Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans.
Vol. I-X. Rossiter Johnson, editor. Boston MA: The Biographical Society. 1904.

ADAMS, George Everett, representative, was born at Keene, N.H., in June, 1840; son of Benjamin F. and Louisa (Redington) Adams; grandson of Benjamin Adams, and a descendant of William Adams of Ipswich, Mass. He removed with his parents to Chicago, Ill., in 1853; was graduated from Harvard A.B., 1860: LL.B., 1865; was admitted to the bar in 1865, and established himself in Chicago, Ill., in the practice of his profession in 1867. He was a member of the Illinois state senate in 1881-83, resigning in 1883. He was a representative from Illinois in the 48th, 49th, 50th and 51st congresses, serving, 1883-91. On retiring from public life he continued to practise law in Chicago.


ADAMS, John, educator, was born in Canterbury, Conn., Sept. 18, 1772, son of John Adams, a soldier in the war for independence. He was educated at Yale college, and was graduated in 1795, while teaching his profession, and began his labors in his native town, where he conducted an academy for three years. He then removed to Plainfield, N.J., where he was made rector of the academy. In 1803 he was chosen principal of the Bacon academy, Colchester, Conn., where he remained seven years, when he removed to Andover, Mass., as principal of Phillips academy. Here for twenty years he directed the preparatory training of many of the nations greatest minds, and as well helped to organize and advance numerous charitable associations, which have since become of national renown. In 1833, in connection with the work of the American Sunday school union, he went to Illinois, where he personally organized over five hundred Sunday schools. Yale conferred upon Mr. Adams the degree of LL.D. in 1854. He died April 24, 1863.


ALLEN, James Cameron, representative, was born in Shelby county, Ky., Jan. 29, 1822; son of Benjamin and Margaret (Youell) Allen; grandson of John and Margaret (Youell) Allen, and a descendent of William Youell of Augusta county, Va., a Revolutionary soldier in the war for independence. His father was of Irish and his mother of Scotch origin. He was educated in the common schools, studied law, and was admitted to the Indiana bar in 1843. He was prosecuting attorney of the 7th judicial district of Indiana, 1846-48; removed to Palestine, Ill., in 1848; was a representative in the state legislature, 1850 and 1851, and served as representative in the 33d and 34th congresses, 1853-57, his seat in the 34th congress being unsuccessfully contested. He was clerk of the house for the 35th congress and again a representative from Illinois in the 38th congress, 1863-65, having been elected from the state at large. He served as judge of the circuit and appellate court, 1873-79.


ALLEN, William Joshua, jurist, was born in Wilson County, Tenn., June 9, 1828, son of William Allen. He removed to Illinois with his parents in 1829; was educated in the public schools and was employed in the office of the Clerk of Williams county, 1846-47. He attended the law school at Louisville, Ky., 1847-48, and practised in Metropolis, Ky., 1848-53, and in partnership with his father at Marion, Ill., in 1853. He was a representative in the Illinois legislature in 1854; U. S. district attorney for the southern district of Illinois, 1855-59; circuit judge of the 26th Illinois circuit, 1859-61; and a member of the State constitutional convention of 1861. He was elected to the 37th Congress as a Democrat to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of his law partner, Gen. John A. Logan, and was re-elected to the 38th Congress, serving 1862-65. He practised law at Cairo, Ill., 1865-74, and at Carbondale, Ill., 1874-87, becoming in the latter year, U. S. district judge of the southern district of Illinois. He died at Springfield, Ill., in 1900.


ALLYN, Robert, educator, was born at Ledyard, New London county, Conn., Jan. 25, 1817. He was graduated from Wesleyan university in 1841, and for two years following was teacher of mathematics in Wilbraham academy. In 1842 he joined the New England conference, and from 1843 to 1845 preached at Colchester, Conn., having been transferred to the Providence conference. In 1845 he became principal of Wilbraham academy, resigning the position in 1848 to become principal of the Conference seminary at East Greenwich, R. I. This position he retained until 1854, being a member of the house of representatives of the state in 1852. From 1854 to 1857 he was commissioner of public schools of Rhode Island, and editor of the Rhode Island Schoolmaster. In 1854 he was again a member of the state legislature and also appointed a visitor to the military academy at West Point. He removed to Ohio in 1857 and for two years occupied the chair of ancient languages in Ohio university. From 1857 to 1863 he was president of the Wesleyan female college at Cincinnati, and from 1863 to 1869 was president of the McKendree college at Lebanon, Ill. In 1865 Wesleyan university conferred upon him the degree of D.D., and he received the degree of LL.D. from McKendree college in 1876. In 1874 he was chosen president of the Southern Illinois normal university at Carbondale. Ill., and held that office until his death, which occurred Jan. 7, 1894.


