; son of Louis D. and Ann (Tutt) Palmer, both natives of Virginia, and great-grandson of Charles McAuley, who emigrated from Ireland. His great-grandfather, Thomas Palmer, came to Virginia from England, and his grandfather, Isaac Palmer, was a soldier in the American Revolution, 1776-84. His father was a soldier in Col. John Allen’s regiment in the war of 1812. He escaped the massacre at Raisin River and was married in 1813. The family removed to Christian county, Ky., during John’s boyhood, and in 1831 to within ten miles of Alton, Ill. He received his first instruction from Isaiah Boone; learned the trade of plasterer; attended Alton college in 1834, but leaving for lack of means to pay his tuition, was employed as a cooper, peddler and school teacher; studied law, 1835-38; was admitted to the bar in 1839, and practiced in Carlinville, Ill., 1839-61. He was the defeated Democratic candidate for county clerk in 1839, and in 1840 he supported Martin Van Buren for president. He was judge of probate for Macoupin county, Ill., 1843-47; a member of the state constitutional convention of 1847; judge of probate, 1848; county judge, 1849-51, and a member of the Illinois senate, 1852-54. As a Democrat he did not agree with his party on the slavery question, resigned from the senate in 1854, and was elected by the anti-Nebraska faction in 1855. He was president of the Republican state convention of 1856, resigned his seat in the senate a second time in 1856, and was a delegate to the Republican national convention at Philadelphia, June 17, 1856, where he supported the nomination of Judge McLean for the presidency, although he preferred Fremont and worked privately for his nomination. He was defeated as Republican candidate for representative in the 36th congress in 1858; was an elector at large from Illinois on the Lincoln and Hamlin ticket in 1861; a delegate to the Peace congress at Washington, D.C., in February, 1861, and was elected colonel of the 14th Illinois infantry in April, 1861. He accompanied Gen. John C. Fr�mont in his expedition to Springfield, Mo.; was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers, Dec. 20, 1861; assigned to the command of the 3d division under Gen. John Pope, and took part in the capture of New Madrid, March 14, and Island No. 10, April 8, 1862. He commanded the 1st brigade, 1st division, Army of the Mississippi, during the siege of Corinth, April 30-May 30, and was ordered home May 29, on account of sickness. He organized the 122d Illinois volunteers in August, 1862, and in the following September was assigned to the command of the 4th (afterward the 1st) division, Crittenden’s left wing, Rosecrans’ Army of the Cumberland, at the battle of Stone River, Nov. 29, 1862, where he was promoted major-general of volunteers, and in the battle of Chickamauga commanded the 2d division, 1st army corps, Sept. 19-20, 1863. He commanded the 14th army corps in the Chattanooga campaign and in the Atlanta campaign until August, 1864, when he [p.181] was assigned to the military division of Kentucky, where he was military governor and had charge of the Freedman’s bureau, and was mustered out of the service, Sept. 1, 1866. He was the Republican governor of Illinois, 1869-73, declined renomination in 1872, and returned to the Democratic party. He was active in the canvass of 1876, speaking in all parts of the country for Tilden and Hendricks. He was the defeated Democratic candidate for U.S. senator in 1877, when John A. Logan was elected, and in 1883, when Governor Cullom was elected. He was defeated for governor of Illinois in 1888 by Joseph W. Filer, and was elected to the U.S. senate by the Democratic legislature in 1891, serving 1891-97. In 1896 he refused to endorse the platform adopted by the Democratic national convention at Chicago, and when the national convention of the Gold Democrats met at Indianapolis, Sept. 2, 1896, General Palmer accepted the nomination for President, with Simon B. Buckner of Kentucky for Vice-President. In the election of November, the Palmer and Bucknet electors received 133,148 popular votes, but none in the electoral college. In the presidential canvass of 1900, General Palmer supported the Republican nominees and announced his intention to vote for McKinley and Roosevelt electors. He was married in December, 1842, to Malinda, daughter of Julius Neely. Mrs. Palmer died in 1886. They had ten children, and at Senator Palmer’s death, two sons and four daughters survived. His eldest son, John Mayo Palmer, was his law partner, and his youngest son, L. J. Palmer, was a lawyer at Rock Springs, Wyo. In 1888 he married as his second wife Mrs. Hannah M. Kimball, daughter of J. L. Lamb of Springfield, Ill. In 1899 congress voted him a pension of $100 per month. His personal recollections, The Story of an Earnest Life, were published in 1901. He died in Springfield, Ill., Sept. 25, 1900.

