Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans.
Vol. I-X. Rossiter Johnson, editor. Boston MA: The Biographical Society. 1904.

GARLAND, Hamlin, author, was born in West Salem, Wis., Sept. 14, 1860; son of Richard Hayes and Charlotte Isabelle (McClintock) Garland; and grandson of Richard Garland of Oxford county, Maine, and of Hugh McClintock, a Scotchman, born in the North of Ireland. He was taken by his parents to Iowa in 1868 and there attended for a brief time the public schools. He was graduated from Cedar Valley seminary, Osage, Mitchell county, Iowa, in 1881 and in 1882 made a trip to the east. He taught school in Illinois in 1882-83; was engaged in holding down a claim in Dakota in 1883-84, and in the autumn of 1884 removed to Boston, Mass., where he devoted his time to literary work. He lectured, wrote and conducted private classes in and around Boston until 1892, when he removed to New York city. In 1893 he removed to Chicago. He was married, Nov 18, 1899, to Zulime Taft of Chicago, a sculptor of ability and reputation; daughter of Prof. Don Carlos Taft (formerly of the University of Illinois), and a sister of Lorado Taft, the sculptor. His published works include: Main Travelled Roads (1891); A Spoil of Office (1892); A Member of the Third House (1892); Prairie Folks (1892; new edition. 1893); Jason Edwards (1892); A Little Norsk (1893); Prairie Songs (1893); Crumbling Idols (1894); Rose of Dutcher’s Coolly (1895); Wayside Courtships (1897); The Spirit of Sweetwater (1898); Life of General Grant (1898); The Trail of the Goldseekers (1899); Boy Life on the Prairie (1899) and many magazine articles.


GATCHELL, Charles, physician, was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, Nov. 8, 1850; son of Horatio P. and Anna Maria (Crane) Gatchell; and grandson of Horatio and Alice (Page) Gatchell and of Thurston and Anna (Owens) Crane. The Gatchells settled in Virginia in 1620 and subsequently a branch of the family removed to Maine, where Horatio P. Gatchell was born. Charles was graduated at Kenosha, Wis., high school and at the Pulte medical college, Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1874. He was lecturer in the Hahnemann medical college, Chicago, Ill., 1875; professor of the theory and practice of medicine, University of Michigan, 1877-80 and 1889-93; attending physician, Cook county hospital, Chicago, 1882; and professor in the Chicago homeopathic medical college from 1894. He was president of Illinois homeopathic medical association, 1889, and president of the homeopathic medical society of Chicago, 1896; chairman of the section of clinical medicine, World’s congress of homeopathic physicians and surgeons, Chicago, 1893; and chairman of the section in clinical medicine, American institute of homeopathy, 1899. He is the author of: Diet in Disease (1880); Key-Notes of Medical Practice (1883); Haschisch; A Novel (1886); Medical Dictionary (1890); They Say (1897); and Methods of Mind-Readers in The Forum, April, 1891. He also established in 1883 and edited the Medical Era, Chicago.


GOODWIN, Daniel, author, was born in New York city, Nov. 26, 1832; son of John W. and Lucretia (Goodwin) Woolsey; and grandson of Dr. Daniel and Lucretia (Collins) Goodwin of Geneva, N.Y. Daniel Goodwin, the uncle and adopted father, born in Geneva, N.Y., Nov. 24, 1799, was U.S. district attorney for Michigan, 1834-41; judge of the state supreme court, 1843-46; president of the constitutional convention, 1850, and died in Detroit, Mich., Aug. 24, 1887. Daniel Goodwin, second, was graduated from Hamilton college in 1852, admitted to the bar in New York in 1854, and removed to Michigan in 1855. He was U.S. master in chancery for Michigan, 1855-56; judge-advocate of militia, 1856-61; removed to Chicago, 1858, was assistant U.S. [p.334] attorney in Chicago, Ill., 1862-64; and U.S. circuit court commissioner for Illinois, 1861-96. He was president of the board of trustees of the Illinois eye and ear infirmary at Chicago, 1871-96. He is the author of James Pitts and his Sons in the American Revolution (1882); The Dearborns (1884); The Lord’s Table (1885); Memorial of Edwin C. Larned (1886); Provincial Pictures (1886); Memorial of Robert C. Winthrop (1894); Memorial of Arthur Brooks (1895); and Memorial of Thomas Hughes (1897).


GORDON, Joseph Claybaugh, educator, was born in Piqua, Ohio, March 9, 1842; son of the Rev. John M. and Elizabeth Ann (Fisher) Gordon; grandson of George Gordon, a soldier in the war of 1812; and a great grandson of George Gordon, a soldier in the war of the American Revolution. He removed to Illinois in 1850 and was graduated froth the Monmouth college, Ill., in 1866. He was a pioneer in America of the oral education of the deaf, and organized the oral department in the Indiana institution for the deaf in 1869. He was professor of mathematics and chemistry at Gallaudet college for the deaf in Washington. D.C., 1873-97, and was made superintendent of the Illinois institution for the education of the deaf in 1897. He received the degree of Ph.D. from Monmouth college. He was elected a member of the Philosophical and other learned societies; president of the oral section of the Association of American educators of the deaf; and first president of the XVI section (department for the deaf) of the National educational association. He is the author of Education of Deaf Children; Notes and Observations on the Education of the Deaf and numerous articles in periodicals on the progress made in the education of the deaf.


GRAHAM, Robert Orlando, educator, was born in Butler, Pa., Jan. 10, 1853; son of Malcolm and Mary (Boggs) Graham; grandson of Joseph Graham, and great grandson of Malcolm Graham, direct descendant from the Scottish family of that name. He prepared for college at the grammar and high schools of New Brighton and at Witherspoon academy, Butler, Pa., and was graduated from Amherst in 1877. He was professor of science at Monson academy, Mass., 1877-78; of chemistry at Westminster college, Pa., 1878-86, and took a post-graduate at Johns Hopkins university, 1886-88, receiving the Ph.D. degree in 1888. He was elected Isaac Funk professor of chemistry and geology at the Illinois Wesleyan university in 1888, the Shallebarger and Swayne laboratories being placed at his service; and he was made dean of the non-resident and post-graduate departments. He was also acting president of the University, 1897-98. As president of the city council, he was acting mayor of Bloomington, 1897-99. He was elected a member of the American chemical society.


GRAY, William Cunningham, editor, was born in Butler county, Ohio, Oct. 17, 1830; son of Jonathan and Mary (Woods) Gray; grandson of Robert Gray, a soldier in the American Revolution, and Mary Gray of the English Grays; and of Scotch-Irish descent. He was graduated from Belmont college in 1849 and was admitted to the bar in 1852, but never practiced. He was the editor of the Miami Democrat in 1851, and of the Scott Battery for the campaign of 1852. He established the Tribune at Tiffin, Ohio, in 1853, and was an editorial writer on the Cleveland Herald, 1862-63, and editor of the Newark American, 1863-71. He became editor of The Interior, a religious paper, in 1871. He received the degree of Ph.D. from the University of Wooster, Ohio, in 1874, and the degree of LL.D. from Knox college, Illinois, in 1896. He is the author of Campfire Musings (1894), Dreams Without Sleep, and of many magazine articles. He died in Oak Park, Ill., Sept. 28, 1901.


GRIESON, Benjamin Henry, soldier, was born in Pittsburg, Pa., July 8, 1826. He became a resident of Ohio and then of Jacksonville, Ill., where in 1861 he served as an aide-de-camp to Gen. B. M. Prentiss at Cairo, Ill. He was commissioned major of the 6th Illinois cavalry, Oct. 24, 1861, and was promoted colonel, April 12, 1862. He commanded a brigade of cavalry during the winter and spring of 1862-63, and conducted numerous raids in Western Tennessee and Northern Mississippi in conjunction with General Grant’s operations leading to the capture of Vicksburg. He continued these raids in 1864-65, in Mississippi, clearing the country of Confederate guerrillas, and after the war he joined the regular service, Sept. 6, 1866, as colonel of the 10th U.S. cavalry, under commission of July 28, 1866. He was honored by a vote of thanks by congress and was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers, June 3, 1863, for “gallant and distinguished services”; brevet major-general, Feb. 10, 1865, and major-general, May 27, 1865, which brevet he accepted, March 19, 1866. He was honorably mustered out of the volunteer service, April 30, 1866. In the regular establishment he commanded the military district of Indian Territory, 1868-73; was on duty in Western Texas, 1875-85; in Arizona, 1885-86; commanded his regiment and the military district of New Mexico, 1887-88, and the department of Arizona, 1888-90. He was brevetted brigadier-general in the regular service, March 2, 1867, for gallant and meritorious services in the raid through Mississippi in 1863, and major-general at the same date for similar service “in the raid through Mississippi in 1864.” He was promoted brigadier-general U.S.A., April 5, 1890, which commission he accepted, April 15. He was retired by operation of law, July 8, 1890, and took up his residence in Jacksonville, Ill.


GRISWOLD, Stanley, senator, was born in Torringford, Conn., Nov. 14, 1763. He was brought up on a farm, attended a district school, and was graduated from Yale in 1786. He taught school for a while, then studied theology, and on Jan. 20, 1790, became associate pastor of a Congregational church at New Milford, Conn. In 1797 he was charged with preaching contrary to the established doctrines of the church and was expelled from the association. He was, however, supported by his congregation and remained at New Milford till 1802. In 1801 he preached at a Democratic jubilee in Wallingford, Conn., a sermon entitled “Overcome Evil with Good,” in which he gave voice to such liberal political opinions, for a Congregational clergyman of that day, that it attracted wide attention. It was published in 1891 and in 1845 ran through a second edition. After resigning from New Milford he preached for a time at Greenfield, Mass., then gave up the ministry and edited a Democratic paper at Walpole, N.H., 1804-05. He was secretary and acting governor of Michigan Territory, 1805-06. He then removed to Ohio and served as a U.S. senator, 1809-10, having been appointed by Governor Huntington to fill a vacancy caused by the resignation of Senator Tiffin. He was U.S. judge for Illinois Territory, 1811-15. He died in Shawneetown, Ill., Aug. 21, 1815.


GROSSCUP, Peter Stenger, jurist, was born in Ashland, Ohio, Feb. 15, 1852; son of Benjamin and Susannah (Bowermaster) Grosscup; grand son of Paul and Rebecca (Shearer) Grosscup, and of Frederick and Catherine (Mohler) Bowermaster, and a descendant of Paul Grosscup, who sat for Berks and Lebanon counties in the Pennsylvania colonial assembly, and in the convention that framed the constitution, 1791. His paternal ancestors were Hollanders who immigrated to America before the formation of the Federal union, and his maternal ancestors were German. He was prepared for college in the schools of Ashland, Ohio, and was graduated at Wittenberg college in 1872, honorman of his class. He was graduated from the Boston law school in 1874 and practiced in Ashland, 1874-83, where for six years he served as city solicitor. He was the Republican candidate for representative in the 45th congress in 1876, but was defeated by E. B. Finley, Democrat. In 1883 he removed to Chicago, Ill., where he became a law partner with Leonard Swett, who had been an associate and law partner of Abraham Lincoln. On Dec. 12, 1892, President Harrison appointed Mr. Grosscup U.S. district judge for the northern district of Illinois. He sat in the case in 1893 relating to the closing of the doors of the World’s Columbian exposition on Sundays, and in the injunction case in the Debs riots of 1894 where his charge to the grand jury in the midst of the disturbance did much to restore order, and was the subject of extended discussion. He was promoted to the U.S. circuit court of appeals by President McKinley in January, 1899.


GUTHRIE, Alfred, engineer, was born in Sherburne, N.Y., April 1, 1805; son of Dr. Samuel Guthrie, the discoverer of chloroform. He studied medicine and chemistry with his father and practised medicine at Sacket Harbor, N.Y., for ten years when he took up the study of mechanical engineering. He removed to Chicago, Ill., in 1846. The hydraulic works of the Illinois and Michigan canal were designed and constructed by him and besides supplying the canal with water from Lake Michigan he utilized the surplus power in conveying the sewage of Chicago to the canal and thence to the Mississippi river. He studied the cause of the frequent steamboat explosions of 1851 and his research resulted in the passage of the U.S. steamboat inspection act, drawn by him and passed by congress through his personal efforts in 1852. His brother Edwin, also a physician, born Dec. 11, 1806, was a resident of Iowa and gave to Guthrie county its name. He was captain of Iowa volunteers in Mexico, 1846-47, was wounded at Pass la Hoya and died at Castle Perote, Mexico, July 20, 1847, Alfred died at Chicago, Ill., Aug. 17, 1882.


HADLEY, William Flavius Leicester, representative, was born near Collinsville, Ill., June 15, 1847; son of William and Diadama (McKinney) Hadley, and grandson of John and Priscilla (Guthrie) Hadley. He was graduated from McKendree college, A.B., 1867, and from the University of Michigan, LL.B., 1871, and practiced law in Edwardsville, Ill. In 1874 he formed a law partnership with Judge W. H. Krome, which continued until 1890. In 1886 he was elected as a Republican to the state senate and was renominated for a second term, but declined to stand. He was a delegate-at-large from Illinois to the Republican national convention at Chicago in 1888; was a representative in the 54th congress, 1895-97, and in 1896 was defeated for the 55th congress by his Fusion opponent.