ALTGELD, John Peter, governor of Illinois, was born in Prussia in 1848, and early in life came to America with his fathers family, who settled on a farm near Mansfield, Ohio. His education was scanty, and at the age of sixteen he volunteered in the army, engaging in the final campaigns of Grant. He served with his regiment until it was disbanded at Columbus, O., and then worked on his fathers farm, studied in the library of a neighbor and at a private school at Lexington, O., and for two years taught school. He then left home and travelled from state to state earning a precarious livelihood, until, in 1869, he reached St. Louis, where he studied law, and removing to Savannah, Mo., in 1870, he was admitted to the bar. In 1874 he was elected prosecuting attorney for the county. In October, 1875, he resigned and removed to Chicago, Ill. In 1876 he was a candidate before the democratic caucus of the state legislature for United States senator. He was fairly successful in his law practice, and his first surplus of $500 he invested in a city lot, which he soon sold at a handsome profit. During the succeeding five years he accumulated a moderate sum, and in 1882 he made a real estate deal which astonished even Chicago. He bought seventy-five acres of land in the suburbs for from $2,500 to $3,000 an acre, making a payment down of $30,000 in cash. Two-thirds of the cash was supplied by a friend in Lake View, and the remainder Mr. Altgeld borrowed from other friends, until he found himself in debt nearly $200,000. He subdivided the property, had the streets improved, and afterwards sold out the land at an immense profit. This was the largest real estate transaction that had ever been made in Chicago, and it contributed greatly to Mr. Altgelds reputation as a shrewd business man. He subsequently bought $225,000 worth of property in a single purchase, and borrowed at one time $380,000 to improve the same. The Unity building was erected in 1895, and his entire holding of Chicago real estate was estimated in 1896 to be worth from one to five millions of dollars. In 1886 Mr. Altgeld accepted the democratic nomination for the office of judge of the supreme court, and though the district was accounted Republican by 12,000 votes, he was elected by a fair majority, a result largely due to the perfect organization of his canvass. In August, 1891, he resigned from the bench. The democratic state convention of April, 1892, nominated him for governor of Illinois. No Democrat had been elected to that office since 1856, but Altgeld began a campaign which was remarkable for its thoroughness, and he carried the election by a good majority. The most notable act of his administration as governor was the pardon of the anarchists who had been condemned to long imprisonment for complicity in the Haymarket murders in Chicago in May, 1886. His action raised a storm of indignant protest from all parts of the country. In July, 1894, the riotous railroad strikers in Chicago and vicinity were in possession of the shops and rolling stock of the roads coming into Chicago, and congested the traffic. President Cleveland sent United States troops to the protection of the roads, and Governor Altgeld protested against the act as interfering with the rights of the state. He was a delegate to the Democratic national convention of 1896, and an unsuccessful independent candidate for mayor of Chicago, 1899. He is the author of Our Penal Machinery and its Victims; Live Questions. He died at Joliet, Ill., March 12, 1902.


AMES, Julia A., editor, was born in Livingston county, Ill., Oct. 14, 1861. She was graduated at Illinois Wesleyan university and at the Chicago school of oratory, and contributed articles to the Womans Christian temperance union department of the Chicago Inter-Ocean. She became assistant national superintendent of press work for the union and had charge of the Union Signal in 1889. She died Dec. 12, 1891.


ANDREWS, Edmund, surgeon, was born in Putney, Vt., April 22, 1824. After his graduation from the University of Michigan in 1849 he took up the study of medicine, receiving the degrees of M.D. and A.M. in 1852. From 1851 to 1853 he was demonstrator of anatomy in the university, and in 1853-54 was also assistant lecturer on anatomy. In 1854 and 1855 he was professor of comparative anatomy and demonstrator of human anatomy, resigning to accept a position in the Rust medical college. He went to Chicago in 1856, where he became a prominent surgeon. He aided in founding the Chicago medical college, and was made professor of the principles and practices of surgery and of clinical and military surgery in that institution. At the outbreak of the civil war, he joined the 1st Illinois light artillery as hospital surgeon. After the war he visited the chief European hospitals. He was surgeon-in-chief of Mercy hospital, consulting surgeon of various charitable institutions, and taught the science of surgery in the Northwestern university medical school. He made many valuable improvements in surgical instruments and his original investigations led to the use of free incision, digital exploration, and disinfection of lumbar abscesses, which treatment had been supposed unsafe. He published a work, Rectal and Aural Surgery, which passed through several editions. He was for many years president of the Chicago academy of science, and president of the Illinois state medical society. In 1881 he received the degree of LL.D. from the University of Michigan.