PARKINSON, Daniel Baldwin, educator, was born near Highland, Madison county, Ill., Sept. 6, 1845; son of Alfred Jackson and Mary Emeline (Baldwin) Parkinson; grandson of Zera and Mary (Westmore) Baldwin, and of Scotch and [p.203] English ancestry. His father served as state senator, 1878-82. He was graduated from McKendree college, B.S., 1868; was superintendent of schools in Carmi, Ill., 1869-70; teacher of mathematics and natural science in Jennings seminary, 1870-78, and post graduate student in Northwestern university, 1873-74. He was professor of chemistry and physics in Southern Illinois State Normal university, 1874-97, secretary of the faculty, 1874-92, and in 1897 was elected president of the university. He was twice married; first, Dec. 28, 1876, to Julia Fuller Mason, who died Aug. 6, 1879; and secondly, July 30, 1884, to Mary Alice Raymond. He was an active member of several educational and religious organizations. He received from McKendree college the degree of A.M. in 1874 and that of Ph. D. in 1897.

PARTRIDGE, Frederick William, soldier and diplomatist, was born in Norwich, Vt., Aug. 19, 1824; son of Capt. Cyrus (1786-1842) and Mary (Loveland) (1786-1866) Partridge; grandson of Capt. Isaac Partridge of the Revolution and of Joseph and Mercy (Bigelow) Loveland; great-grandson of Capt. Samuel Partridge of the Colonial wars, and of David and Mercy (Lewis) Bigelow, and a descendant of Thomas Bigelow, the immigrant, and of Elisha and Lucy (Sparks) Level, who immigrated to Glastonbury, Conn. Frederick William Partridge attended the district school; the Norwich Literary, Scientific and Military academy, and Dartmouth college one year; studied law at Albany, N.Y., and in the office of Franklin Pierce of Concord, N.H., and had charge of the Harrisburg Military college, Pa., established by his cousin, Capt. Alden Partridge (q.v.), 1845-47. In January, 1847, he enlisted in the U.S. army and went to Mexico as special commissioner of President Polk to visit the seat of war and report his impressions of the conduct and progress of the campaign to the secretary of war. Having no credentials, as his mission was secret, he was captured by the American army as a spy, ordered to be imprisoned at San Juan de Ul�a, commanded by his cousin, Lieut. Henry S. Burton, 1st artillery, and after his release returned to Washington without accomplishing his mission. He resigned from the army in 1847 and was located on a farm in Kendall county, Ill., 1847-55, during part of which time he was captain of a company of militia. He was married in 1852 to Mary, daughter of William Pauline of East Aurora, N.Y. He continued his law studies under Isaac N. Arnold in Chicago, 1855-57. In 1857 he removed to Sandwich, Ill., and in 1861 became senior captain in the 13th Illinois volunteer regiment. He was made major of the regiment in June, 1861, lieutenant-colonel in December, 1862, and colonel, June 18, 1864, for gallantry at Lookout Mountain, and was brevetted brigadier-general for acts at Missionary Ridge. He was wounded at Chickasaw Bayou, Miss., at Chattanooga, and at Ringgold Gap. He was mustered out with his regiment, July 18, 1864, practiced law in Sandwich and had an office in Chicago. He was postmaster of Sandwich; clerk of the circuit court, and U.S. consul-general at Bangkok, Siam, 1869-76, when he saved the life of the son of the king and did much to promote the safety of Christian missionaries in the kingdom. He returned to the United States in 1876 by way of Singapore and the Suez Canal, visiting the chief cities of Europe. He served as U.S. examiner of pensions at Rushville, Ind., and Tiffin, Ohio, 1882-89. He died at Sycamore, Ill., Jan. 29, 1899.