HALL, James, author, was born in Philadelphia, Pa., Aug. 19, 1793; son of John and Sarah (Ewing) Hall. His father was a native of Maryland, secretary of the land-office and U.S. marshal for the district of Pennsylvania; his mother was a celebrated author and editor; and his maternal grandfather, the Rev. John Ewing, was provost of the University of Pennsylvania. He was educated for the law, but in 1812 volunteered in the war With Great Britain as a member of the Washington Guards. He commanded a detachment at Chippewa in 1814; fought at Lundy’s Lane and at the siege of Fort Erie and received official recognition for his services. He was promoted lieutenant in the 2d U.S. artillery, and in 1815 was with Decatur’s expedition to Algiers, on board the Enterprise, Lieut. Lawrence Kearny. He resigned from the U.S. army in 1818; was admitted to the bar, and practiced in Shawneetown, Ill., 1820-27; was editor of the Illinois Gazette; public prosecutor, and judge of the circuit court. He removed to Vandalia in 1827; edited the Illinois lntelligencer and the Illinois Monthly Magazine, and was treasurer of the state. In 1833 he removed to Cincinnati, Ohio, was cashier of the Commercial bank, 1836-53, and its president, 1853-68. He continued his magazine in Cincinnati as the Western Monthly Magazine, contributed largely to periodical literature, and published: Letters from the West (1829); Legends of the West (1832); The Soldier’s Bride (1832); The Harpe’s Head (1833); Tales of the Border (1835); Sketches of the West (1835); Life of Gen. William Henry Harrison (1886); Statistics of the West (1836; new ed., 1839); History and Biography of the Indians of North America (3 vols., 1838-44); The Wilderness and the War-Path (1845); and Romance of Western History (1847). His works were published in a uniform edition (4 vols., 1858-56). He died near Cincinnati, Ohio, July 5, 1868.


HANSBROUGH, Henry Clay, senator, was born in Prairie du Rocher, Ill., Jan. 30, 1848; son of Eliah and Sarah (Hagen) Hansbrough, grandson of William H. and Elizabeth (Miller) Hansbrough of Virginia, and a descendant of John Hansbrough who came from England and settled in Virginia in 1640. His parents removed to Illinois from Kentucky in 1846, and he was brought up on his father’s farm. The advent of the civil war closed the school in which he was preparing for college, and in 1866 he removed with his parents to California. He learned the trade of printer in the office of the San Jose Mercury, and in 1869 was a partner in publishing a daily paper in San Jose. He removed to San Francisco and was employed on the Chronicle, 1870-72, in the printing department; as telegraph editor and then as assistant managing editor, 1872-79; engaged in journalism in Wisconsin, 1880, and in 1882 went to Dakota Territory, where he continued in active newspaper work until he entered the field of politics in 1888. He was the first representative from North Dakota in the 51st congress, 1889-91; a delegate to the Republican national convention of 1888, and national committeeman from North Dakota, 1888-96. He was elected U.S. senator, Jan. 23, 1891, took his seat in the senate at the close of his term as a representative, March 4, 1891, and was re-elected, Jan. 20, 1897, for the term expiring March 3, 1903. His first wife, Josephine, daughter of James Orr of Newburgh, N.Y., died in January, 1895. He was married again in 1897 to Mary Berri Chapman of Washington, D.C.


HARDIN, John J., representative, was born in Frankfort, Ky., Jan. 6, 1810; son of Martin D. Hardin, U.S. senator. He was educated at Transylvania university and practiced law in Jacksonville, Ill. He was prosecuting attorney for his circuit; representative in the state legislature, 1836-42; representative in the 28th congress, 1843-45; and colonel of the 1st Illinois volunteers in the war with Mexico, where he joined the army of occupation under Gen. Zachary Taylor and took part in his campaign. He was killed at the battle of Buena Vista while leading his men in the final charge, Feb. 23, 1847.


HARDING, Abner Clark, representative, was born in East Hampton, Conn., Feb. 10, 1807. He spent the greater part of his boyhood in central New York where he attended Hamilton academy. Subsequently he was admitted to the bar and after practicing for awhile in Oneida county removed to Warren county, Ill., where he continued active in his profession for about fifteen years. He was a member of the Illinois constitutional convention of 1848, and also of the state legislature, 1848-50. In 1862 he enlisted in the 83d Illinois volunteers, arose to the rank of colonel; for his action at Fort Donelson in February, 1862, was promoted brigadier-general, and in 1863 he was in command of a brigade at Murfreesboro, Tenn. He was a representative in the 39th and 40th congresses, 1865-69, and after that year gave much of his time to the promotion of railroad enterprises in Illinois. He endowed a professorship in Monmouth college, Monmouth, Ill., and also gave generously to other educational institutions. He died in Monmouth, Ill., July 19, 1874.


HARRISON, Carter Henry, representative, was born at Elk Hill, Fayette county, Ky., Feb. 15, 1825; son of Carter Henry and Caroline Evalind (Russell) Harrison; grandson of Robert Carter and Ann (Cabell) Harrison, and of Col. William and Nancy (Price) Russell; and a descendant on his father’s side from Benjamin Harrison who emigrated from England to Virginia about 1620, and on his mother’s side from William Russell, who came from England to Jamestown, Va., with Sir Alexander Spotswood in 1710. Mr. Harrison was prepared for college under Dr. Lewis Marshall, brother of Chief-Justice John Marshall, entered the sophomore class at Yale in 1843 and was graduated in 1845. He then engaged in farming in Fayette county, Ky., travelled in the Orient with Bayard Taylor, spent two years in Germany and France, and in 1855 was graduated from the Transylvania university law school, Lexington, Ky., being admitted to the bar in the same year. He was married in 1855 to Sophonisba Preston of Henderson, Ky., who died in 1876. In 1882 he was married in London to Marguerite E., daughter of Marcus A. Stearns of Chicago. In 1857 he removed to Chicago, where he practiced law and engaged in the real estate business. He was elected commissioner of Cook county in 1871; was defeated for congress in 1872, and was a Democratic representative in the 44th and 45th congresses, 1875-79. In 1879 he was elected mayor of Chicago and was also elected in 1881, 1883, 1885 and 1893. In 1884 he was Democratic candidate for governor of Illinois and in 1891 unsuccessfully contested the mayoralty nomination with De Witt C. Cregier; making the race independently he came within two thousand votes of election. In 1887-88 made a trip around the world, writing descriptive letters to the Chicago papers. These letters were afterward published under the title “A Race with the Sun.” In November, 1891, he purchased the Chicago Times newspaper which was managed by his two sons, Carter Henry and William Preston, until 1894. On the evening of his death a stranger, pleading urgent business, was admitted to Mayor Harrison’s house. Mr. Harrison left the dining-room to meet the stranger who fired at him with a revolver, inflicting five wounds. The assassin afterward gave himself up and was convicted of murder. Mr. Harrison died in Chicago, Ill., Oct. 28, 1893.


HASCALL, Milo Smith, soldier, was born in Le Roy, N.Y., Aug. 5, 1829; son of Amasa and Phebe Ann Hascall. He was brought up on his father’s farm and attended the district school. In 1847 he settled in Goshen, Ind., and was appointed from that state a cadet in the U.S. military academy, where he was graduated in 1852, assigned to the artillery service and served in garrison duty at Fort Adams, R.I., 1852-53. He resigned from the army to take a contract for building a section of the Indiana & Michigan Southern railroad in 1854. He was admitted to the bar and practiced law, serving as prosecuting attorney, and as clerk of courts at Goshen, Ind., 1859-61. He enlisted as a private in a three months’ company, was promoted captain and aide-de-camp on the staff of Gen. T. A. Morris and organized and drilled volunteer regiments at Camp Morton. On June 16, 1861, he was present at the first engagement of the war after Sumter where was captured at Philippi the first Confederate flag secured by the Union army in the war and the next day he was promoted colonel of the 17th Indiana volunteers. He commanded a brigade made up of the 15th and 17th Indiana, and the 6th and 43d Ohio volunteers at Louisville, Ky., December, 1861, and was assigned to Gen. William Nelson’s division. He was transferred to the command of a brigade in Gen. T. J. Wood’s division, helped to capture Nashville. Feb. 24, 1862, and advanced on Shiloh, April 6, 1862. On April 25, 1862, he was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers and led a brigade in the Tennessee campaign, 1862-63. At Stone’s River, Dec. 31, 1862, he was in command of a brigade on the extreme left when the engagement commenced. Gen. T. J. Wood, his division commander, was wounded early in the day and retired, which put him in command of the division and by 10 A.M. of that day he was in command of all the troops left fighting and saved the day and the army from utter rout and ruin. After the battle was over he was sent to Indianapolis to return deserters from Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. While thus engaged he was transferred to the army of the Ohio at the request of General Burnside and commanded a division in that army till after the fall of Atlanta. The next day after the battle of Kenesaw Mountain he executed a flank movement which caused the enemy to evacuate that stronghold and retreat precipitately across the Chattahoochee river. He was very prominent in all the engagements of the Atlanta campaign and resigned his commission after its fall. He returned to his home and was a banker at Galena, Ind., until 1890 when he removed to Chicago and entered largely into real estate business transactions, making his home at Oak Park, Cook county, Ill.


HATFIELD, Marcus Patten, physician, was born in New York city, Feb. 20, 1849; son of the Rev. Robert M. and Elizabeth A. Hatfield; grandson of Elisha Hatfield of Mount Pleasant, N.Y.; and a descendant of Peter Hatfield, who settled in White Plains, N.Y., about 1640. He was graduated at Wesleyan university in 1870 and took a course in medicine at the Chicago medical college, 1870-72. He was house surgeon and physician in Mercy hospital, Chicago, 1872-73, and lectured on physiology and hygiene in Cincinnati Wesleyan university in 1873. He was chosen as commissioner from Illinois to represent that state at the Vienna exposition, and traveled extensively in Europe and attended medical lectures in Berlin, Zurich and London. On his return he was made lecturer on chemistry at the Chicago medical college and was chosen professor of inorganic chemistry and toxicology in 1877, at the same time filling the chair of pediatrics. He was married, Dec. 21, 1876, to Hattie A., daughter of Bishop William L. Harris. He was made secretary of Wesley hospital, Chicago, on its organization. He was elected a member of the American academy of medicine in 1884 and president of the medical board of the Jackson Park Fresh Air sanitarium. He is the author of frequent contributions to the Archives of Pediatrics and other medical journals on subjects connected with the care and diseases of children.


HENDERSON, Thomas Jefferson, representative, was born in Brownsville, Tenn., Nov. 29, 1824; son of William H. and Sarah M. (Howard), grandson of John and Nancy (Singleton) Henderson, and of Edmund and Edith (Murphy) Howard; and great grandson of William Henderson, who was born in Hanover county, Va. His great grandfather Henderson came from Scotland and settled probably in Hanover county, Va., where his paternal great grandfather and grandfather were born. He attended the Male academy in his native town, and removed to Illinois in 1836, where he afterward attended the common schools. He was a student at the University of Iowa, 1845-46. In 1847 he was elected clerk of the county commissioners’ court of Stark county, Ill., and was clerk of the county court, 1849-53. He was a representative in the Illinois legislature in 1855 and 1856, and a state senator, 1856-60. In 1862 he joined the U.S. army as colonel of the 112th Illinois volunteers, and served until the close of the war, much of the tinge commanding a brigade, and whining the brevet rank of brigadier-general of volunteers, “for gallant services in the Georgia and Tennessee campaigns, especially at the battle of Franklin, Tenn., Nov. 30, 1864.” He was a Republican presidential elector for the state of Illinois at large in 1868; collector of internal revenue for the fifth district of Illinois, 1871-73, and a Republican representative in the 44th-53d congresses inclusive, 1875-95. On April 22, 1896, he was appointed a member of the board of managers of the National Home for disabled volunteer soldiers for the term of six years, and in 1900 was secretary of the board.


HENRY, Serepta Myrenda (Irish), reformer, was born in Albion, Pa., Nov. 4, 1839; daughter of the Rev. H. Nelson and Mary A. (Clark) Irish, and a descendant of New England colonial stock on both sides, her paternal ancestors being Quakers, her maternal grandfather a surgeon in the Revolutionary army, and his son a captain of militia in the war of 1812. Her father, a Methodist minister, removed to northwestern Illinois in 1840, where he was a missionary. She was educated at borne and at Rock River seminary, Mount Morris, Ill., 1859-61. She was married, March 7, 1861, to James W. Henry, of East Homer, N.Y., who was made an invalid by his service in the civil war, and died in 1871. She supported her family by her writings, and in 1872 removed to Rockford, Ill., where she taught in the public school. She soon resigned to prepare “After the Truth,” a series of books for the Youth’s Library of the Methodist Episcopal church. She was associated with the national body of the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union as superintendent of national evangelistic work, and as evangelist, from its organization. She organized the Cold Water Army, later known as the Loyal Temperance Legion; founded the W.C.T.U. Institute for the purpose of teaching the objects and methods of the organization, and occupied pulpits of all denominations throughout the land. She is the author of: Victoria: with Other Poems (1865); After the Truth (4 vols., 1873); Mabel’s Work (1882); The Pledge and the Cross (1882); Voice of the Home (1882); One More Chance (1885); Marble Cross, poems (1886); Beforehand (1888); The Unanswered Prayer (1889); Frances Raymond’s Investment (1889); Afterward (1891); Studies in Home and Child Life/1897); The Abiding Spirit (1898); Good Form (1900). She died at Graysville, Tenn., Jan. 16, 1900.


HIRSCH, Emil Gustav, educator and rabbi, was born in the independent grand-duchy of Luxemburg, May 22, 1852, son of the Rev. Samuel and Louise (Nickels) Hirsch, and grandson of Solomon and Sarah (Gottliebe) Hirsch, and of Henry and Betty (L’Arrouge) Nickels. He received an academic education in Luxemburg, removed to America with his parents in 1866 and continued his preparatory education at the academy of the Episcopal church in Philadelphia. He was graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 1872. He returned to Europe to finish his education, was a student in the University of Berlin, and at the high school for Jewish science in Berlin, 1872-76, and was graduated from the latter in 1876. He was rabbi in charge of the Hat Sinai congregation at Baltimore, Md., 1877, of the Adath-Israel congregation at Louisville, Ky., 1878-80, and of the Sinai congregation at Chicago, Ill., from 1880. He was a member and president of the public library board of Chicago, 1888-97, and became professor of rabbinical literature and philosophy in the University of Chicago in 1892. He received the degree of Ph.D. from Leipzig in 1876: that of LL.D. from Austin college, Ill., in 1896, and that of L.H.D. from Western University of Pennsylvania in 1900. He was a Republican presidential elector-at-large for Illinois in 1896; was editor of the Zeitgeist, Milwaukee, 1880-87; of the Reformer, New York. 1886, and of the Reform Advocate, Chicago, from 1891, and was instrumental in establishing the Jewish Manual Training school in Chicago in 1892, and in organizing the Congress of Religion, of which he was chosen vice-president. He became well known as an orator and as the author of various scholarly monographs on Biblical and religious subjects.