ARNOLD, George, author, was born in New York city, June 24, 1834. Before he arrived at school age his parents removed to Illinois, where he attended the public schools until his fifteenth year; they then settled at Strawberry Farms, N.J. Having a talent for drawing, he entered the studio of a painter in New York, but soon abandoned his purpose of becoming an artist and devoted himself to literature. His contributions to Vanity Fair and the New York Leader soon brought him into popular favor, and a series of articles, entitled the McArone Papers, added to his reputation, and established his fame as a humorist. His poems are remarkable for their sweetness and delicacy of sentiment. His works were collected after his death by William Winter, and published in two duodecimo volumes. The Jolly Old Pedagogue is his best-known poem. He died Nov. 3. 1865.


ARNOLD, Isaac Newton, statesman, was born at Hartwick, Otsego county, N.Y., Nov. 30, 1815, son of George W. Arnold, physician, who emigrated from Rhode Island in 1800 and settled in the wilderness of western New York. In 1835 he was admitted to the bar, and the following year removed to the village of Chicago, Ill. When Chicago was organized as a city, he was elected city clerk and subsequently held other municipal offices. He was a representative in the Illinois state legislature, 1842-43, and in 1856; a presidential elector in 1844, and was elected to the 37th and 38th congresses, serving, 1861-65. He was appointed an auditor of the U.S. treasury in 1865, and was president of the Chicago historical society for several years. He lectured before literary societies in England and America and published Life of Abraham Lincoln and the Overthrow of Slavery (1867), and Life of Benedict Arnold (1880). He died April 24, 1884.


ATHERTON, George W., educator, was born in Boxford, Essex county, Mass., June 20, 1837, and descended from Humphrey Atherton of the Massachusetts colony. He was educated at Phillips Exeter academy, and in 1860 entered Yale college, from which he was graduated in 1863. He served in the civil war, being a 1st lieutenant in the 10th Connecticut volunteers, which formed a part of the Burnside expedition against North Carolina. After the battle of Newbern he was promoted to a captaincy, and took part in the movement from Hilton Head, S.C., against Charleston. He was repeatedly detailed as judge-advocate of regimental and brigade court-martial. In 1863 the impairment of his health led him to resign. He was professor in the Boys Academy, Albany, 1864-67; at St. Johns College, Annapolis, Md., 1867-68; at the Illinois state university in 1868, and at Rutgers college, where he held the chair of history, political economy and constitutional law, 1868-82. He was a member of the board of visitors to the U.S. naval academy in 1873 and 1891; of the commission to investigate charges of fraud at the Red Cloud Indian agency in 1875, and chairman of a commission to prepare a revision of the system of taxation in New Jersey in 1878. He was admitted to the bar in 1878, and practised as a consulting attorney; became president of the Pennsylvania state college in 1882 and received the degree LL.D. from Franklin and Marshall college in 1883. He was the first president of the American Association of Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations, and was chairman of a commission in 1887 to report the practicability of introducing manual training into the public schools of Pennsylvania.


BAKER, Benjamin Webb, educator, was born in Hutton, Ill., Nov. 25, 1841; son of John B. and Sarah E. (Adams) Baker; and grandson of Matthew and Samantha (Town) Baker of Massachusetts, and of John and Harriet S. (Webb) Adams of New York and Maryland. He lived on a farm until 1861, and from a child aided in the support of the family. He enlisted in the 25th Illinois volunteer infantry, 1861; was wounded several times, and was honorably discharged in 1865. He was graduated from the state normal school, Normal, Ill., in 1870; was principal of the grammar department of that school, 1866-70, and was graduated from the Illinois Wesleyan university, Ph.B., in 1874, receiving his A.M. and Ph.D. degrees in course. He joined the Central Illinois conference in which he served, with the exception of two years in Denver, Col. (1881-83), until 1898. He was presiding elder of Streator district, 1885-89; financial secretary of the Illinois Wesleyan university, 1890-93; president of Chaddock college, Quincy, Ill., 1893-98, and president of Missouri Wesleyan college, Cameron, Mo., from 1898. He received the degree of D.D. from Chaddock college in 1898, and was a trustee of Illinois Wesleyan university, 1888-98.