PATTEN, Simon Nelson, political economist, was born at Sandwich, Ill., May 1, 1852; son of William and Elizabeth (Pratt) Patten; grandson of James and Mary (Robertson) Patten and of Simon and Deborah (Nelson) Pratt, and a descendant of William Pratt of Saybrook, Conn. (1632), and of William Patten, New York, 1794. He was prepared for college at Jennings seminary, Aurora, Ill.; attended Northwestern university, Evanston, Ill., 1874-76; and was graduated at the University of Halle, Germany, A.M. and Ph.D., 1878. He was principal of public schools in Illinois and Iowa, 1882-88, and in 1883 became professor of political economy in the Wharton School of Finance and Economy, University of Pennsylvania. He contributed to the Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, the Political Science Quarterly, the Journal of Economics, Conrad’s Jahrbucher, and other periodicals, and is the author of: The Stability of Prices (1888); The Consumption of Wealth (1889); The Economic Basis of Protection (1890); Principles of Rational Taxation (1890); Tide Theory of Dynamic Economics (1892); Theory of Social Forces (1896); The Development of English Thought (1899).

PATTERSON, Robert Wilson, educator, was born near Maryville, Blount county, Tenn., Jan. 2l, 1814; son of Alexander and Sarah E. (Stevenson) Patterson, both natives of South Carolina and a descendant of Scotch Presbyterians, who immigrated to America to escape persecution. He removed to Illinois with his parents in 1824, was graduated at Illinois college in 1837, and attended Lane Theological seminary at Cincinnati, Ohio, 1837-39 and 1840-41. He was ordained by the presbytery of Ottawa, Sept. 14, 1842, was pastor of the second Presbyterian church, Chicago, Ill., 1842-73, and declined the chair of didactic theology in Lane Theological seminary in 1854. He was moderator of the new school Presbyterian church in 1859, and a member of the conference union of the two schools. He was professor of Christian evidences and ethics in McCormick Theological seminary, Chicago, Ill., 1873-81; president of Lake Forest university, Ill., 1876-78, and a lecturer on apologetics and Christian evidences in Lane Theological seminary, 1881-84. He received the degree D.D. from Hamilton college in 1856, and that of LL.D. from Lake Forest university in 1884. He retired to Evanston, Ill., where he died Feb. 28, 1894.

PECK, Ferdinand Wythe, commissioner, was born in Chicago, Ill., July 15, 1848; son of Philip F.W. and Mary Kent (Wythe) Peck. He was admitted to the bar in 1869. He engaged in philanthropic work in Chicago, was one of the founders of the Illinois Humane society; president and a member of the board of governors of the Chicago Atheneum, and president of the Chicago Auditorium association. He conceived and carried into completion the Chicago auditorium and hotel. He was vice-president of the Chicago board of education for four years, being twice appointed by the mayor to that position. He was chairman of the finance committee, a vice-president of the World’s Columbian exposition and a member of the commission of five to visit Europe in the interest of the exposition. He was a trustee of the University of Chicago, 1894-97. In 1898 he was appointed by President McKinley U.S. commissioner-general to the Paris exposition of 1900, where he secured much additional space for American exhibits and concluded the plans for the execution of the bronze equestrian statue of Lafayette, executed by Paul Wayland Bartlett, paid for by popular subscriptions largely from school children in the United States and placed in the court of the Louvre at Paris. He was appointed a grand officer of the Legion of Honor by the president of France in 1900.