HOGG, Wilson Thomas, educator, was born in Lyndon, N.Y., March 6, 1852; son of Thomas P. and Sarah A. (Carpenter) Hogg, and grandson of William and Margaret (Lumsden) Hogg, of Scotland. His father immigrated to America from Dalkeith, Scotland, in 1832, settling first in Philadelphia and removing subsequently to western New York. Wilson was a student at Ten Broeck free academy, Franklinville, N.Y., and at the Illinois Wesleyan university, Bloomington. He entered the ministry of the Free Methodist church in 1873 and preached in various parishes in the Genesee conference until 1895, when he was elected president of Greenville college, Illinois. The general conference of 1894 elected him editor of the Free Methodist, Chicago, Ill., and in 1898 he was re-elected for a term of four years and eight months, at the same time carrying on his duties as president of Greenville college. He is the author of: Hand-Book of Homiletics and Pastoral Theology (1887); Revivals and Revivial Work (1890), and contributions to current periodical literature.


HOLMES, Elias Burton, lecturer, was born in Chicago, Ill., Jan. 8, 1870; son of Ira and Virginia (Burton) Holmes; grandson of Stiles and Ann W. Burton, of Chicago, and a descendant of Elias Bellows and Maria (Brockway) Holmes, of Brockport, N.Y., and of Stephen and Hannah Germain, of Illinois. He was educated at Allen academy and the Harvard school, Chicago, Ill. He traveled in all the continental countries of Europe, and in Japan, Algeria, Tunis, Morocco, Corsica, Greece, Thessaly, made an expedition to Fez, traveled in the Hawaiian islands, and in August, 1898, made the ascent of Haleakala, the greatest volcano in the world, situated on the island of Maui, with his assistant, Oscar Bennett Depue, and his lecture manager, Louis Francis Brown. He also explored the Yellowstone Park, and the Grand Ca�on of the Colorado river. He acquired a wide reputation as a lecturer, illustrating his lectures by motion pictures.


HOWLAND, George, educator, was born in Conway, Mass., July 30, 1824. He was graduated at Amherst, A.B., 1850; A.M., 1853; was a tutor at Amherst, 1852-55; instructor in French, German and Latin, 1855-57, and a trustee of the institution, 1879-88. He removed to Chicago, Ill., in 1858, having been elected assistant teacher in the Chicago high school. He was principal of the school, 1860-80, and superintendent of schools for the city, 1880-90. He was a member of the Illinois state board of education, 1881-92, and president of the board in 1883. He published: A Grammar of the English Language (1867); Little Voices, a volume of poems (1878); a notable translation of Virgil’s �neid (2 vols., 1880-84); Practical Hints for the Teachers of Public Schools (1889). He died in Chicago, Ill., Oct. 23, 1892.


HOYNE, Thomas, lawyer, was born in New York city, Feb. 11, 1817; son of Patrick and Eleanor M. (Byrne) Hoyne. He was brought up as a merchant’s clerk, went to Chicago in 1837, and was admitted to the bar in 1839. He was married, Sept. 17, 1840, to Leonora M., daughter of John T. Temple. He was city clerk, 1840-42, and practised law in Galena, Ill., 1812-44, and in Chicago, 1844-83. He was judge of probate in 1847; U.S. district attorney for Illinois by appointment of President Pierce, 1853-57; U.S. marshal for the northern district of Illinois by appointment of President Buchanan, 1859-61; member of the Union Defence committee of Chicago, 1861-65, and delegate to the National Union convention of 1866. He was interested in the founding of the University of Chicago in 1856-57, and the establishment of the Hoyne professorship of international and constitutional law was a recognition of this service by the trustees. He was also interested in the establishment of the Chicago Astronomical observatory, and held membership in the various scientific and literary associations of Chicago. He presided over the first meeting held after the great fire of 1871, to organize the free public library of Chicago, and was president of its first board of directors. He published a history of the library up to 1877. He was elected mayor of Chicago in 1876 on a citizens’ reform ticket, and held the office six weeks, when it was decided that the new charter of the city extended the term of the incumbent, and Mr. Hoyne at once stepped out to avoid confusion. He was a presidential elector on the Van Buren and Adams ticket in 1848, and on the Greeley and Brown ticket in 1872. He was killed in a railroad accident near Albion, N.Y., July 27, 1883.


HUBBARD, Gordon Saltonstall, pioneer, was born in Windsor, Vt., Aug. 22, 1802; eldest son of Elizar and Abigail (Sage) Hubbard, natives of Connecticut. His father, a lawyer, had become poor by unfortunate speculations, and Gurdon obtained little more than a common school education. He was employed by the American Fur company, and was sent to Mackinaw as an Indian trader. The larger part of his salary he contributed to the support of his family. He visited Fort Dearborn (the site of Chicago) in November. 1818, and established trading posts in Illinois and Michigan, by way of Chicago, to Mackinaw, making twenty-six trips, 1819-26. In l827 he engaged in the trading business on his own account, and when the business became unprofitable he removed to Chicago. He served as a volunteer against unfriendly Indians, and represented his district in the state legislature in 1832. He erected the first large warehouse built of brick, in Chicago, and in 1836 he sold out his mercantile establishment and embarked in the commission business. He formed the Eagle line between Buffalo and the upper lakes. He was appointed by Governor Joseph Duncan one of the commissioners of the Illinois and Michigan canal in 1835. In 1836, as agent of �tna Fire Insurance company, of Hartford, Conn., he wrote the first fire insurance policy ever issued in Chicago. He was a director of the State Bank of Illinois, and in 1841 aided in the organization of the board of trade. Previous to his removal to Chicago he had brought a large drove of hogs into the village, and had slaughtered them for the garrison, and soon after his removal he engaged in the packing of beef and pork, which he continued on a large scale until the destruction of his packing house by fire in 1863, after which he engaged in the indirect importation of tea from China. He retired from active business in 1871. He was an organizer of St. James’s Episcopal church, the first Episcopal church in Chicago; builder and owner of the first large hotel, and was a director in the first company to supply the village with water, in 1836. He was twice married: first, in 1831, to Eleaner Berry, of Ohio who died in 1838; and secondly, to Mary Ann Hubbard, of Chicago. In 1885 he became totally blind. He died in Chicago, Ill., Sept. 14, 1886.


HUNTER, Andrew Jackson, representative, was born at Greencastle, Ind., Dec. 17, 1831; son of John and Nancy Hunter; grandson of John and Susan (Kellam) Hunter, and a descendant of John Hunter, born in Williamsburgh, Va. He removed in infancy with his parents to Edgar county, Ill., was educated in the public schools and at Edgar academy, and engaged in civil engineering for three years. He was admitted to the Illinois bar in 1854, and practiced in Paris, Ill. He was a member of the state senate, 1865-69; Democratic nominee for congress in 1870 and in 1882; county judge of Edgar county, 1886-92, and Democratic representative from the state at large in the 53d and 65th congresses, serving 1893-95 and 1897-99.


HURLBUT, Stephen Augustus, soldier, was born in Charleston, S.C., Nov. 29, 1815; son of the Rev. Martin Luther and Lydia (Bunce) Hurlbut; grandson of Stephen Hurlbut, and a descendant in the seventh generation from Thomas Hurlbut, of Saybrook and Wethersfield, Conn., who came to America as early as 1637. His father, a graduate of Williams college in 1804, was a teacher and Unitarian clergyman. Stephen A. Hurlbut received his education chiefly at home. He then studied law and practised in Charleston, 1836-45. He served as adjutant in a South Carolina regiment during the Seminole war in Florida. In 1845 he removed to Belvidere, Ill., where he practiced law. He was married, May 13, 1847, to Sophrona R, Stevens, of Belvidere. He was a member of the Illinois constitutional convention of 1847, a Taylor and Fillmore elector in 1849, and a state representative, 1859-61. He entered the Federal army in 1861 as brigadier-general of volunteers and was stationed at various points in Missouri, 1861-62. In February, 1862, he was appointed commandant of Fort Donelson. When Grant’s army moved up the Tennessee river, he commanded the 4th division and arrived at Pittsburg Landing a week in advance of reinforcements, and, with his single division, held the place. He took part in the battle of Shiloh, April 6-7, 1862, and for his services there was promoted major-general of volunteers, Sept. 17, 1862. After the battle of Corinth, Oct. 3 and 4, 1862, he left Bolivar and pursued the retreating Confederates and engaged them in battle at Hatchie Bridge, Oct. 6, 1862. He was engaged in the Vicksburg campaign from November, 1862, and on the reorganizing of the forces under General Grant, Dec. 18, 1862, he was made commander of the 16th army corps. He was in command of Memphis in September, 1863, and on Feb. 3, 1864, led a column of Sherman’s army in the expedition against Meridian. He succeeded Gen. N. P. Banks to the command of the Department of the Gulf in May, 1864, and continued in command till mustered out of service at the close of the war. He was the first commander-in-chief G.A.R. 1866-68, and a pioneer mover in the formation of the order of the Grand Army of the Republic at Decatur, Ill., April 6, 1866; was a representative in the Illinois state legislature in 1867; a Republican elector-at-large from Illinois in 1868; U.S. minister to Colombia, S.A., 1869-73, by appointment of President Grant; a representative in the 43d and 44th congresses from the fourth district of Illinois, 1873-77; U.S. minister to Peru, 1881-82, by appointment of President Garfield, and came prominently before the public in connection with the policy of Secretary Blaine in reference to that country. He died in Lima, Peru, March 27, 1882.


INGERSOLL, Ebon Clark, representative, was born in Dresden, N.Y., Dec. 12, 1831; son of the. Rev. John and Mary (Livingston) Ingersoll; grandson of Eben and Margaret (Whitcomb) Ingersoll and of Robert and Agnes Oceanica (Adams) Livingston. His father removed to Wisconsin Territory in 1843, and subsequently to Illinois. In 1854 Ebon Clark established himself in the practice of law at Shawneetown, Ill., in partnership with his brother, Robert Green, who was two years his junior. In 1856 he was elected a representative in the state legislature, and in 1857 they removed to Peoria, Ill. He was elected a representative in the 38th congress, in 1864, to fill the unexpired term of the Hon. Owen Lovejoy, deceased, and was re-elected to the 39th, 40th and 41st congresses, serving 1864-71. He was chairman of the committee on District of Columbia. He died in Washington, D.C., May 31, 1879.


JAMES, Edmund Janes, political economist, was born at Jacksonville, Ill., May 21, 1855; son of the Rev. Colin D. and Amanda (Casad) James; grandson of the Rev. Dr. William B. and Elizabeth (Duling) James, and descendant on his mother’s side of Jacques Casad (Cossart), New York city, April, 1663; also of Thomas Blossom, deacon of the first Plymouth church elected in America; also of Francis Drake, William Trotter and John Martin, all of whom came to New England before 1650. His father was one of the early pioneer Methodist preachers in Illinois and was especially known for his interest in education, several of the principal educational institutions of Illinois owing much of their original impetus to him. Edmund was graduated from the Illinois State Normal school, studied at the Northwestern university and Harvard college and pursued courses in economics and social science at the universities of Halle, Leipzig, and Berlin, taking the degree of Ph.D. in 1877 at Halle. He was principal of the Evanston, Ill., public high school, 1878-79; principal of the model school of the Illinois State Normal university, 1879-83; and was chosen professor of public finance and administration at the University of Pennsylvania in 1883, and at the same time was given charge of the Wharton School of Finance and Economy, connected with the university. He declined a professorship of political economy at Harvard in 1890; the head professorship of political science at the University of Chicago in 1892, and one in economics at the Leland Stanford, Jr., university, and the presidency of two great western state universities, and that of the University of Cincinnati. He was sent to Europe in 1892, by the Bankers’ association, to report on the education of business men in Europe. He accepted the chair of public administration in the University of Chicago in 1896. He was actively interested in the movement for the general introduction of the kindergarten into the public school system; in the manual training movement; in the introduction of the elective system into colleges; in the development of higher commercial education, and in the agitation for the professional training of teachers at the universities. He was elected a member of the National Council of Education, 1891, and of the American Philosophical society; director of the American Social Science association; first president of the Municipal league, Philadelphia; vice-president of the American Economic association in 1885; president of the University Extension society in 1894; president of the American Academy of Political and Social Science in 1889; and member and vice-president of the Illinois State Historical Library board. He founded in 1881 and edited the Illinois School Journal (1881-83); was co-editor of the Finanzarchir, Wurtemburg, Germany, 1884, and editor of Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science (1889-96). His bibliography, which contains papers, monographs, and over one hundred articles in cyclopedias and educational journals, includes, among his published volumes: Studien Ober den Amerikanschen Zolltarif (1877); Introduction to Ingram’s History of Political Economy (1888); addresses on the Education of Business Men (1891); The Farmer and Taxation (1891); Education of Business Men in Europe (1893); The City Charters of Chicago (1898 and 1900); Municipal Government in Prussia, and The Territorial Laws of Illinois, 1809-1812.


JAMESON, John Alexander, jurist, was born in Irasburg, Vt., Jan. 25, 1824; son of Thomas and Martha (Gilchrist) Jameson; and a descendant of Scotch emigrants from the north of Ireland to northern New England about the middle of the eighteenth century. He was graduated at the University of Vermont, A.B., 1846, A.M., 1849; was in charge of an academy at Stanstead, Canada, 1846-50, and tutor in Latin at the University of Vermont, 1850-52. He studied law at Harvard, 1852-53; began practising at Freeport, Ill., in 1853, and in 1856 removed to Chicago. He was judge of the superior court of Chicago, 1865-83, and professor of equity and constitutional law in the University of Chicago, 1867-68. He was a founder of the Literary club of Chicago; founder and first president of the Prisoners’ Aid association of Illinois; a founder of the American Academy of Political and Social Science and a member of its council and of its general advisory committee. He transferred his library on state constitutional law to the University of Pennsylvania and it was named the John Alexander Jameson Library on American History. He received the degree of LL. D. from the University of Vermont in 1867. He was for many years assistant editor of the American Law Register; and is the author of: Responsibilities of American Merchants for the Conversion of the World to Christ (1855): The Grounds and Limits of Rightful Interference by Law with the Accumulation and Use of Capital (1882); Constitutional Conventions, their History, Powers and Modes of Proceeding (1867); pamphlets on religious and economic subjects, and contributions to the American Law Register. He died at Hyde Park, Ill., June 16, 1890.