BAKER, Edward Dickenson, senator, was born in London, Eng., Feb. 24, 1811. He was brought by his father to Philadelphia in 1815. Being left fatherless at an early age, he supported himself and his brother by following the occupation of a weaver. In 1830 he removed with his brother to Springfield, Ill., where he studied law, was admitted to the bar, and established himself in practice. His oratorical ability brought him into prominence, and in 1837 he was elected a member of the state legislature. In 1840 he took his seat in the state senate. In 1842 he was one of three Whig candidates for the office of representative in Congress from Illinois before the nominating convention, John J. Harding and Abraham Lincoln being the rival candidates, and Harding was nominated and elected to the 28th Congress. In 1844 the three same candidates, presented themselves, and Baker was nominated and elected a representative to the 29th congress. In 1846 the three candidates again presented their names, and Abraham Lincoln was elected to the 30th Congress. He volunteered for service in the Mexican war in 1848, raised a regiment in Illinois, and fought gallantly in the battles between Vera Cruz and the city of Mexico. General Shields being incapacitated in the engagement at Cerro Gordo, Colonel Baker was given the command of his brigade and led it during the remainder of the campaign. Returning to Illinois at the close of the war he was elected a representative to the 31st Congress in 1848. In 1850 he declined a nomination to the 32d Congress and became interested in the Panama railroad. He removed in 1851 to California, where he led the bar as the most eloquent orator in the state. In 1860 he took up his residence in Oregon, and was elected in the same year U. S. senator. He took his seat, March 4, 1861. At the extra session of Congress, called July, 1861, Senator Baker supported the administration in an able and eloquent speech. He addressed a mass meeting in Union Square, New York, after the firing upon Fort Sumter, urging eloquently the preservation of the Union. He volunteered for active service, and raised in Philadelphia and New York the California regiment and commanded a brigade at the battle of Balls Bluff, where he fell from his horse, mortally wounded, Oct. 21, 1861.


BALDWIN, Theron, clergyman, was born at Goshen, Conn., July 21, 1801, son of Elisha and Clarissa (Judd) Baldwin. He received his education at Yale college, from which he was graduated in 1827 with high honors. The following two years he devoted to the study of theology, and in 1829 was ordained to the ministry, beginning his work as missionary in Western Illinois college, where he remained until 1837. Both the Illinois college and the Monticello female seminary were founded by him, and he was principal of the latter from 1837 to 1843. He also founded the society for the promotion of collegiate and theological education in the west, of which he was for twenty-seven years the energetic and efficient secretary, his headquarters being in the Bible house in New York, and his residence at Orange, N.J. Yale college conferred upon him the degree of A.M. in 1831, and Marietta the degree of S.T.D. in 1862. He died at Orange, N.J., April 10, 1870.


BARNARD, William Stebbins, entomologist, was born at Canton, Ill., Feb. 28, 1849. He was educated at Canton high school and University of Michigan, and graduated at Cornell university (B S.) in 1871, and at the University of Jena (Ph.D.) in 1873; also studying at the University of Leipsic. In 1871 he accompanied Agassiz to Brazil as assistant geologist. In 1874 he was teacher and lecturer on protozoa at Cornell university, and at Anderson summer school, Penikese Island. He was professor of natural science in the Mississippi agricultural college, 1874-75; lecturer on zoology in the Illinois state summer school, 1875; professor of natural science at the Wisconsin state normal school, 1876-77; at Oskaloosa college, 1877-78; zoologist of the Woodruff scientific expedition, 1878; assistant professor of entomology, and lecturer on the zoology of invertebrates at Cornell university, 1879-81; assistant in the entomological division United States department of agriculture, 1881-86, and professor of natural history, Drake university, 1886-87. He was the author of a Catalogue of the Invertebrates (1876), and a contributor to the American Quarterly Microscopical Journal, and the American Naturalist. He died Nov. 13, 1888.


BARNES, Clifford Webster, educator, was born at Corry, Pa., in 1864, son of Joseph and Ann (Webster) Barnes. He was graduated at Yale, A.B., 1889; B.D., 1892; was a fellow of the University of Chicago, 1892-3, receiving the degree A.M. from it in 1893. He was a student of sociology at Hull House social settlement, Chicago, 1893-7, pastor in Chicago, 1894-7, and a student at Oxford, England, in 1898. He was married in 1898 to Alice Reid of Lake Forest, Ill.; served as director of the Students Christian settlement in Paris, and as acting president of the American Art Association of Paris, 1898-9. He was an instructor in sociology and director of the university settlement work in the University of Chicago, 1899-1900, and president and professor of sociology in Illinois college from 1900.


BATEMAN, Newton, educator, was born in Fairfield, N.J., July 27, 1822. He was graduated from Illinois college in 1843; was principal of a select school in St. Louis, Mo., in 1845-46; professor of mathematics in St. Charles college, Mo., from 1847 to 1851; superintendent of public schools in Jacksonville, Ill., from 1851 to 1857, and during three years of that time was county superintendent of schools of Morgan county; in 1858 was principal of Jacksonville female academy, and in the fall of that year was elected state superintendent of public instruction, holding that office for fourteen years. He was a member of the Illinois state board of health from 1877 to 1891, and a part of the time president of the board. He acted as president of Knox college from 1875 to 1893, and on his retirement was made president emeritus and professor of moral science. He died at Galesburg, Ill., Oct. 21, 1897.