PECK, John Mason, pioneer clergyman, was born at South Farms, Litchfield, Conn., Oct. 31, 1789. He removed to Windham, N.Y., in 1811, and became a Baptist preacher at New Durham, N.Y. He was ordained, June 9, 1813, and preached in Catskill and Amenia, N.Y., 1813-15. He studied mission work under Dr. Stoughton at Philadelphia, Pa., in 1815, and was subsequently appointed a missionary to St. Louis, Mo., preaching through Missouri and Illinois, 1817-26. He made a home in Rock Spring, Ill., in 1822, where he established in 1826 the Rock Spring seminary for training teachers and preachers, which became Shurtleff college in 1835, and was located at Upper Alton, Ill. He traveled 6,000 miles and collected $20,000 to endow this institution. He established and published the Western Pioneer and Baptist, the first official organ of the Baptist church in the west, 1828; helped to organize the American Baptist Home Missionary society in 1831; established and edited the Illinois Sunday School Banner, and was one of the originators and chief factors in establishing the theological institution at Covington, Ky. He was corresponding secretary and financial agent of the American Baptist Publication society, 1843-45, and held pastorates in Missouri, Illinois and Kentucky, 1845-58. He received the honorary degrees A.M. from Brown in 1835, and D.D. from Harvard in 1852. He contributed to the historical societies of the northwestern states and territories, and is the author of: A Guide for Emigrants (1831); Gazetteer of Illinois (1834); New Guide for Emigrants to the West (1836); Father Clark, or the Pioneer Preacher (1855); Life of Daniel Boone in Sparks’s “American Biography,” and edited the second edition of “Annals of the West: Forty Years of Pioneer Life”; “Memoir of John Mason Peck, edited from his Journals and Correspondence” (1864) by the Rev. Rufus Babcock. He died in Rock Spring, Ill., March 15, 1858.

PHILLIPS, William Addison, representative, was born in Paisley, Scotland, Jan. 14, 1824. He was educated in the schools of Paisley, and in 1839 came to the United States with his parents and settled in Randolph county, Ill. He engaged in farming, 1839-45, edited the Herald at Chester, Ill., and also acted as a correspondent of the New York Tribune, 1845-55. He was admitted to the bar in 1855, and settled in practice in Kansas, where he continued his contributions to the Tribune, and became active in the history of the free state movement. He was first justice of the supreme court under the Leavenworth constitution, and in 1858 founded the city of Salina, Kan. He raised some of the first troops in Kansas in 1861, and entered the army as major of volunteers. He was afterward promoted colonel, and served as commander of the famous Cherokee Indian regiment; organized the Indian brigade, and commanded a division made up of Indians from Kansas, Arkansas, Illinois, Wisconsin and Colorado, under General Schofield, and served on the frontier during the war. He was wounded in battle three times. He refused a nomination for governor of Kansas and an offer of $10,000 a year as a correspondent of the Now York Tribune with the Army of the Potomac, and in 1865 represented Salina in the Kansas legislature. He served as attorney of the Cherokee Indians at Washinton, D.C., and was a Republican representative from the first Kansas district in the 43d, 44th and 45th congresses, 1873-79. He was president of the Kansas Historical society, contributed to periodicals, and is the author of Labor, Land and Law (1886). He died at Fort Gibson, I.T., Nov. 30, 1893.