JAQUES, Jabez Robert, educator, was born at Stourton, Whichford, Warwickshire, England, Dec. 8, 1828. He immigrated to the United States with his parents in 1838, and settled in Lyons, N.Y. He was graduated from Genesee college with first honor, A.B., 1854, A.M., 1857, having by his own labor earned the expenses of his education. He was principal of the academy at Troupsburg, N.Y., 1854-56, and of the Classical seminary, Mansfield, Pa., 1856-57. He joined the East Genesee conference in 1855, and was stationed at Elmira, N.Y., 1857-59; Hornellsville, N.Y., 1859-60, and at the First church, Rochester, N.Y., 1860-62. He was professor of ancient languages at Rochester Collegiate institute, 1862-65; professor of Greek and German in Illinois Wesleyan university, Bloomington, 1865-75; president and professor of classics in Albert college, Belleville, Ontario, 1875-85, and president of Hedding college, Abingdon, Ill., 1886-92. He declined the chair of languages, McKendree college, 1886. He was a fraternal delegate to the Methodist general conference in Montreal, Canada, in 1878, and was influential in effecting the union of all the Methodist churches of Canada, making the final motion in 1883. He was twice a member of the United General conference of the Methodist Episcopal church of Canada, having been previously a delegate of the Methodist church of Canada, where he made the motion by which the new name was adopted. He was elected a member of the American Philological association in 1869; of the American Academy of Political and Social Science in 1890; of the American Institute of Christian Philosophy in 1891, and was a fellow of the Society of Science, Letters and Art of London. He received the degree of Ph.D. from Syracuse university in 1875, and that of D.D. from Indiana Asbury (DePauw) university in 1875, and was alumni orator at the Syracuse commencement, June 24, 1879. He was married in 1855 to Harriet C. Lyon, of Benton Centre, N.Y., and in 1881 to Mrs. H. M. Wilson, of Macedon Centre, N.Y. He is the author of: Study of Classical Languages; Peter Cartwright the Pioneer Preacher; pamphlets and sermons. He died in Abingdon, Ill., March 29, 1892.


JETT, Thomas M., representative, was born on a farm in Bond county, Ill., May 1,1862; son of Stephen J. and Nancy Jett; grandson of Thomas Jett, and a descendant of early settlers of Virginia. He was educated in the public schools of Illinois and was a student for two years at the Northern Indiana Normal school at Valparaiso, Ind. He taught school near Greenville and Hillsboro, Ill., for three terms; and was admitted to the Illinois bar in May, 1887. He was state’s attorney of Montgomery county, Ill., 1889-96, and was a Democratic representative from the eighteenth Illinois district in the 55th, 56th and 57th congresses, 1897-1903.


JOHNSON, Hale, reformer, was born in Montgomery county, Ind., Aug. 21, 1847; son of John B. and Sarah A. (Davisson) Johnson; grandson of Hezekiah Johnson, who served in the war of 1812. His father served in the civil war in the 72d Indiana volunteers. Hale Johnson received an academic education; served in the civil war in the 135th Indiana volunteers, 1864-65; was admitted to the bar in 1875, and established himself in practice at Newton, Ill., in 1877. He joined the prohibition party in 1882 and was the candidate of that party for representative in congress, attorney-general and governor; and in 1896, for Vice-President of the United States on the ticket with Joshua Levering for President, the ticket receiving 132,007 popular votes. He was active in state and national campaigns and in amendment campaigns in Michigan and Ohio, and in 1900 was chairman of the Illinois Prohibition state committee and a candidate for the Presidential nomination. He died in Bogota, Ill., Nov. 4, 1903.


JOHNSTON, Harold Whetstone, educator, was born at Rushville, Ill., March 18, 1859; son of DeWitt Clinton and Margretta (Bauer) Johnston; grandson of Dr. James T. and Mary (Whetstone) Johnston, and of Valentine and Margretta (Heigh) Bauer. He was graduated from Illinois college, Jacksonville, in 1879, and was principal of Whipple academy, the preparatory school attacbed to Illinois college, 1880-84; instructor in Latin at Illinois college, 1882-86, and professor of Latin, 1886-95. He was elected a trustee of that college in 1895, and professor of Latin at Indiana university in the same year. He received the degree of Ph.D. from Illinois college in 1891, and that of L.H.D. from. Kenyon college in 1898. He became editor-in-chief of The Inter-Collegiate Latin Series in 1895; edited selections entitled Cicero’s Orations and Letters (1892), and is the author of: Latin Manuscripts (1897), and contributions to periodicals.


JONES, John Rice, pioneer, was born in Mallwyd, Merionethshire, Wales, Feb. 11, 1759; son of John and Ann (Williams) Jones. He received a classical education in England and practised law in London. In February, 1784, he settled in Philadelphia, and in the spring of 1785 removed to the Falls of the Ohio (or Louisville, Ky.), in company with John Filson (q.v.) and in September, 1786, he joined Gen. George Rogers Clark’s army. He was commissary-general of the Vincennes garrison under General Clark until its dissolution in July, 1787, and was afterward connected with local militia organizations for the protection of the white settlers, for which service he later received a grant of land from the U.S. government. He was the first English-speaking lawyer in Indiana and the first to practise his profession in Illinois. He was appointed, by Governor Harrison, the first attorney-general of Indiana Territory, which position he held until 1805. He was secretary of the famous slavery convention of 1802, and was recommended for appointment as chief-justice of the territorial court; was a member of the territorial legislative council, 1805-08, and for a time its president, and was largely instrumental in the formation of the territory of Illinois in 1809. In 1806-07, in conjunction with the Hon. John Johnson, he revised and prepared for publication the laws of Indiana Territory, at the instance of the legislature. In 1808 he was a leading candidate for delegate to the 11th congress, but was unsuccessful on account of his pro-slavery views. In 1807 he was appointed by the legislature a member of the first board of trustees of Vincennes university. He was for some time official interpreter and translater of the French language for the board of U.S. land commissioners at Kaskaskia. He removed in 1808 from Vincennes to Kaskaskia, the seat of government of Illinois Territory, where he practised law; thence in 1810 to Ste. Genevieve, Missouri Territory, later to St. Louis, and finally to Potosi, Mo., where, in company with Moses Austin (in honor of whom Austin, Texas, was named), he erected what is said to have been the first reverbatory furnace constructed in the United States. He was a member, and during the last session president, of the legislative council of Missouri Territory, 1814-15, and was a member of the convention of 1820, which framed the constitution of the state of Missouri. He was a candidate for U.S. senator in September, 1820, but withdrew in favor of Judge John B. C. Lucas. At the same session of the legislature he was appointed an associate justice of the supreme court of Missouri, which position he held until his death. He was twice married: first in Wales, Jan. 8, 1781, to Eliza Powell; and secondly, Feb. 11, 1791, at Vincennes, to Mary Barger, of German ancestry. Of his children: Rice Jones, born in Wales, Sept. 28, 1781, was a graduate in both medicine and law, a member of the general assembly of Indiana Territory, and was assassinated in Kaskaskia, Dec. 7, 1808, by a political enemy; John Rice (q.v.), was born in 1792, died in 1845; Augustus (q.v.), was born in 1796, died in 1887; Myers Fisher, born at Kaskaskia, Oct. 19, 1800, was a member of the Missouri legislature, represented his county in the internal improvement conventions at St. Louis in 1835 and 1836, removed to Texas in 1839, where he engaged extensively in farming and stock-raising, took an active part in protecting the frontier from the Mexicans and Indians, and died in Texas in 1846; George Wallace (q.v.), was born April 12, 1804, died in 1896; William Powell, was born at Kaskaskia, May 13, 1810, and died a passed midshipman and acting lieutenant in the U.S. navy in 1834; Eliza became the wife of the Hon. Andrew Scott, first U.S. judge of Arkansas Territory; and Harriet married, first Thomas Brady, a wealthy merchant of St. Louis, Mo., and secondly the Hon. John Scott (q.v.), a representative in congress from Missouri, 1822-26. Judge John Rice Jones died at St. Louis, Mo., Feb. 1, 1824.


JONES, Joseph Russell, diplomatist, was born in Conneaut, Ohio, Feb. 17, 1823; son of Joel and Maria (Dart) Jones, and grandson of Capt. Samuel Jones, of Hebron, Conn., an officer in the French and Indian war. His father died in 1825. He attended a public school, and in 1836 became clerk in a store in Conneaut, where he remained until August, 1838, when he joined his mother’s family at Rockton, Winnebago county, Ill., and in June, 1840, went to Galena, Ill., where he was clerk and subsequently partner in one of the business houses of that city. He retired from business on the dissolution of the firm in 1856. He was secretary and treasurer of the Galena and Minnesota Packet company, 1846-61; a representative in the Illinois legislature in 1860; U.S. marshal for the northern district of Illinois, 1861-69; U.S. minister to Belgium, 1869-75; declined the cabinet appointment of secretary of the interior in 1875, and was collector of the port of Chicago, 1875-76. He was married in 1848 to Elizabeth Ann, daughter of Judge Andrew Scott, of Arkansas, and they resided in Galena, Ill., until 1861, when they removed to Chicago, Ill. He organized the Chicago West Division Railway company in 1863, and was its president for twenty-five years, retiring from business in 1888.


JONES, Samuel J., physician, was born at Bainbridge, Pa., March 22, 1836; son of Dr. Robert Henry and Sarah Moret (Ekel) Jones; grandson of Robert and Margaret (Williamson) Jones, who were born in Ireland and came to Philadelphia in 1806; and a descendant of Marcus Ekel, who was born in Zurich, Switzerland, in 1690, and came to America in 1743. He was graduated from Dickinson college, A.B., 1857, A.M., 1860, and from the University of Pennsylvania, M.D., 1860. He was appointed assistant surgeon in the U.S. navy in December, 1860. He served on the flagship Minnesota in the Atlantic blockading squadron; was present at the battle of Hatteras Inlet, and in January, 1862, was assigned to Flag-Officer Goldsborough’s staff as surgeon, and later as surgeon on the staff of Commodore Rowan. In the spring of 1863 he was assigned to duty at Philadelphia, and was promoted surgeon and assigned to duty at Chicago, Ill., as examiner of candidates for the medical corps organizing for naval service on the western rivers. In 1864 he was ordered to the sloop-of-war Portsmouth, on the West Gulf blockading squadron, and soon after as surgeon of the New Orleans Naval hospital, where he remained until the close of the war, and served through an epidemic of yellow fever. He then served at Pensacola Naval hospital, 1865-66; on duty in Chicago, 1866; on the frigate Sabine, 1867-68, when he resigned and settled in private practice in Chicago, Ill. He was professor of opthalmology and otology at Northwestern University Medical school, Chicago, 1870-97, became surgeon to the eye and ear department of St. Luke’s hospital in 1869, and served in Mercy hospital and at the South Side dispensary, [p.147] Chicago, 1870-80. He was editor of the Chicago Medical Journal and Examiner, 1887-92, and was elected a member of the American Medical association and of the American Academy of Medicine, and represented them at several international medical congresses. He was vice-president of the American Academy of Medicine, 1885-86, and its president, 1889. He received the degree of LL.D. from Dickinson college in 1884. He became an active member of the Chicago Academy of Sciences, 1870, and was president of its board of trustees for several years. He was the originator of the National Pure Food association, and its president from its organization. He served as a member of the board of trustees of the Illinois Naval Reserve association.


JONES, Wesley Livsey, representative, was born near Bethany, Ill., Oct. 9, 1863; son of Wesley and Phoebe (McKay) Jones. His father, a soldier in the civil war, died Oct. 6, 1863, from wounds received at Fort Donelson. Wesley was graduated from Southern Illinois college, Enfield, Ill., in 1885; was admitted to the bar in 1886 and removed to Washington, where he began practice in Yakima in 1890. He was a Republican representative from the state at large in the 56th, 57th and 58th congresses, 1899-1905.


JUDD, Norman Buel, representative, was born at Rome, N.Y., Jan. 10, 1815. He was admitted to the bar in 1836, and removed to Chicago, Ill., where he was city attorney, 1837-39, and state senator, 1844-60. He was a member of the convention at Bloomington that organized the Republican party in 1856 and was chairman of the Republican state central committee, 1856-61. As a member of the Republican national convention, he brought about Lincoln’s nomination in 1860. He was U.S. minister to Prussia by appointment of President Lincoln, 1861-65; Republican representative from the first Illinois district in the 40th and 41st congresses, 1867-71, and collector of customs at Chicago, 1871-78. He was president of the Peoria and Bureau Valley railroad and of the Rock Island Railroad Bridge company. He died in Chicago, Ill., Nov. 10, 1878.


JUNCKER, Henry Damian, R.C. bishop, was born at Fenetrange, Lorraine, France, Aug. 22, 1809. He immigrated to America in early manhood and attached himself to the diocese of Cincinnati, and there studied for the priesthood. He was ordained sub-deacon, Feb. 23, 1833; deacon, March 9, 1833, and priest at Cincinnati, Ohio, by Bishop Purcell, March 16, 1834, the first to be ordained by that prelate, and was placed in charge of Holy Trinity, a German Catholic church in Cincinnati. He was transferred to Canton, Ohio; engaged in missionary work; was made pastor of Emmanuel’s church, German, at Dayton, Ohio, in 1846, and was given charge of several English and German congregations in the central part of the state. He was appointed bishop of the newly-created see of Alton, Ill., in 1857, and was consecrated bishop at Cincinnati, Ohio, by Archbishop Purcell, assisted by Bishops Henni and Young, April 26, 1857. His diocese took in the greater part of Illinois and contained at first only eighteen priests. He visited Europe in 1858 to secure more priests, and within one year had held four ordinations, increased the number of priests to forty-four and built eight churches and the Cathedral of SS. Peter and Paul, which was consecrated, April 19, 1859, by Archbishop Kenrick, of St. Louis, Mo. He founded several new congregations and parochial schools. In 1868 his priests numbered 100, with 125 theological students, 123 churches, fifty-six parochial schools, two colleges for boys, six academies for girls, two hospitals and one orphan asylum. He was master of the French, German and English languages. Bishop Juncker died at Alton, Ill., Oct. 2, 1868.