BEAUCHAMP, William, circuit preacher, was born in Kent county, Del., April 26, 1772, son of a Methodist preacher who removed to Virginia and settled on the Monongahela river in 1788. The son acquired a good education, and in 1790 taught school in Monongahela. The following year he began to preach, and in 1793 left his fathers house and travelled the circuit with the presiding elder. In 1794 he joined the itinerary, and travelled two years on the Alleghany circuit, being ordained as deacon in 1796. He was afterwards in Pittsburg, New York, Boston, Provincetown, Mass., and in Nantucket. In 1807 he returned to Virginia and remained there until 1815, when he removed to Chillicothe, Ohio, to become editor of the Western Christian Monitor, at that time the only existing Methodist periodical. In 1817 he removed to Illinois, where he founded a settlement, and built up the town of Mt. Carmel, and, says a biographer, Showed himself the truly great man in all the details of this new business, planning public measures and economical arrangements, devising mechanical improvements, for which he had rare genius, directing the instruction of the youth and simplifying its modes, ministering as pastor to the congregation, and meanwhile advancing in his own personal studies and improvement. In 1822 he was at St. Louis, in the itinerant ministry, and in 1823 was made presiding elder of the Indiana district, which included eleven large circuits. As a preacher he was gifted with overpowering eloquence, though his style was quite free from any element of the sensational, and he was designated the Demosthenes of the West. He was the author of Essays on the Truth of Christian Religion (1811). He died Oct. 7, 1824.


BEECHER, Edward, educator, was born at East Hampton, L.I., N.Y. Aug. 27, 1803, son of Lyman and Roxana (Foote) Beecher. He was graduated at Yale in 1822; fitted for the ministry at Andover, Mass., and New Haven, Conn., and was a tutor in the Hartford high school and at Yale, in 1825. He was pastor of the Park St. Congregational church, Boston, Mass., 1826-30, president of Illinois college, Jacksonville Ill., 1830-44, pastor of the Salem St. church, Boston, 1844-55, and of the Congregational church at Galesburg, Ill., 1855-70. He was also professor of Biblical exegesis in the Chicago theological seminary, became assistant to his brother in the editorial management of the Christian Union at Brooklyn, N.Y. in 1872, and pastor of the Congregational church at Parkville, N.Y. in 1885. He was also editor-in-charge of the Congregationalist for several years. He was run over by a railroad train in 1888 and although he had his leg amputated, entirely recovered from the shock. The degree of D.D. was conferred upon Mr. Beecher by Marietta college in 1841. His best known works are: The Conflict of Ages and The Concord of Ages, in which he announces the view that man is in a progressive state; the present life being the outcome of a former one, and the preparation of another life after death. Evil, however, will continue in the future life, and the struggle between it and good will still go on until some far-off future, when evil will be finally subdued, and universal harmony be forever established. The utterance of such radical views in regard to the future life necessarily made a profound impression upon the thought of the day and aroused much comment. His publications include: Address on the Kingdom of God (1827); Six Sermons on the Nature, Importance and Means of Eminent Holiness throughout the Church (1835); Statement of Anti-slavery Principles (1837); History of the Alton Riots (1838); Baptism: its Import and Modes (1850); The Conflict of Ages (1853); The Concord of Ages (1860); History of Opinions on the Scriptural Doctrines of Future Retribution (1878), and The Papal Conspiracy (1885). He died at his home in Brooklyn, N.Y., July 28, 1895.


BEECHER, Thomas Kennicutt, clergyman, was born in Litchfield, Conn., Feb. 10, 1824; the eldest son of Lyman and Harriet (Porter) Beecher. He was graduated from Illinois college, Jacksonville, in 1843, his half-brother, Edward, being at the time president of the institution. He was master of a grammar school in Philadelphia for two years, and then principal of the High school at Hartford, Conn. In 1852 he formed and assumed the charge of the New England Congregational church at Williamsburg, Brooklyn, L. I. In 1854 he accepted a call from the Independent Congregational church of Elmira, N. Y., afterwards known as the Park church. Here his success throughout a long pastorate was very marked. At first he had a small congregation, with many financial and other burdens, and no suitable church building; and afterwards a church of nearly one thousand members, a Sunday school with as many children in attendance, and a church building well fitted for worship, instruction, and social home-church life, where he introduced novel and successful methods of church work. During the civil war he was for a time chaplain of the 141st New York volunteers. Mr. Beecher was always broad-minded, generous-hearted, genial and unpretentious, an all-round man in religion, politics and social intercourse; not the slave of any past opinions, but suiting his methods and views to the present. His writings consisted principally of editorials and articles furnished the Elmira Advertiser & Gazette under the head of Miscellany. In 1870 he published a volume of locates entitled Our Seven Churches one of them on the Episcopal church having an especially large and separate circulation. In 1853 he visited France and England; in 1864-65, South America; in 1873, England; and in 1884, California. His death occurred at Elmira, N.Y., on the same date as that of his sister, Mary Foote (Beecher) Perkins, March 14, 1900.