PIERCE, Frederick Clifton, historian, was born in Worcester, Mass., July 30, 1856; son of Silas Austin and Maria N. (Smith) Pierce; grandson of Amos Pierce, and a descendant of John Pers of Watertown, Mass., 1637. He attended Groton academy, Mass., and engaged in journalism in Worcester, Mass., in 1879. He removed to Chicago, Ill., 1880, and was city editor of the Gazette, 1880-90. He was business manager of the Chicago Journal, 1890-1900, and was chosen advertising manager of the Chicago Inter-Ocean in 1900, and business manager in 1901. He organized the City Grays, 3d regiment, Illinois National Guard, in 1883, and commanded it until 1885, when he was promoted colonel of staff to Governor Richard 0glesby. He was also a member of the staffs of Govenors Fifer and Altgeld, and served as secretary of the National Guard for six years. He became a member of the American Historical society, 1900; the Society of American Authors, and many other organizations. He is the author of: History of Grafton, Mass. (1879); History of Barre, Mass. (1880); Life and Services of R. M. A. Hawk (1886); History of Rockford, Ill. (1887); and numerous genealogies, including the Field, Foster, Harwood, Whitney, Fisk, Fiske, Pierce, Peirce, Pearce, Forbes, Forbush, Gibson, Batcheller, Batchelder and Sherman families.

PINKERTON, Allan, detective, was born in the Gorbals, Glasgow, Scotland, Aug. 25, 1819; son of William Pinkerton, a sergeant of police in Glasgow. He received a limited education, and learned the cooper’s trade. In 1838 he became active in the chartist movement, and in the troubles which followed fled to Canada in 1842, in the same year settling in Chicago, Ill. He removed to Dundee, Ill., in 1843, where he engaged in the cooper’s trade, was active in the Abolition movement, became deputy sheriff of Kane county, Ill., in 1846, and subsequently of Cook county, returning to Chicago to live. He organized a detective force for the purpose of capturing railroad thieves in 1850, which grew into Pinkerton’s National Detective Agency. His recovery of $40,000 stolen from the Adams express company at Montgomery, Ala., and the discovery of a plot to assassinate Abraham Lincoln in 1860, gave him a national reputation. He was the first special U.S. mail agent for northern Illinois and Indiana and southern Wisconsin; organized the U.S. secret service division of the army in 1861, and was appointed its chief by President Lincoln, and subsequently organized and served as chief of the secret service, department of the Gulf. He established an office in New York city in 1865, and another in Philadelphia in 1866, and in the course of his work recovered vast sums of stolen money for banks and corporations. He was married in 1842 to Joan Carfral of Edinburgh, Scotland. Their sons William A. and Robert A. Pinkerton were taken into the business when quite young, and at their father’s death became his successors, and increased the agency by establishing offices in Boston, Denver, St. Paul, and Kansas City. Allan Pinkerton is the author of: The Molly Maguires and the Detectives (1877); Criminal Reminiscences (1878); The Spy of the Rebellion (1883); Thirty Years a Detective (1884); and numerous detective stories published in periodicals. He died in Chicago, Ill., July 1, 1884.