KANE, Elias Kent, senator, was born in New York city, June 7, 1796. He was a cousin of John Kintzing Kane, the jurist, (q.v.). He studied law, was admitted to the bar, and practised in Nashville, Tenn. In 1815 he removed to Kaskaskia, Ill., and was appointed a delegate to the convention that framed the state constitution in 1818. He was the first secretary of the state of Illinois; a representative in the state legislature, was elected U.S. senator to succeed J. McLean in 1825, and was re-elected in 1831, serving, 1825-35. He died in Washington, D.C., Dec. 11, 1835.


KELLOGG, William, representative, was born in Ashtabula county, Ohio, July 8, 1814; son of Amos and Paulina (Dean) Kellogg, and grandson of Walter and Abigail (Adams) Dean. He was educated in the public schools and was admitted to the bar. He removed to Canton, Ill., in 1837, and was employed for several years in settling the disputes over the land titles there. He was a representative in the Illinois legislature in 1849-50; judge of the circuit court of Illinois, 1852-55, and a Republican representative from Illinois in the 35th, 36th and 37th congresses, 1857-63. He was appointed U.S. minister to Guatemala, S.A., by President Lincoln in 1864, which office he declined. He was appointed chief justice of Nebraska Territory, and served 1866-67. He died in Peoria. Ill., Dec. 20, 1872.


KEY, John Ross, painter, was born in Hagerstown, Md., July 16, 1837; son of John Ross and Virginia (Ringgold) Key; grandson of Francis Scott and Mary Tayloe (Lloyd) Key, and of Gen. Samuel and – (Hay) Ringgold. He was educated at Washington, D.C., and studied art in Munich and Paris, 1874-76. On his return to, America he opened a studio in Boston, Mass., and in 1883 removed to Chicago, Ill. He exhibited at the Centennial exhibition, Philadelphia, in 1876 “The Golden Gate, San Francisco,” which received a medal. He also exhibited his “Cloudy Morning, Mr. Lafayette,” at the National Academy of Design in 1878. He painted a series of pictures depicting scenes at the World’s Fair, Chicago, Ill., which attracted much attention and which were exhibited in the art gallery of the Illinois state building at the Trans-Mississippi exposition, Omaha, Neb., in 1898. Among his paintings not named above are: Marblehead Beach; Ochre Point, Newport; A Morning Stroll, and numerous studies.


KING, James L., librarian, was born in La Harps, Hancock county, Ill., Aug. 2,1850; son of Col. Selah Williams and Eliza (Aleshire) King. His father was an officer in the 50th Illinois infantry in the civil war. He was educated at La Harps academy, and in 1867 was apprenticed to the printer’s trade in the office of the Gazette, Carthage, Ill. He became owner and editor of the Home News, a weekly paper published in La Harps; engaged in the book and stationery business, and in 1870 removed to Iowa and established the Headlight, the first paper published in the town of Creston. He was engaged in newspaper work in Topeka, Kan., 1871-76, when he entered the Topeka postoffice, and filled every position to that of postmaster, receiving the latter appointment from President Harrison in 1889, and serving until the close of the administration. He engaged in journalistic work until 1894, when he was appointed state librarian of Kansas, He was married, Oct. 10, 1877, to Elizabeth, daughter of Edwin B. and Celestia J. Coolbaugh of Towanda, Pa.


KIRK, Edward N., soldier, was born in Jefferson county, Obio, Feb. 29, 1828. His parents were Quakers and he was graduated with honors at Friends’ academy, Mount Pleasant. He taught school at Cadiz, Ohio, studied law there and at Baltimore, Md., where he was admitted to the bar in 1853. He practised in Baltinmre one year, and in 1854 removed to Sterling, Ill. He was married, Oct. 15, 1858, to M. E. Cameron, of Philadelphia, Pa. In August, 1861, he recruited and equipped a regiment of volunteers and tendered it to Governor Yates, but the state quota being filled his regiment was rejected by the governor but subsequently accepted by the war department at Washington. He was commissioned colonel of the 34th Illinois volunteers to date from Aug. 15, 1861, and was assigned to the 5th brigade, 2d division, Army of the Ohio, General Buell. He was made a member of the military board of examiners at Mumfordsville, Ky., to pass upon the qualifications of officers. He was in charge of an expedition in defence of Lebanon, Ky., and when that danger had passed he assumed command of all the forces at Louisville, until relieved by General Gilbert, when he was assigned to the command of the 1st brigade, 2d division, Army of Kentucky, commanded by General Nelson. On Sept. 28, 1861, he assumed command of the 5th brigade, 2d division, and on Nov. 29, 1861, he was commissioned brigadier-general for heroic action, gallantry and ability. At the battle of Shiloh, April 6-7, 1862, he was wounded; at Richmond, Ky., Aug. 30, 1862, he covered the retreat of the Federal army with his brigade and a detachment of cavalry with great success, and at Murfreesboro, Dec. 31 to Jan. 3, 1862-63, he commanded the 2d brigade, 2d division, and occupied the right wing of the Army of the Cumberland, Gen. R. W. Johnson. In this engagement his brigade lost 500 men killed and wounded, and he himself was mortally wounded, the command devolving upon Col. Joseph B. Dodge. He died at Sterling, Ill., July 21, 1863.


KIRKLAND, Joseph, author, was born in Geneva, N.Y., Jan. 7, 1880; son of William and Caroline Matilda (Startsbury) Kirkland. He received a common-school education and in 1850 removed to Chicago and later to central Illinois. At the outbreak of the civil war he entered the volunteer service and attained the rank of major. He returned to central Illinois in 1865, studied law and was admitted to the bar. He engaged in coal-mining for a short time in Indiana and Illinois, and while thus engaged he studied the social conditions of the miners, which subject he used in several of his books. He subsequently removed to Chicago and devoted himself to literary work. He was literary editor of the Chicago Tribune, 1889-91. He was a member of several literary societies in Chicago and New York, and was the first president of the Twentieth Century club. He published: Zury: the Meanest Man in Spring County (1887); The McVeys (1888); The Captain of Company K (1889); The Story of Chicago (with Caroline Kirkland, 2 vols., 1892-94); The Chicago Massacre of 1812 (1898); Among the Poor of Chicago (1895). “The Captain of Company K,” was first published in the Detroit Free Press under the name “The Three Volunteers.” It was submitted for a competition and won the first prize offered of $1600. Major Kirkland died in Chicago, Ill., April 29, 1894.


KOERNER, Gustavus, diplomatist, was born in Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germany, Nov. 20, 1809. His father was a well-known publisher and bookseller, and for many years a public official of Frankfort. Gustavus studied at the universities of Jena and Munich, and was graduated from the University of Heidelberg, LL.B. in 1832. He immigrated to the United States in 1833, studied law at Transylvania college, Kentucky, 1834-35, was admitted to the Illinois bar in 1835, and settled in practice in Belleville. He was married in 1836 to Sophia Engelmann, of St. Clair county, Ill. He was a representative from St. Clair county in the state legislature, 1842-43, judge of the supreme court of Illinois, 1845-51, and lieutenant-governor of the state, 1853-56. In 1856 he became an anti-Nebraska Democrat; was delegate at large from the state to the Republican national convention of 1860; organized the 43d Illinois volunteer regiment, was commissioned colonel by President Lincoln and served on the staffs of Generals Fremont and Halleck. He resigned from the service in March, 1862, and in June, 1863, accepted the appointment of U.S. minister to Spain, resigning this post in January, 1865. He was president of the beard of trustees that organized the Soldiers’ Orphans’ home at Bloomington, Ill., in 1867; elector at large on the Grant ticket in 1868; president of the first board of railroad commissioners of Illinois in 1870; delegate to the Liberal Republican national convention at Cincinnati in 1872, and a candidate for governor of Illinois on the Democratic and Liberal Republican ticket in 1872. He is the author of: Collections of the Important General Laws of Illinois with Comments, in German(1838); From Spain (1866); Das Deutsche Element in den Vereingten Staaten 1818-48 (1880; 2d ed., 1885), and contributions to periodicals. He died at Belleville, I11., 1896.


LACLEDE, Pierre Ligueste, pioneer, was born in Bion, France, in 1724. It is probable that he was one of the founders of Ste. Genevieve in 1755, the first settlement made by Europeans in that part of Louisiana, afterward known as Louisiana Territory. He obtained, in 1763, from M. D’Abbadie, director-general and civil and military commander of Louisiana, a monopoly of the “fur trade with the Indians of Missouri river and those west of the Mississippi river above the Missouri, as far north as St. Peter’s river;” and the firm of Laclede, Maxent & Co. became known as the Louisiana Fur Company. In order to accomplish the designs of the company, Laclede organized an expedition in New Orleans, and in August, 1763, started out to establish a trading post north of the settlements at Ste. Genevieve. They wintered at Fort de Chartres in what was then called Illinois, and in February, 1764, Col. Auguste Chouteau (q.v.) left the fort with some followers and proceeded through the wilderness until he reached the present site of St. Louis, Mo., which he selected for a settlement on Feb. 15, 1764. Laclede arrived in March, 1764, laid out the plan of the future town, and named it in honor of Louis XV. of France. This spot became the capital of Louisiana Territory. He received two valuable grants of land in St. Louis from St. Ange de Bellerive in 1766. His partner, Antonie Maxent, a Spanish officer, disposed of Laclede’s property for a small sum in 1779. He died in his bateau, on the Mississippi, while on his way to New Orleans, June 20, 1778.


LANE, Edward, representative, was born in Cleveland, Ohio, March 27, 1842; son of John and Catherine Lane. He removed to Illinois in 1858, where he was educated; was admitted to the bar by the supreme court of the state, Feb. 5, 1865, and practised in Hillsboro. He was elected judge in November, 1869, serving one term, and was a Democratic representative from the seventeenth district of Illinois in the 50th, 5lst, 52d and 53d congresses, 1887-95.


LAURIE, Thomas, missionary and author, was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, May 19, 1821. He was brought to the United States by his parents who settled near Jacksonville, Ill., in 1850. He was graduated at Illinois college in 1838, and at Andover Theological seminary in 1841; was ordained by the Illinois presbytery, March 6, 1842; served as a missionary in the Kurdistan region, Asia, 1842-44, and after the massacre of the Nestorians he served among the Syrians, 1844-46. He was pastor of the Congregational church at Charlestown, Mass., 1847-48, of the First church, South Hadley, Mass., 1848-51, and of the South church at West Roxbury, Mass., 1851-67. He was married twice: first, July 21, 1842, to Martha Fletcher Osgood, of Chelsea, Mass., and secondly, May 25, 1848, to Ellen Amanda Ellis, of Chelsea, Mass. He travelled in Europe in 1867; was pastor in Arlington, Mass., and Providence, R.I., 1867-69; of the Pilgrim church, Providence, R.I., 1869-85, and pastor emeritus there, 1885-97. He received the degree of D.D. from Williams college in 1865. He is the author of: Dr. Grant and the Mountain Nestorians (1858); Woman and her Saviour in Persia (1863); Glimpses of Christ (1869); The Ely Volume: or the Contributions of Foreign Missions to Science (1883); Assyrian Echoes of the Word (1894); and articles contributed to the Bibliotheca Sacra, the Missionary Review of the World, the Missionary Herald and Bliss’s Cyclopaedia of Missions. He died in Providence, R.I., Oct. 10, 1897.


LAWLER, Frank, representative, was born in Rochester, N.Y., June 25, 1842. He attended the public schools until 1855, when a serious accident to his father made it necessary for him to help support the family and he was a newsboy on the railroad, 1855-58; after that time he learned the trade of ship-builder and became president of the Ship-carpenters and Ship-calkers’ association, taking an active part in organizing and maintaining trade and labor unions. He was employed in the post-office at Chicago, Ill., 1869-77; was a member of the city council, 1876-85; and a representative, elected by the Democrats of the second district of Illinois, in the 49th, 50th and 51st congresses, 1885-91, serving on the committee on levees and improvements of the Mississippi river. He died in Chicago, Ill., Jan. 17, 1896.


LEAKE, Joaeph Bloomfield, soldier, was born in Deerfield, N.J., April 1, 1828; son of Lewis and (Lydia) Leake, and grandson of Levi Leake. He removed with his parents to Cincinnati in November, 1836; to Davenport, Iowa, in November, 1856, and to Chicago, Ill., in November, 1871. He was graduated from Miami, A.B., 1846, A.M., 1849, and was admitted to the bar, Jan. 16, 1850. He was a representative in the Iowa legislature, 1861-62; and was elected a state senator for four years in 1862, but after serving one session he resigned to join the U.S. army as a captain in the 90th Iowa volunteers. He was lieutenant-colonel of the regiment, 1862-65, and was brevetted colonel and brigadier-general, U.S.V., March 13, 1865. He was again elected state senator in 1866, served as chairman of the judiciary committee and resigned in 1861 to practice law. He was attorney of Scott county, Iowa, 1866-71; president of the board of education of Davenport, Iowa, 1868-71; U.S. attorney for the northern district of Illinois, 1879-84, and attorney for the board of education of Chicago, Ill., 1887-91, after which time he practised law in Chicago.


LE MOYNE, John Valcoulon, representative, was born in Washington, Pa., Nov. 11, 1828; son of Dr. Francis Julius and Madeleine Romaine (Bureau) Le Moyne, and grandson of John Peter Romaine and Madeleine Fran�oise Charlotte (Marret) Bureau. Both his grandfathers came from France in 1790, and were of the French colony which founded the town of Gallipolis, Ohio. He was graduated from Washington college, Pa., A.B., in 1847; studied law in Pittsburg, Pa., and was admitted to the bar there in 1852. He removed immediately to Chicago, Ill. He was married, March 28, 1853 to Julia M. Murray, of Pittsburg. He was the unsuccessful candidate of the Liberal party for representative in the 43d congress in 1872, and was elected to the 44th congress as a Democrat, from the third Illinois district, defeating Representative Farwell, who claimed the seat. He took his seat in 1876, and served until the close of the 44th congress, March 3, 1877. He traveled in Europe in 1887, and on his return retired from business and removed to Melvale, near Baltimore, Md.