BEECHER, William Henry, clergyman, was born at East Hampton, N.Y., Jan. 15, 1802; the eldest son of Lyman and Roxana (Foote) Beecher. His father directed his studies until he entered Andover theological seminary. He was ordained a clergyman in the Congregational church in 1830, and took his first pastorate at Newport, R.I. In 1833 Yale college conferred upon him the honorary degree of A.M. He went to Ohio in 1837 and located in Putnam, Muskingum county. He remained in the Western Reserve some years, engaged in missionary work, and returned to New York to fill a pastorate at Batavia. He returned to Ohio and preached at Toledo, where he established a church, of which he was pastor for several years, and was made president of Illinois college, Jacksonville, in 1843. The climate undermined his health, and he returned east and labored in Reading and North Brookfield, Mass., at which latter place he also served as postmaster. Upon the death of his wife he took up his residence with his daughters, Mary and Roxana, in Chicago, where he died June 23, 1889.


BEVERIDGE, Albert Jeremiah, senator, was born in Highland county, Ohio, Oct. 6, 1862: son of Thomas H. and Francis E. (Parkinson) Beveridge, and grandson of John Beveridge. He removed to Illinois with his parents; became a plowboy, teamster and logger, and was graduated at De Pauw university in 1885, having paid his own expenses. He studied law under Senator McDonald 1886-87; was admitted to the bar in 1887, and engaged in practice in Indianapolis, Ind. He was married Nov. 24, 1887, to Katherine Maud Langsdale of Greencastle, Ind. He entered politics in 1884; became a prominent political speaker, and was elected to the U.S. senate from Indiana as a Republican for the term 1899-1905.


BEVERIDGE, John Lourie, governor of Illinois, was born at Greenwich, N.Y., July 6, 1824; son of George and Ann (Hoy) Beveridge; grandson of Andrew of Abernethy, Scotland, and Isabel (Cummings) Beveridge, and of James and Agnes (Robertson) Hoy. John removed to Illinois in 1842, and to Tennessee in 1845; became a lawyer, and was married in 1848, to Helen M. Judson of Chicago. He practised in Chicago, 1850-61; served as major of the 8th Illinois cavalry; as colonel of the 17th Illinois cavalry and as brigadier general of volunteers, 1861-65. He was a representative in the 42d congress, 1871-73; lieutenant-governor of Illinois, 1872, and succeeded Richard J. Oglesby as governor, when he became U.S. senator serving 1873. He was assistant U.S. treasurer at Chicago, 1881-5, and removed to Hollywood, Cal., in 1895.


BIGLER, John, governor of California, was born in Cumberland county, Pa., Jan. 8, 1804. He was of German descent. He entered the printing business at an early age, and edited for some time the Centre Democrat at Bellefonte, Pa. He devoted his spare time to reading law, and was admitted to the bar. From 1846 to 1849 he practised as a lawyer in Illinois, removing in the latter year to California. In 1852 he was elected governor of that state, was re-elected in 1853 for a term of two years, and was nominated in 1856 for a third term, but was defeated. He died Nov. 13, 1871.


BISSELL, William Henry, statesman, was born at Hartwick, Otsego county, N.Y., April 25, 1811. He obtained an education through his own efforts, earning the money in winter that enabled him to attend school in the summer. He was graduated at the Philadelphia medical college in 1835, practised for two years in Steuben county, N.Y., and for three years in Monroe county, Ill., and was elected to the Illinois legislature, where he made quite a reputation as a ready and able debator. He turned his attention to the study of the law, was admitted to the bar, practised in Belleville, Ill., and was elected prosecuting attorney of St. Clair county in 1844. During the Mexican was he served as captain of a company in the 2d Illinois volunteers, and took an active part in the battle of Buena Vista. He represented Illinois in the national house of representatives in the 31st, 32d and 33d congresses, from December, 1849, to March 3, 1855, and his emphatic opposition to the Missouri compromise involved him in a controversy with southern Democrats. The question as to the bravery of the soldiers from the north as compared with that shown by the south in the Mexican war led to a debate with Jefferson Davis, and resulted in Mr. Bissell being challenged by Mr. Davis. He accepted the challenge, and chose muskets as the weapons to be used at thirty paces. The friends of Mr. Davis interfered at this juncture and the duel was never fought. On the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska bill, Mr. Bissell separated from the Democratic party and was elected governor of Illinois on the Republican ticket, serving by re-election from 1856 until his death, which occurred at Springfield, Ill., March 18, 1860.