POPE, John, soldier, was born in Louisville, Ky., March 12, 1823; son of Judge Nathaniel Pope (1784-1850), a native of Louisville, Ky., a graduate of Transylvania college, lawyer in Missouri and Illinois, secretary of Illinois Territory, a delegate in congress from Illinois Territory, 1816-18, and U.S. judge for the district of Illinois, 1818-50. John Pope was graduated at the U.S. Military academy in 1842, and assigned to the topographical engineers. He served in Florida, 1842-44, and as assistant engineer on the survey of the northeast boundary line, 1845-46. He was promoted 2d lieutenant, May 9, 1846; was engaged in the battles of Monterey and Buena Vista; was brevetted 1st lieutenant, Sept. 23, 1846, and captain, Feb. 23, 1847, for gallant and meritorious conduct at Monterey, and Buena Vista respectively. He served on surveys and explorations in Minnesota, 1849-50; as chief topographical engineer of the department of New Mexico, 1851-53, and as chief of the survey of the Pacific railroad route, near the 32d parallel of latitude, 1853-59. He was promoted 1st lieutenant, March 3, 1853; captain, July 1, 1856, for fourteen years’ continuous service, and was on light-house duty, 1859-61. He was court-martialed for criticizing the President’s policy early in 1861; was appointed by President Lincoln mustering officer at Chicago, Ill., serving from April to July, 1861; was made brigadier-general of U.S. volunteers, May 17, 1861, and commanded the district of North Missouri, July to October, 1861, and the 2d division of the army in its successful campaign against General Price in Southwest Missouri, October to December, 1861, when he captured large stores of provisions and many prisoners. He commanded the district of Central Missouri, December, 1861, to February, 1862; the Army of the Mississippi in co-operation with the gunboat fleet under Flag-officer Foote in the capture of New Madrid, Mo., March 14, 1862, and the capture of Island No. 10, April 8,1862. He was promoted major-general of volunteers, March 21, 1862, and in the Mississippi campaign advanced upon and besieged Corinth, April-May, 1862, after its capture pursuing the Confederate army to Baldwin. He was promoted brigadier-general in the regular army, July 14, 1862; was given command of the Army of Virginia, to which was added the Army of the Potomac, and with the combined army fought the disastrous battles of Cedar Mountain, Manassas and Chantlilly, resigning his command after the army fell back on Washington. He was transferred to the command of the department of the Northwest, serving 1862-65; was commander of the military division of the Missouri, January to June, 1865, and of the department of the Missouri, June, 1865, to August, 1866. He was brevetted major-general, U.S.A., March 13, 1865, for gallantry at Island No. 10, and was mustered out of the volunteer service, Sept. 1, 1866. He was on leave of absence, October, 1866, to April, 1867, and commanded the Third military district, comprising Georgia, Florida and Alabama, 1867-68; the department of the Lakes, 1868-70, and the department of the Missouri, 1870-83. He was promoted major-general, U.S.A., Oct. 26, 1882, and commanded the division of the Pacific and the department of California, 1883-86, when he was retired, being sixty-four years of age. He charged the failure of his operations in Virginia to the omission of Gen. Fitz-John Porter to obey his orders and caused that officer’s court-martial. He is the author of: Explorations from the Red River to the Rio Grande (Pacific Railroad reports, vol. Ill.) and The Campaign of Virginia, 1862 (1865). He died in Sandusky, Ohio, Sept. 23, 1892.

POST, Philip Sidney, representative, was born in Florida, Orange county, N.Y., March 19, 1833; son of Gen. Peter Schuyler and Mary D. (Coe) Post; grandson of Col. Garret and Martinche (Bertolf) Post, and of John D. Coe. He was graduated at Union college in 1855, and was admitted to the Illinois bar in 1856. He first practiced in Galesburg, and in 1857 in Wyandotte, Kan., where he also published and edited the Argus. On the outbreak of the civil war he was made 2d lieutenant in the 59th Illinois volunteers; was promoted adjutant, July 21, 1861; major, Jan. 1, 1862; colonel, March 19, 1862, and was wounded at Pea Ridge, Ark., March 7, 1862. He subsequently commanded the 1st brigade, 1st division, 20th corps, the Army of the Cumberland, participating in the battle of Stone’s River, and in the capture of Leetown; was transferred to the 2d brigade, 3d division, 4th army corps, commanding the division at Lovejoy’s Station, Ga., and was seriously wounded in the hip at Nashville, Dec. 16, 1864, being brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers on the same day for gallant services. He commanded the western district of Texas, with headquarters at San Antonio, 1865-66. He was married, May 24, 1866, to Cornelia Almira, daughter of William Townsend Post. He was at Vienna, 1866-74, as U.S. consul, and as U.S. consul-general, 1874-79. He was a member-at-large of the Illinois Republican state central committee, 1882-86, and a representative from the tenth Illinois district in the 50th, 51st, 52d and 53d congresses, 1887-95. He died in Washington, D.C., Jan. 6, 1895.