LINCOLN, Abraham, sixteenth president of the United States, was born in a log cabin on the Big South Fork of Nolin Creek, three miles from Hodgensville, LaRue county, Ky., Feb. 12, 1809; eldest son and second child of Thomas and Nancy (Hanks) Lincoln; grandson of Abraham and Mary (Shipley) Lincoln; great grandson of John Lincoln, who emigrated from New Jersey to Pennsylvania and thence to the wilds of western Virginia about 1758; great2 grandson of Mordecai and Hannah Bewne (Slater) Lincoln, this Mordecai removing from Scituate, Mass., in 1714 to Monmouth county, N.J., and thence to Pennsylvania; great3 grandson of Mordecai and Sarah (Jones) Lincoln, this Mordecai removing from Hingham to Scituate, Mass., about 1704, where he set up a furnace for smelting iron ore; and great4 grandson of Samuel Lincoln, born in Norfolk county, England, in 1620, who emigrated to Salem, Mass., in 1637 and in 1640 joined his brother Thomas, who had settled in Hingham, Mass. The Lincolns were evidently men of considerable wealth and of good social position. Thomas Lincoln, father of the President, inherited some property but was an improvident man, by trade a carpenter and accustomed to seek work from place to place. In the autumn of 1816 he removed to Indiana where his wife died Oct. 5, 1816, and he returned to Kentucky and was married secondly to Sarah (Bush) Johnston, an intelligent and industrious widow. Abraham’s attendance at school occupied hardly one year, but he improved every opportunity for acquiring knowledge. His only books were the Bible, “�sop’s Fables,” “Robinson Crusoe “, “The Pilgrim’s Progress,” Weems’s “Life of Washington” and a history of the United States. During his boyhood and youth he acquired a local reputation as a wit. He was also a successful backwoods orator, speaking whenever opportunity offered on temperance, national politics and other topics. The Lincoln family removed to Sangamon county, Illinois, where Abraham assisted his father in building a cabin in the forest. He obtained employment as a farm hand, and in the spring of 1832 on the outbreak of the Black Hawk war he was elected captain of a company of volunteers. On the expiration of his term of service he re-enlisted as a private and served until mustered out in June, 1832. In March, 1832, he had announced himself a candidate for representative in the state legislature and on his return from the war he began his electioneering. He was not elected, standing third on a list of eight contestants, but out of the 208 votes cast in Sangamon county he received 205. He then engaged in the grocery business at New Salem as junior partner of the firm of Berry & Lincoln, but this venture ended disastrously within a year, and he was responsible for the indebtedness of the firm which he discharged after many years. He was postmaster at New Salem in 1833; was elected deputy surveyor of Sangamon county in January, 1834; was a Whig representative in the state legislature, 1834-42, and was instrumental in removing the state capital from Vandalia to Springfield. He studied law, and in March, 1837, was admitted to the bar. He settled in Springfield and formed a partnership with John S. Stuart. He was a candidate on the Whig electoral ticket in 1840 and stumped the state for Harrison and Tyler. He was married Nov. 4, 1842, to Mary Todd, a native of Lexington, Ky., who was residing in Springfield with her sister, Mrs. Ninian W. Edwards. His partnership with Mr. Stuart was dissolved in 1841, and a new partnership was formed with Stephen T. Logan, which continued until 1843, when a connection with William H. Herndon was formed. This firm, of which Mr. Lincoln was senior partner, was dissolved by Mr. Lincoln’s death. He was a candidate on the Whig presidential electoral ticket in 1844 and spoke throughout Illinois and a part of Indiana for Clay and Frelinghuysen. He was a representative in the 30th congress, 1847-49, having been elected in 1846 over Peter Cartwright, the Democratic candidate. He canvassed the state for Taylor and Fillmore during the spring of 1848, and after the adjournment of congress, Aug. 14, 1848, he spoke in New England. While in congress he opposed the extension of slavery, voting for the Wilmot proviso. He also drew up a bill prohibiting the bringing of slaves into the District of Columbia, the bill containing other restrictions, the measure to be decided by popular vote in the district; and his bill received some support. After leaving congress he tried unsuccessfully to obtain the appointment of commissioner of the general land office and declined the appointment of governor of the newly organized Territory of Oregon. He was a representative in the state legislature in the winter of 1854, but resigned in order to become a candidate before the legislature for the U.S. senate. In the Whig caucus in February, 1855, he received 45 votes on the first ballot against 41 for James Shields, the next candidate, but on the tenth ballot Lyman Trumbull was nominated. On the organization of the Republican party in 1854 Lincoln became prominently identified with it and during the Republican national convention at Philadelphia, June 17, 1856, which nominated Fr�mont and Dayton, he received 110 votes as candidate for Vice-President. During the campaign he made over fifty speeches and became prominent as a leader of the new party. In 1858 he was the Republican nominee for U.S. senator to succeed Stephen A. Douglas, and on July 24 he challenged Douglas to a series of debates. The election resulted in a victory for Douglas, though Lincoln had a majority of the popular vote. Lincoln afterward spoke at Columbus and at Cincinnati, Ohio, and on Feb. 27, 1860, he spoke in New York city being introduced by William Cullen Bryant as “an eminent citizen from the west, hitherto known to you only by reputation.” He then delivered speeches in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire and Connecticut. His entire argument was based on the question, “Is slavery right or wrong-” After the debates with Douglas in 1858 Lincoln was urged to seek the nomination for President, but he repeatedly discouraged the suggestion. He reconsidered the matter, however, in 1859-60, and consented to be a candidate, and the Republican state convention of Illinois instructed their delegates to vote for him. On May 16, 1860, the Republican national convention met at Chicago, where the chief candidates were William H. Seward, Abraham Lincoln, Salmon P. Chase, Simon Cameron, Edward Bates and William L. Dayton. Seward led in the first two ballots, Lincoln standing second. On the third ballot Lincoln had 231 1/2 votes to Seward’s 180, 235 votes being necessary for nominaton, and before the count was announced four votes were transferred to Lincoln by a delegate from Ohio. Other delegates followed his example and Lincoln received 354 votes out of a possible 465, the nomination being made unanimous on the motion of William M. Evarts. Hannibal Hamlin of Maine was nominated for Vice-President. Stephen A. Douglas was nominated by a wing of the Democratic party with Herschel V. Johnson for Vice-President, at Baltimore, June 18, 1860. After a spirited campaign Lincoln was elected. Nov. 6. 1860, the popular vote standing 1,866,352 for Lincoln and Hamlin, 1,375,157 for Douglas and Johnson, 847,963 for Breckinridge and Lane, 589,581 for Bell and Everett, and the electoral vote was 180 for Lincoln, 12 for Douglas, 12 for Breckinridge and 39 for Bell. A constitution for the provisional government of the Confederate States of America was adopted at Montgomery, Ala., Feb. 8, 1861, by deputies from Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Lousiana, Mississippi and South Carolina. On Feb. 9, 1861, Jefferson Davis was elected President, and Alexander H. Stephens Vice-President, and all U.S. property within the limits of the Confederacy was declared confiscate. Major Anderson, with his small force in Fort Moultrie, on the west end of Sullivan’s Island at the entrance of Charleston barber, learning the determination of the South Carolina government to possess themselves of the U.S. government property, evacuated the fort on Dec. 26, 1860, and raised the flag over Fort Sumter, constructed on a made island midway between Forts Moultrie and Johnson, and there awaited reinforcements from the national government. The South Carolina insurgents took possession of all the other forts in the harbor and manned them, at the same time building a large floating ironclad battery. After a journey to Washington, attended with considerable personal danger, Mr. Lincoln was inaugurated March 4, 1861, and in his inaugural address he declared the union of the states to be perpetual, secession to be illegal, and his purpose “to hold, occupy and possess the property and places belonging to the government and to collect the duties and imposts.” He also declared that the position of the Republican party regarding slavery was to prevent its extension, but not to interfere with the institution in states where it already lawfully existed. On April 12, 1861, the Confederates opened fire on Fort Sumter and continued the bombardment until the fort was rendered untenable, and as the reinforcements and provisions sent by the Star of the West, which reached the harbor Jan. 9, 186l, failed to reach the fort, Major Anderson had no choice but to surrender, which he did April 13, 1861, and he evacuated the fort April 14. This action on the part of the South aroused great consternation in the North and political differences were largely forgotten in the desire to preserve the Union. On April 15, 1861, the [p.427] President called for 75,000 three-months volunteers and summoned congress to assemble in extra session on July 4, 1861. On April 17, 1861, President Davis also called for 32,000 volunteers and offered “letters of marque and reprisal to owners of private armed vessels” to depredate upon U.S. commerce; on the same day Virginia seceded, and on April 19 President Lincoln proclaimed a blockade of the Confederate ports, which then included South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi and Louisana, and to which were added North Carolina and Virginia April 19, and the same day the Massachusetts troops were attacked by a mob in the streets of Baltimore and two soldiers were killed. On May 3, 1861, President Lincoln called for volunteers for three years; ordered the regular army increased, and directed the enlistment of additional seamen. On March 5, 1861, the President had sent in his nominations for his cabinet, all of which had been confirmed. Willhath H. Seward of New York was named as secretary of state; Sahoon P. Chase of Ohio secretary of the treasury; Simon Cameron of Pennsylvania secretary of war; Gideon Welles of Connecticut secretary of the navy; Caleb B. Smith of Indiana secretary of the interior; Edward Bates of Missouri attorney-general; Montgomery Blair of Maryland postmaster-general. The following changes were made in the cabinet: Secretary Cameron resigned his portfolio to accept the position of U. S. minister to Russia, Jan. 11, 1862, and the portfolio of war was accepted by Edwin M. Stanton of Pennsylvania, Jan. 15, 1862; W. P. Fessenden of Maine was appointed secretary of the treasury, July 1, 1864, to succeed Salmon P. Chase, made chief justice of the U.S. supreme court, and he resigned to take a seat in the U.S. senate, and was succeeded March 7, 1865, by Hugh McCulloch of Indiana; John P. Usher of Indiana was appointed secretary of the interior, Jan. 8, 1863, to succeed Caleb B. Smith, appointed U.S. circuit judge of Indiana; James Speed of Kentucky was appointed attorney-general Dec. 2, 1864, to succeed Edward Bates, resigned; and William Dennison of Ohio was appointed postmaster-general to succeed Montgomery Blair, who resigned at the request of the President. During Lincoln’s administrations he made the following diplomatic appointments: minister to Great Britain, Charles Francis Adams of Massachusetts; minister to France, William L. Dayton of New Jersey, who was succeeded at his death in 1864 by John Bigelow of New York; minister to Austria, Anson Burlingame of Massachusetts, who was not received by that government on account of his political opinions, and was succeeded by John Lothtop Motley of Massachusetts; minister to Russia, Cassius M. Clay of Kentucky, who was succeeded by Simon Cameron of Pennsylvania in 1862; minister to Italy, George P. Marsh of Vermont; and minister to Spain, Carl Schurz of Wisconsin, 1861-62, who was succeeded by Gustavus Werner of Illinois, 1862-64, and H. J. Perry of New Hampshire, who served as charg� d’affaires until the appointment of John P. Hale of New Hampshire in 1865. The President’s message delivered before both houses of congress July 4 1861, went far toward reassuring the people, a large number of whom were not without uneasiness as to the ability of the President to meet the crisis. He briefly stated the condition of affairs, announced his intention of standing by the statements made in his inaugural address, and asked that congress would place at the control of the government at least 400,000 men and $400,000,000. To his request congress promptly responded by voting 500,000 men and $500,000,000. The early operations of the Confederate and Federal armies were confined to Virginia and Missouri. The first clash of arms between the two forces was at Philippi, Va., June 3, 1861, in which the Confederates were defeated by the Federal army under Gen. G. B. McClellan. This was followed by the Confederate victory at Big Bethel, Va., June 10, 1861, and by the Federal victories at Romney, Va., June 11, 1861, and at Boonville, Mo., June 17, 1861; the Confederate victory at Carthage, Mo., July 5, 1861, and their defeat at Rich Mountain, Va., July 11, 1861. On July 20 the President summoned Gen. George B. McClellan from western Virginia to Washington, and on his arrival in August, 1861, assigned him to the command of the Army of the Potomac. On July 3, 1861, the President created the department of the west, placing it under command of Gen. John C. Fr�mont. On Aug. 31, 1861, Fr�mont issued a proclamation announcing that he would emancipate all slaves of those in arms against the United States. The President considered this premature and asked Fr�mont to withdraw the proclamation, which he declined to do, and the President annulled it in a public order, and on Nov. 21, 1861, Fr�mont was relieved of his command just as he had overtaken the Confederate forces at Springfield, Mo. The battle of Bull Run, Va., July 21, 1861, resulted in a Federal defeat; the battle of Dug Spring, Mo., Aug. 2, 1861, in a Federal victory; Wilson’s Creek, Mo., Aug. 10, 1861, in a Federal defeat; Hattaras Inlet, N.C., Aug. 28-29, in a Federal victory, and Ball’s Bluff, Oct. 21, in a Federal defeat. On the retirement of Gen. Winfield Scott, Oct. 31, 1861, General McClellan succeeded him as general-in-chief of all the armies of the United States. The year closed with the capture of Port Royal, S.C., Nov. 7, 1861, and on the same date the indecisive battle of Belmont, Mo., between Generals Grant and Polk. On Nov. 8, 1861, Captain Wilkes, in command of the U.S. steamer San Jacinto took from the English mail steamer Trent the Confederate commissioners James M. Mason and John Slidell, and the President, by the advice of Secretary Seward and other members of his cabinet apologized to the British Government, explaining that Captain Wilkes should have brought the steamer into port as a prize, as we had always contended, instead of adjudicating the case himself at sea, and therefore gave up the commissioners. The President issued his “General War Order No. 1,” Jan. 27, 1862, in which he directed “that the 22d day of February, 1869, be the day for a general movement of the land and naval forces of the United States against the insurgent forces,” and while it was not found practicable to carry his order through, it quieted the tumult in the north, where there was an almost universal demand that the Federal army should proceed at once to capture the Confederate capital, making the battle cry “On to Richmond.” The campaign of 1862 opened with the victory at Mill Springs, Ky., by the Federal forces under Gen. George H. Thomas, Jan. 19 and 20, and on Feb. 6, 1862, Fort Henry, Tenn., surrendered to Flag-Officer Foote. General Burnside, who had been placed in command of the department of North Carolina Jan. 7, 1862, won a Federal victory at Roanoke Island, N.C., Feb. 8, 1862, and Fort Donelson, Tenn., surrendered to General Grant Feb. 16, 1862. These Union victories were repeated in the battles of Pea Ridge, Ark., by Gen. Samuel R. Curtis, March 6-8, 1862, and the battle of New Madrid, Mo., by Gen. John Pope, March 14, 1862. On March 8, 1862, the Confederate ram Virginia (late Merrimac) wrought havoc with the Federal fleet at Hampton Roads, Va., and was herself defeated by the U.S. iron-clad Monitor, March 9, 1862. The Confederate victory at Newbern, N.C., March 14, 1862, was followed by the Federal victories near Winchester, Va., March 23, by Gen. James Shields; at Shiloh, Tenn., by Grant, April 6-7, 1862; the capture of Island No. 10 with 6000 men by Flag-Officer Foote and General Pope, April 7, 1862, and the capture of Fort Pulaski, Ga., by Gen. Quincy A. Gillmore, April 10-12, 1862. On April 24, 1862, the Federal fleet under Flag-Officer Farragut passed Forts Jackson and St. Philip, and on April 25 New Orleans was captured. On May 5, 1862, General McClellan forced the Confederates to evacuate Williamsburg, Va.; Gen. John E. Wool captured Norfolk, Va., May 10; Hanover court-house, Va., was captured by Gen. Fitz-John Porter, May 27, and on the same day General Beaureguard evacuated Corinth, Miss. In a series of battles, May 27, May 31 and June 23 to July 1, which included Seven Pines and Fair Oaks, McClellan was forced to change his base to the James river, as Gen. T. J. Jackson had marched down the valley and threatened Washington, which prevented the President from carrying out his intention of sending McDowell with his 40,000 men to his support. On June 3, 1862, Gen. Robert E. Lee was appointed to the chief command of the Confederate army, and on June 26 he engaged McClellan at Mechanicsville, Va. The ensuing seven days’ battles, ending July 1, resulted in McClellan being ordered to evacuate the Peninsula and join Pope’s Army of Virginia. The Confederates were again victorious at Cedar Mountain, Aug. 9, 1862, in the battles between Manassas and Washington, D.C., under Pope, Aug. 26 to Sept. 1, 1862, and in the battle of Richmond, Ky., under Kirby Smith, Aug. 30, 1862. In September, 1862, Lee began his invasion of Maryland and crossed the Potomac near Point of Rocks. The President asked McClellan to resume the command of the Army of the Potomac. On Sept. 15, 1862. Harper’s Ferry with 12,000 men was surrendered to Gen. Thomas J. Jackson, and after the battle of Antietam, Md., Sept. 16-17, 1862, Lee retreated toward Richmond. The Federal army under Rosecrans were victorious at Iuka, Miss., Sept. 19 and at Corinth, Miss., Oct. 3-4, 1862, and the Confederates under Bragg made an unsuccessful attack at Perryville, Ky., Oct. 8, 1862. On Nov. 5, 1862, Gen. G. B. McClellan was removed from command of the Army of the Potomac and General Burnside was appointed in his place. The disasters which befell the army did not end, however, with McClellan’s removal, as unexpected defeats were suffered by General Burnside at Fredericksburg, Va., with a loss of 12,000 men, Dec. 11-15, 1862, and by Gen. Joseph Hooker at Chancellorville, Va., May 1-5, 1863, and no positive gains were made in the west. Meantime the subject of the emancipation of the slaves had engaged the President. On March 6, 1862, he sent to congress a special message recommending the adoption of a joint resolution: “That the United States ought to co-operate with and aid pecuniarily any state adopting gradual abolishment of slavery.” This proposition was not cordially received by the border states and made evident the fact that emancipation was not desired. The bill was passed, however, and on March 10 the President gathered together some of the border state members and tried to win them over to his views. After two days’ consideration the project was given up. On April 2, 1862, congress passed an act emancipating the slaves in the District of Columbia; on May 9, 1862, General Hunter proclaimed martial law in Georgia, Florida and South Carolina, declaring the slaves free, which order the President at once revoked as unauthorized; on June 19, 1862, a bill passed congress prohibiting slavery wherever congress had authority, and on July 17, 1862, a measure “for the confiscation of the property of rebels, and giving freedom to the persons they hold in slavery,” after being amended, was passed. In July, 1862, amendments were made to a bill concerning the calling forth of the militia, permitting the enlistment of negroes in the Union army, and making thereafter free each person so enlisted. This bill aroused much criticism and was finally modified so as to relate only to slaves of rebel owners. On Sept. 22, 1862, the President issued a preliminary proclamation that unless the in habitants of the revolted states returned to their allegiance by Jan. 1, 1863, the slaves would be declared free; but this proclamation had no effect. On Jan. 1, 1863, the President issued his emancipation proclamation in which he stated that all persons held as slaves in certain states and parts of states being then in rebellion should be free and that the government would “recognize and maintain the freedom of said persons.” General Lee invaded Maryland and Pennsylvania, in June, 1863, and on July 1-3 the battle of Gettysburg, Pa., was fought in which the Federal army under Gen. George G. Meade defeated the Confederates under Lee; on July 4, 1863, Vicksburg surrendered to General Grant, and on July 8, Port Hudson, La., surrendered to the Federals under General Banks. Recruits now being needed in numbers far above the enlistments, on May 3, 1863, congress passed a bill making every able-bodied citizen of military age liable for service, a commutation of $300 for exemption being permitted, and on the failure of the citizens to present themselves for enrolment, the President ordered a draft. This led on July 13 to the draft riots in New York city, and soon after the bounty system was substituted. On July 16 Jackson, Miss., was destroyed by General Sherman, and in September Chattanooga, Tenn., was occupied by the Confederates under Gen. George B. Crittendon. The battle of Chickamauga, Ga., Sept. 19-20, 1863, resulted in a victory for the Confederate General Bragg, and a Federal loss of 16,000 men. Bragg was defeated, however, at the battles of Chattanooga and Lookout Mountain, Nov. 23-25, and the siege of Knoxville was raised by Longstreet, Dec. 4, 1863. In December, 1863, the 13th amendment, providing that slavery should not exist within the United States, was introduced into the house, and in January, 1864, in the senate. On June 15, 1864, the vote was taken but the result being a deficiency of 27 votes the question was laid over till the next session. On Jan. 28, 1865, the vote was retaken and resulted in 119 ayes and 56 nays, and the 13th amendment was adopted. A motion to adjourn in honor of the event was made and carried, and a great popular demonstration followed. On Feb. 1, 1864, the President and Secretary Seward met on the River Queen a commission sent by President Davis to inquire into the possible adjustment of affairs between the North and South, but the conference broke up without finding any basis for an agreement. The campaign of 1864 opened with General Sherman’s raid from Vicksburg, Feb. 14, 1864. On April 18, Fort Pillow was captured by the Confederates and the Negro troops were massacred. On May 5-7, the battles of the Wilderness occurred between Grant and Lee, and Lee was driven back. On May 4 Sherman began his march to Atlanta and the sea with 98,000 men, and on May 10-12 Grant attacked Lee at Spotsylvania court house and defeated him. On June 8, 1864, Lincoln was unanimously renominated for President, with Andrew Johnson as Vice-President, and he was elected Nov. 8, 1864, receiving 2,216,067 popular votes against 1,808,725 for McClellan, the Democratic nominee. The electoral vote was 212 for Lincoln and 21 for McClellan. At the battle of Cold Harbor, June 1-3, 1864, and at Petersburg, Va., June 16-18, 1864, General Grant was repulsed by Lee, but he began a siege of Petersburg, June 18. Sherman meanwhile won the battle of Resaca, Ga., May 13-15, 1864, and the battle of Dallas, Ga., May 25-28, but at Kenesaw Mountain he was repulsed June 27, 1864. On July 22-28 the battles of Atlanta took place, in which Sherman was victorious. On July 30 occurred the explosion of the Petersburg crater and the subsequent repulse of the Federal charge. The principal naval operations of 1864 were the sinking of the C.S. steamer Alabama by the U.S. steamer Keatsarge, off Cherbourg, France, and the battle of Mobile Bay, in which the Federal fleet under Farragut was victorious. Sherman captured Atlanta, Ga., Sept. 2, 1864, Savannah, Ga., Dec. 22, 1864, Columbia, S.C., Feb. 17, 1865, and Bentonville, N.C., March 19, 1865. General Sheridan won the battle of Winchester, Va., Sept. 19, and the battle of Fisher’s Hill, Va., Sept. 22, 1864. President Lincoln was inaugurated for a second term March 4, 1865, amid popular rejoicing. On April 2 Grant carried the outer lines of the Confederate works at Petersburg, and on April 3 Petersburg and Richmond were evacuated by General Lee, who surrendered his army to General Grant at Appomattox court house, Va., April 9, 1865. The President visited General Grant at his headquarters at City Point and entered Richmond shortly after the evacuation. On April 11, 1865,: Washington was illuminated in honor of the surrender of Lee, and on the evening of April 14, 1865, the President, Mrs. Lincoln, Miss Clara Harris and Major Ruthbone occupied a box at Ford’s Theatre, Washington to witness the play “Our American Cousin.” At 10:30 in the evening an obscure actor, entered the President’s box from the rear of the stage and holding a pistol to the President’s head, fired. The President fell forward unconscious, and in the confusion which followed the assassin leaped upon the stage but broke his leg in the leap, his spur being entangled in the American flag that draped the box. The President was carried to a house opposite the theatre where, on the morning of April 15, 1865, he died. On April 19, 1865, the funeral took place at the White House. The body was laid in state at the White House, and was there viewed by a great number of people. It was guarded by a company of high officers of the army and navy. The assassin of the President was found in a barn by a squadron of troops April 27, 1865, and was shot by a soldier before the officer could demand his surrender. The remains of the President lay in state in Baltimore, Harrisburg, Philadelphia, New York, Albany, Buffalo, Cleveland and Chicago; and at each place immense funeral processions marched through the streets and the whole country was in mourning. The funeral car reached Springfield, Ill., having travelled a distance of nearly 2000 miles, and the body was buried in Oak Ridge cemetery, May 4, 1865. A monument of white marble marks the spot. Numerous statues of Lincoln adorn the public places of most of the larger cities of the United States. Henry Kirke Brown executed the one in Union Square, New York city, and that in Brooklyn; Thomas Ball’s Emancipation group appears in Lincoln Park, Washington, D.C., and in Park Square, Boston; a statue by Mrs. Vinnie Ream Hoxie is in Statuary Hall in the national capitol, one by Augustus St. Gaudens in Chicago, and one by Randolph Rogers in Fairmount Park, Philadelphia. The honorary degree of LL.D. was conferred on Mr. Lincoln by Columbia in 1861, and by the College of New Jersey in 1864. Portraits in oil were painted from life by Alban J. Conant, Frank B. Carpenter, Matthew Wilson, Thomas Hicks, and William E. Marshall. Mr. Carpenter also painted “The Reading of the Emancipation Proclamation” and wrote: “Six Months in the White House.” After his death, Healy, Page and many other painters produced excellent portraits after his numerous photographs. A large collection of his photographs was reproduced in MeClure’s Magazine with an illustrated “Life” and “Early Life of Abraham Lincoln.” by Ida M. Tarbell (1895-96); and Yolk and Mills took life masks from which they executed busts. Mr. Lincoln’s “Speech at Cooper Union, Feb. 27, 1860,” was issued in pamphlet form and widely circulated, and selections from his speeches and messages were published in 1865. Joseph H. Barrett, J. G. Holland, W. M. Thayer, B. F. Morris, Henry J. Raymond, Ward H. Lamon, W. O. Stoddard, Isaac N. Arnold, Harriet Beecher Stowe, D. W. Bartlett, Charles G. Leland, J. C. Power, Nicolay and Hay, John T. Morse, Carl Schurz, William D. Howells, Ida M. Tarbell are the more prominent of his numerous biographers. In the selection of names for a place in the Hall of Fame for Great Americans, New York university, made in 1900, his was one of the thirty-seven names in “Class M, Rulers and Statesmen,” and received a place, having ninety-six votes, equalling the votes given to Daniel Webster and exceeded only by the ninety-seven votes given to George Washington. President Lincoln died in Washington. D.C., April 15, 1865.