BLACK, John Charles, statesman, was born at Lexington, Miss., Jan. 27, 1839. At the breaking out of the civil war he was a student in Wabash college, Ind., and volunteered in the Union army. His conspicuous bravery won for him early promotion. He was commissioned lieutenant colonel, June 9, 1862; colonel, Feb. 1, 1863, and brevet brigadier-general, March 13, 1865. Throughout the war he displayed qualities that commanded the admiration and commendation, not only of his immediate command, but of his superior officers. He was prominent with his regiment in thirteen battles and skirmishes and in two great sieges. He was wounded at Pea Ridge Ark., and again at Prairie Grove, Ark. These wounds being in his arms, he was incapacitated for field service and entered the invalid corps. At the close of the war he resigned his commission and returned to his home in Danville, Ill. It was his purpose to return to Crawfordville and complete his collegiate course, but he concluded to immediately take up the study of law at Chicago, and in 1867 he was admitted to the bar of the supreme court of Illinois, and to that of the supreme court of the United States in 1869. His remarkable oratorical gifts won him immediate recognition. Important and complicated cases intrusted to him were conducted with ability and success. He was a delegate to the national Democratic convention, in 1872; was U.S. commissioner of pensions, 1885-89; a representative from Illinois in the 53d congress 1893-95, and U.S. attorney for the northern district of Illinois. 1895-99. He received the degree LL.D. from Knox college.


BLACKBURN, Gideon, educator, was born in Angusta county, Va., Aug. 27, 1772. He was licensed to preach by the Abingdon presbytery in 1792; established a church at Marysville, Va., and others near by, and was sent as missionary to the Cherokee Indians in 1803. He became principal of Harpeth academy, East Tennessee, in 1811; continued to preach, and was pastor at Louisville, Ky., 1823-27. He was president of Centre college, Louisville, Ky., 1827-30, and then removed to Versailles, where he preached and acted as agent of the Kentucky state temperance society. In 1833 he went to Illinois and in 1835 began to raise money for Illinois college, a work which resulted in the theological school at Carlinville, Ill. In 1805 the College of New Jersey conferred on him the degree of D.D., and Dickinson college gave him those of A.M. and S.T.D. He died in Carlinville, Ill., Aug. 23, 1838.


BOND, Shadrach, governor of Illinois, was born in Maryland. He removed to the territory of Illinois, settling at Kaskaskia, where he served in the legislature of the territory, and in 1812 was sent as a delegate to the house of representatives, where he remained two years. In 1814 he was elected receiver of public moneys. In 1818, on the admission of Illinois into the Union as a state, he was elected its first governor and held the office by re-election until 1822. He died at Kaskaskia, Ill., April 13, 1832.


BONNEY, Charles Carroll, lawyer, was born at Hamilton, N.Y., Sept. 4, 1831. He began the practice of law at Peoria, Ill., in 1852. In 1860 he located in Chicago, where he became an eminent lawyer, and suggested and brought out many reforms in local, state and national affairs. In 1885 he was elected president of the national law and order league in New York, and held the same office in the Illinois state bar association. Among his published writings are: Rules of Law for the Carriage and Delivery of Persons and Property by Railway (1864); and A Summary of the Law of Marine, Fire, and Life Insurance (1865).


BRADLEY, Luther Prentice, soldier, was born in New Haven, Conn., Dec. 8, 1822. After receiving a common-school education he removed to Illinois. In 1861 he entered the Union service as Lieutenant-colonel of the 51st Illinois volunteers, which regiment he had organized. He was assigned to the army of the Mississippi under General Pope, and was present at the capture of New Madrid and Island No. 10. In April, 1862, he commanded the 51st Illinois volunteers, and was engaged in the operations of the left wing of General Hallecks army. He afterwards commanded at Decatur, Ala., and being ordered to Nashville, he remained in garrison until the arrival of General Rosecrans and the army of the Cumberland. He was promoted colonel Oct. 15, 1862; in December joined Sheridans division, and was present at the battle of Sterne river, commanding the 3d brigade during a portion of the engagement. He engaged in the Tullahoma campaign against General Braggs army, was present at the battle of Chickamauga where he received a severe wound, and obtained leave of absence. He recruited the ranks of the 51st Illinois, joined the 4th corps, and was present at Dalton, Resaca, New Hope Church, Kenesaw, Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta, and Jonesborough, Ga. He was again severely wounded in repulsing the advance of Hoods army at Spring Hill, Tenn., and after a second leave of absence he rejoined the army of the Cumberland in March, 1865. He was promoted brigadier-general, July 20, 1864, and resigned June 30, 1865. On July 28, 1866, he was appointed lieutenant-colonel of the 27th U.S. infantry. He was brevetted colonel for Chickamauga, and brigadier-general for Resaca, on March 2, 1867. He served as lieutenant-colonel and after 1879 as colonel, on the plains, in Wyoming, Kansas, New Mexico, and other places from 1866 to Dec. 8, 1886, when he was retired by law.