POWELL, John Wesley, geologist, was born in Mount Morris, N.Y., March 24, 1834. His father, a Methodist clergyman, emigrated from England to New York city; removed to Jackson, Ohio, in 1841; to Walworth county, Wis., in 1846, where he continued to preach, leaving the entire care of the farm to his son; to Boone county, Ill., in 1851, and finally to Wheaton, where he was a trustee of the college. John Wesley Powell had few educational advantages beyond attending Wheaton and Illinois colleges irregularly to hear lectures, and in the meantime earned money by teaching and lecturing in geography to prosecute his studies further. He took a special two years’ course at Oberlin, and having at an early age developed an inclination toward natural science, made an extensive collection of shells, plants and minerals from various western states, and in 1859 was elected secretary of the Illinois Natural History society. He was married in 1861 to Emma Dean of Detroit, Mich. He enlisted as a private in the 20th Illinois volunteers in 1861; was promoted lieutenant in the 2d Illinois artillery, and at the battle of Shiloh lost his right arm. He declined the colonelcy of a colored regiment; was promoted major and became chief of artillery of the 17th army corps, and later of the Department of Tennessee, serving until the end of the war. He was professor of geology and curator of the museum at the Illinois Wesleyan university, 1865-68; in the summer of 1867 organized a party of students for the purpose of making a geographical study of Colorado, ascending Pike’s Peak and Mount Lincoln, and in 1868, under the auspices of General Grant and of several educational institutions, especially the Smithsonian Institution, explored the Colorado canyons, reaching the Grand canyon, Aug. 13, 1869. As a result of his success in this expedition, and through his efforts, congress created in 1870 the topographical and geological survey of the Colorado river, of which Major Powell was placed in charge. In 1879 he was made a member of the public lands commission, and after the consolidation of the different surveys, under the direction of the Smithsonian Institution, into one national survey in 1879, he was chosen director of the bureau of ethnology, and succeeded Clarence King (q.v.) as director of the U.S. geological survey in 1881, resigning in May, 1894, on account of ill health. In 1900, accompanied by Prof. W. H. Holmes, anthropologist of the National museum, he conducted an exploring expedition in Cuba to study the remains of the pre-historic inhabitants, and brought back a valuable and interesting collection of human bones and specimens pertaining to the life of the Arawaks and Caribs. He received the degrees A.M. and Ph.D., upon examination, from Illinois Wesleyan university in 1877; the honorary degree of A.M. from Oberlin college, 1882; LL.D. from Columbian, 1882; Harvard, 1886; Illinois college, 1889; Ph.D. from Heidelburg, 1886, and was awarded the famous Cuvier prize by the French Academy in 1891. He was a lecturer on primitive medicine at Columbian university in 1881, and a trustee, 1881-1902. He became a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1875, vice-president in 1879, and president in 1887; was president of the Anthropological society of Washington, 1879-88; became a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 1880, and of the American Philosophical society; a fellow of the American Academy, and organized a social club of scientific men in Washington, D.C. He is the author of: Exploration of the Colorado River of the West and its Tributaries, Explored in 1869-72 (1875); Sketch of the Ancient Province of Tusayan (1875); Geology of the Eastern Portion of the Uinta Mountains and a Region of Country Adjacent Thereto (1876); The Lands of the Arid Region of the United States (1879); Introduction to the Study of Indian Languages (1880); Studies in Sociology; The Canons of the Colorado (1895) and several pamphlets. He died at Haven, Maine, Sept. 23, 1902.