LINCOLN, Robert Todd, cabinet officer, was born in Springfield, Ill., Aug. 1, 1843; son of Abraham and Mary (Todd) Lincoln. He attended a local academy, 1850-53; the Illinois State university, 1853-59, and Phillips Exeter academy, and was graduated from Harvard in 1864. He studied for a short time at the Harvard Law school; applied for admission in the military service and was commissioned captain, serving on the staff of General Grant throughout the final campaign of the civil war. He resumed his law studies at Chicago, Ill.; was admitted to the bar Feb. 16, 1867, and practised in Chicago. He was appointed supervisor in south Chicago in 1876; was a delegate to the Republican state convention held at Springfield in 1880, and was the same year chosen a presidential elector. He was appointed secretary of war in President Garfield’s cabinet in 1881, and upon the assassination of the President and the accession of Vice-President Arthur to the presidency, he was the only member of the cabinet that was retained. In 1884 he was prominently mentioned as nominee for President, but declined to oppose the nomination of President Arthur. On the expiration of Arthur’s administration he returned to Chicago and continued the practice of law. He was U.S. minister to Great Britain by appointment of President Harrison, 1889-93. Upon the death of George M. Pullman in 1897 he became acting president of the Pullman Palace Car company. The honorary degree of LL.D. was conferred on him by Harvard in 1898.


LIVERMORE, Mary Ashton (Rice), reformer, lecturer and author, was born in Boston, Mass., Dec. 19, 1820; daughter of Timothy and Zebiah Vose (Ashton) Rice; granddaughter of Silas and Abigail (Hagar) Rice and of Capt. Nathaniel and Rachel (Glover) Ashton of London, England, and a descendant of Edmund Rice, who came from England, and settled in Sudbury, Mass., in 1639. She attended the Hancock school, Boston, Mass., and was graduated from the Female Seminary at Charlestown, Mass., in 1838, having earned her tuition by teaching in the junior department of the seminary throughout her course. She was instructor in Latin, French and Italian there, 1838-41; a governess in Virginia, 1841-43, and principal of a school in Duxbury, Mass., 1842-45. She was married, May 6, 1845, to the Rev. Daniel Parker Livermore of Leicester, Mass., a Universalist minister. They settled in Fall River, Mass., where he had a pastorate and from there she accompanied him to Connecticut, New York and Illinois. Mr. Livermore was an earnest believer in woman suffrage, and she soon became a strong supporter of the movement. She was active in anti-slavery work and in the Washingtonian temperance movement, and for years wrote, organized and labored for that reform. She removed to Chicago, II1., in 1857, where her husband became proprietor and editor and she associate editor of the New Covenant, a Universalist paper. In 1862 she was appointed agent of the U.S. Sanitary Commission, with headquarters at Chicago, and with others directed and carried on the hospital relief work of the Northwest, organizing soldiers’ aid societies, collecting sanitary supplies, and detailing nurses to the hospitals. Site served as a member of the special relief corps in 1863, which visited hospitals and camps on the Mississippi river, and worked their way among the suffering soldiers besieging Vicksburg. She made her first public speech in Dubuque, Iowa, where she presented to the people the sanitary needs of the soldiers at the front and in the hospitals. In that same year, with Mrs. Hoge, she organized the Northwestern fair which netted $100,000 for the commission. Woman suffrage engrossed her active energies, and in 1809 she started The Agitator to aid the reform, and in 1870 she returned to Boston, where she edited the Woman’s Journal, into which her own paper was merged until 1872. She resigned her position to enter the lecture field, her lecture topics including biographical, historical, political, religious and reformatory subjects, and as a lecturer she traveled over 25,000 miles annually, visiting every state in the Union, and also Scotland and England. Site organized and was the first president of the Illinois Woman Suffrage association, 1869; president of the American Woman Suffrage association, 1880, and was sent to the Massachusetts Republican convention, charged with the presentation of temperance and woman suffrage resolutions. She was the first president of the Woman’s Congress, 1872-73; first president of the Massachusetts Woman’s Christian Temperance Union, 1874-84, and of the Beneficent society of the New England conservatory of Music, 1884-1900. She became a member of the Massachusetts Ladies’ Aid Society, of the Massachusetts Soldiers’ Home, of the Massachusetts Woman’s Indian association, of the Massachusetts Prison association and of the American Psychical society. She edited A Woman of the Century with Frances E. Willard (1893); and is the author of: The Children’s Army (1848); A Mental Transformation (1850); Pen Pictures (1865); Thirty Years Too Late (1878); What Shall We Do with Our Daughters- (1883); My Story of the War (1888); Autobiography (1897); and many contributions to periodical literature.


LOGAN, John Alexander, statesman and soldier, was born in Murphysboro, Jackson county, Ill., Feb. 9, 1826; eldest son of Dr. John and Elizabeth (Jenkins) Logan. His father immigrated to the United States from Ireland in 1823,’ and settled in Cape Girardeau, Mo., removing later to Jackson county, Ill., where He conducted a farm, practised his profession, was a representative in the state legislature and held several county offices. John A. Logan acquired his preparatory education chiefly under the instruction of Iris father and his tutor, and be attended Shiloh college in 1840. Upon the outbreak of the war with Mexico in 1846, he enlisted in the volunteer army and was appointed 2d lieutenant, 1st Illinois volunteers, and served as adjutant and quartermaster of the regiment in New Mexico. He returned to Illinois at the close of the war, studied law with his uncle, Alexander M. Jenkins, and in 1849 was elected clerk of Jackson county. He was graduated from the law department of Louisville university in 1851; was admitted to the bar in 1852; was a representative in the state legislature, 1852-53, 1856-57; prosecuting attorney of the third judicial district of Illinois, 1853-59; presidential elector on the Buchanan and Breckinridge ticket in 1856, and a Democratic representative in the 36th and 37th congresses, 1859-61. In July, 1861, during the extra session of the 37th congress he resigned his seat and joined the Federal army at Bull Run, fighting as a private in Colonel Richardson’s regiment. He returned to Marion, Ill., where he organized and was made colonel of the 31st Illinois infantry. He commanded his regiment in McClernand’s brigade in the battle of Belmont, where he led a bayonet charge and had a horse shot under him; also in the attack on Fort Henry, and at Fort Donelson, where he was severely wounded in the left shoulder. He joined General Grant at Pittsburg Landing, March 5, 1862, and was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers. He commanded a brigade at Jackson, Tenn., where he guarded the railroad lines with six regiments. In 1862 he declined the nomination for representative in the 38th congress. He commanded the 3d division, 17th army Corps, under General McPherson in Grant’s northern Mississippi campaign; was promoted major-general, Nov. 26, 1862, and fought at Port Gibson, Raymond, Jackson, Champion Hill and at the siege of Vicksburg, where he was in command of McPherson’s centre, his command entering Vicksburg immediately after the explosion of the mine. He was made the first military governor of Vicksburg, and for his gallantry during the siege he received from congress a medal of honor which bore the inscription “Vicksburg, July 4, 1863.” He succeeded General Sherman in November, 1863, as the commander of the 15th army corps. He led the advance of the Army of the Tennessee at Resaca; and repulsed Hardee at Dallas, Where he was shot through the left arm. He temporarily succeeded General McPherson in command of the Army of the Tennessee upon the latter’s death, July 22, 1864, and led his corps in the battle of Kenesaw Mountain and in the attack on Atlanta. After taking part in the presidential campaign of 1864. He rejoined Sherman at Savannah and continued in command of his corps until the surrender of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, April 26, 1865, when he succeeded General Howard as commander of the Army of the Tennessee, he resigned his commission in the army, and returned to his home at Marion, Ill., in August, 1865. He was a Republican representative in the 40th and 41st congresses, 1867-71, and was one of the managers of the impeachment trial of President Johnson. He was U.S. senator from Illinois, 1871-77, and 1879-86. He was a candidate for nomination for the Presidency June 3, 1884, and upon the nomination of James G. Blaine was chosen Republican candidate for Vice-President by acclamation. He was commander-in-chief of the Grand Amy of the Republic and it was on his proposal that May 30th was designated as Decoration Day and made a national holiday. He was married Nov. 27. 1855, to Mary Simmerson, daughter of Capt. John M. Cunningham, register of the land office at Shawneetown, Ill., who survived him. They had three children: the eldest, a son, died in infancy; the second, a daughter, married Maj. W. F. Tucker, U.S.A.; and the youngest, John A. Logan, Jr., was a major in the U.S. volunteer service in the war with Spain, served in Cuba as an adjutant-general on Gen. J. C. Bates’s staff; was appointed major of the 33d U.S. volunteers August, 1899, and was killed while leading a charge at San Jacinto, Luzon, Philippine Islands, Nov. 11, 1899. General Logan is the author of: The Great Conspiracy (1886); The Volunteer Soldier of America (1887). An equestrian statue in bronze, on a bronze pedestal with bas relief portraits of the general officers serving with him, and scenes in the senate when he took the oath of office, and on battlefields in which he engaged, was unveiled in Washington, D.C., April 10, 1901. He died in Washington, D.C., Dec. 26, 1886.


LOGAN, Stephen Trigg, jurist, was born in Frankfort, Ky., Feb. 24, 1800; son of David and Mary (Trigg) Logan; grandson of Col. John and Jane (McClure) Logan, and of Col. Stephen and — Christian) Trigg and a descendant of David Logan, an Irishman who settled in Pennsylvania and subsequently removed to Augusta county, Va. He attended school in Frankfort, Ky., studied law under Judge Christopher Tompkins at Glasgow, Ky., in 1817 and was admitted to the bar. He was married in 1823 to America J., daughter of William Bush of Glasgow, Ky., and secondly to a sister of Justice John McKinley of the U.S. supreme court. He served as attorney for the commonwealth and practised in Barren county, 1821-31. He lost his property, accumulated by his practice, through security debts, and in 1832 engaged in law practice at Springfield, Ill. He was judge of the Sangamon circuit district, 1835-37; was elected a second time but declined to serve; practised law with E. D. Baker, 1837-41, and with Abraham Lincoln, 1841-44, and later with his son-in-law Milton Hay. He was a representative in the Illinois legislature, 1842-40 and 1854-56 and was a delegate to the state constitutional convention of 1847. He was a defeated candidate for representative in congress in 1848, owing to his opposition to the war with Mexico. He was a delegate for the state at large to the Republican national convention in 1860, and a commissioner to the national peace convention of 1861, at Washington, where he urged an honorable compromise. A memorial of his life and character was issued from the Springfield press in 1880. He died in Springfield, Ill., July 17, 1880.


LOVEJOY, Owen, representative, was born in Albion, Maine, Jan. 6, 1811; son of the Rev. Daniel and Elizabeth (Pattee) Lovejoy. He worked on his father’s farm, where he earned sufficient money to pay his way through college, and entered Bowdoin with the class of 1834. He left before graduating to study for orders in the Protestant Episcopal church, but on being required to refrain from taking sides on the question of slavery, he removed to Alton, Ill., in 1836, and was present when his brother Elijah was killed by the mob Nov. 7, 1837. He joined the Congregational church, studied for that ministry, and was pastor of the church at Princeton, Ill., 1838-54. He defied the laws of the state by holding anti-slavery meetings in all parts of Illinois, making his home in Princeton one of the principal stations of the “underground railroad.” His course led to his arrest many times and to his paying innumerable fines. He was elected a representative in the state legislature in 1854, and succeeded in obtaining a repeal of the obnoxious law. He was a delegate to the national liberty convention at Buffalo in November, 1847, and in the state legislature supported the nomination of Abraham Lincoln for U.S. senator. He was a representative from the third district of Illinois in the 35th, 36th, 37th and 38th congresses, 1857-64, and died in office. While in congress he was chairman of the committee on agriculture and the District of Columbia. He took part in all the great debates on the slavery question in congress, and was a speaker in the political campaigns which followed the organization of the Republican party. He prepared with his brother, Joseph Cammet, A Memoir of the Life of Elijah Parish Lovejoy (1838). He died in Brooklyn, N.Y., March 25, 1864.


LUNDY, Benjamin, abolitionist, was born at Hardwick, N.J., Jan. 4, 1789; son of Joseph and Elizabeth (Shotwell) Lundy; grandson of Thomas and Joanna (Doan) Lundy and of Benjamin and Anne (Hallett) Shotwell, and a descendant of Richard Lundy, a Quaker, who came from Devonshire, England, and settled in Bucks county, Pa., in 1685. He was a saddler at Wheeling, Va., 1808-12; removed to St. Clairsville, Ohio, in 1812, and in 1815, he organized the first anti-slavery association in the United States, called the Union Humane society. He contributed articles on slavery to the Philanthropist, and joined Charles Osborne at Mt. Pleasant, Ohio, in the publication of that paper. At that time he decided to sell his property, dispose of his trade and devote his energies to the cause of anti-slavery. He went to St. Louis, Mo., in 1819, and while there agitated the slave question in the Missouri and Illinois papers. On his return to Mt. Pleasant in 1821, he established The Genius of Universal Emancipation, and in 1822 removed the journal to Jonesboro, Tenn., travelling the five hundred miles on foot. There he issued a weekly newspaper and an agricultural monthly besides his own paper, and he transferred the journal to Baltimore, Md., in 1824. He had agents in the slave states and between 1820-30 visited nineteen states of the Union, and held more than two hundred public anti-slavery meetings. He visited Hayti in 1826 and 1829, Canada in 1830, and Texas in 1830 and 1833, for the purpose of forming settlements for emancipated and fugitive slaves, but the events preceding the annexation of Texas interfered with his plans for the establishment of colonies under the anti-slavery laws of Mexico. In September, 1829, he invited William Lloyd Garrison to Baltimore, where together they printed The Genius of Emancipation, until March, 1830, when the partnership was dissolved. During Garrison’s imprisonment Lundy was fined repeatedly and heavily, and was also imprisoned. Being obliged to leave Maryland by order of the court at Baltimore, he removed his paper to Washington in October, 1830, and he printed it there until 1834, when he removed it to Philadelphia, and changed its name to the National Inquirer. It was subsequently merged into the Pennsylvania Freeman, and his office was destroyed in the burning of Pennsylvania Hall, which was fired by the mob in May, 1838. He then removed to Lowell, La Salle county, Ill., and printed his paper under its old name, The Genius of Emancipation, for a few months. He married a Miss Lewis, and had five children. He died at Lowell, Ill., Oct. 22, 1839.


LYONS, Samuel Ross, educator, was born in Winnsboro, S.C., April 28, 1849; son of George and Priscilla (Gibson) Lyons, grandson of James and — (Elliott) Lyons. He served in the 154th Illinois volunteers in 1865; subsequently entered Monmouth college, Ill., and was graduated from there A.B. in 1877. He studied theology at Xenia, Ohio; was ordained to the United Presbyterian ministry in 1880; was pastor at Marissa, Ill., 1885-85; and at Bloomington, Ind., 1885-98. In 1892 he was elected a trustee of Indiana university and in 1898 became president of Monmouth college. He was married in 1891 to Alethia, daughter of Andrew S. Cooper; she died in Monmouth, Ill., April 10, 1901. Erskine and Westminster colleges conferred upon him the honorary degree of D.D. in 1898.