POWELL, William Henry, soldier, was born in Monmouthshire, South Wales, May 10, 1825. In 1830 he came to the United States with his parents, who settled in Nashville, Tenn., in 1833, removing to Wheeling, Va., in 1843. He was married first, Dec. 24, 1847, to Sarah Gilchrist of Wheeling, Va.; and secondly, April 29, 1879, to E. P. (West) Weaver of Belleville, Ill. He conducted the erection of the Virginia Iron and Nail works at Benwood, Va., 1852-53; the Star Nail works at Ironton, Ohio, 1853-54, and was general manager of the Lawrence Iron works at Ironton, Ohio, 1857-61. He entered the Federal army in August, 1861; recruited a company for the 2d regiment of West Virginia cavalry in Southern Ohio; was commissioned captain in October, 1861; major and lieutenant-colonel in 1862; colonel, May 18, 1863; was wounded while leading his regiment in a charge at Wytheville, Va., July 18, 1863, taken prisoner by the Confederates, and confined in Libby prison until Jan. 29, 1864. He was exchanged for General W. H. F. Lee, February, 1864, and commanded the 2d division, Sheridan’s cavalry corps, in the Shenandoah Valley, 1864-65, being promoted brigadier-general of volunteers in October, 1864, and brevetted major-general of volunteers, March 13, 1865. He declined a nomination for representative from the eleventh district of Ohio to the 40th congress in 1866. He superintended the building and was the general manager of the Clifton Nail works in Mason county, W. Va., 1867-70; declined the Republican nomination as representative from the third district of West Virginia to the 41st congress in 1868, and was made a Grant and Colfax elector the same year. He was general manager of the Belleville Nail company, Belleville, Ill., 1876-80, and in 1882 organized the Western Nail company of Belleville, of which he was made president and general manager. He was department commander of the G.A.R. of Illinois in 1895-96, and in 1898 was appointed internal revenue collector for the 13th revenue district of Illinois.

PRENTISS, Benjamin Maybury, soldier, was born in Belleville, Va., Nov. 23, 1819; son of Henry L. Prentiss, a farmer. He removed to Missouri in 1835, and to Quincy, Ill., in 1841, where he conducted a rope-walk. He was 1st lieutenant of the Quincy Rifles, raised to drive the Mormons from Hancock, Ill., 1844; was under Colonel Hardin in the Mexican war as captain and adjutant of the 1st Illinois volunteers, receiving honorable mention at Buena Vista, and on returning to Quincy engaged as a commission merchant. He was the unsuccessful Republican candidate from the fifth Illinois district for representative to the 37th congress in 1860, and [p.402] in 1861 reorganized and was elected colonel of his old company, which joined the 7th Illinois volunteers. He was promoted to the rank of brigadier-general, May 17, 1861; commanded Cairo for three months; conducted the expedition that raided southern Missouri from Pilot Knob, and on Dec. 28, 1861, routed a force of Confederates at Mount Zion, Mo. He was relieved by Gen. U.S. Grant at Cape Girardeau, and ordered to northern Missouri. He joined General Grant at Pittsburg Landing, April 3, 1862, where he commanded the 6th division, and in the first day’s fight, April 6, 1862, he was taken prisoner with most of his command, while stubbornly holding his position. He was released in October, 1862; promoted major-general of volunteers, Nov. 29, 1862; served on the court-martial of Fitz John Porter (q.v.) in November, 1862, and commanded Helena, Ark., in 1863, where he repulsed the attack of Generals Price and Holmes on July 3. He resigned his commission Oct. 28, 1863, and engaged in the practice of law in Bethany, Mo., where he died, Feb. 8, 1901.

PRINCE, George Washington, representative, was born in Tazewell county, Ill., March 4, 1854; son of Almyron and Barbara (Fast) Prince. He was graduated at Knox college, Galesburg, Ill., in 1878; was admitted to the bar in 1880, and settled in practice at Galesburg in the same year. He was married, April 20, 1882, to Lillie C., daughter of Henry and Elizabeth (Hudson) Ferris of Galesburg, Ill. He was city attorney in 1881, chairman of the Republican central committee of Knox county in 1884; a representative in the Illinois legislature, 1888-91; the Republican candidate for attorney-general of Illinois in 1892, and a Republican representative from the tenth Illinois district in the 54th congress to complete the term of Gen. Philip Sidney Post, deceased, and in the 55th, 56th, 57th and 58th congresses, 1895-1905.