BRADWELL, James B., was born at Loughborough, Eng., April 16, 1828. His parents immigrated to America in 1829, locating at Utica, N.Y., and in May, 1834, removed to Cook county, Ill. His education was obtained in an academy at Chicago, and at Knox college, Galesburg, Ill. His limited means did not enable him to pursue a full course, and for a number of years he worked as a mechanic in Chicago. He invented a process for half-tone engraving, and made the first half-tone cut ever produced in Chicago, that of Chief Justice Fuller of the supreme court. While supporting himself as a mechanic, he studied law, and was admitted to the Illinois bar. In 1861 he was elected judge of Cook county for the term of four years, and was re-elected in 1865. In 1873 he was elected to the legislature of Illinois and was returned in 1875. He held numerous offices of charitable and other institutions, and presided over the convention that organized the American woman suffrage association at Cleveland. He also served as president of the Chicago press club; of the Chicago bar association; of the Illinois state bar association; of the Chicago photographic society; of the Chicago soldiers home, and chairman of the arms and trophy department of the N. W. sanitary commission and soldiers home fair of 1865. He was one of the founders of the Union league club of Chicago, and president of its board of directors. He was the first judge to hold that the civil rights of slaves, being suspended during slavery, revived upon emancipation. His wife, Myra (Colby), was founder and editor of the Chicago Legal News; his son, Thomas Bradwell, his daughter, Bessie Bradwell Helmer, his son-in-law, Frank A. Helmer, and his nephew, James A. Peterson, all being members of the Illinois bar. After the death of his wife, which occurred in 1894, Judge Bradwell and his daughter, Mrs. Frank A. Helmer, assumed the editorship of the Chicago Legal News.


BRADWELL, Myra (Colby), lawyer, was born in Manchester, Vt., Feb. 12, 1831, daughter of Eben and Abigail (Willey) Colby. Her childhood was passed in Western New York, whence, in 1843, her parents removed to Schaumburg, a town near Chicago. Her education was acquired at a seminary in Elgin, where she later became an instructor, afterward teaching in Cook, Kane, and Lake counties, Illinois, and in private and public schools in Memphis, Tenn. In 1852 she was married to James B. Bradwell, a Chicago lawyer, and studied law under the instruction of her husband. In 1858 she was refused admission to the bar, on the ground of her being a woman. The case was carried to the supreme court of the United States with the same result. Twenty years later she received, without renewed request, a license to practise in Illinois. In 1868 she began the publication of the Chicago Legal News, which she continued to conduct, up to the time of her death. Mrs. Bradwell was actively interested in philanthropic work, being one of the founders of the Illinois industrial school for girls, and devoting much time to private charities. She was a member of the womans branch of the Illinois centennial association, vice-president of the first woman suffrage convention in Chicago, a member of the board of lady managers of the Worlds Columbian exposition at Chicago in 1893, and chairman of the committee on law reform of its auxiliary congress. She was the first woman member of the Illinois state bar association, and the first woman in the United States to apply for admission to the bar. In 1894 the Chicago board of education named one of its public schools the Myra Bradwell school in her honor, the dedicatory exercises being held June 27, 1895. She died in Chicago, Ill., Feb. 14, 1894.


BRAYMAN, Mason, lawyer, was born at Buffalo, N.Y., May 23, 1813. He was reared on a farm, learned the printers trade and in 1834-35 edited the Buffalo Bulletin. He was admitted to the bar in 1836, and removed to Monroe, Mich. He served as city attorney of Monroe in 1838, and in 1841 edited a newspaper. In 1842 he established himself in the practice of law at Springfield, Ill. In 1843, as a special commissioner under the government, he adjusted the Mormon disturbances at Nauvoo and was employed as counsel in the prosecution of the offenders, and conducted the negotiations which resulted in the withdrawal of the Mormons from Illinois. He revised and published the statutes of Illinois in 1844-45. He became the attorney of the Illinois Central railroad in 1851, and afterwards a promoter of railroad enterprises throughout Missouri, Arkansas, and the southwest. He joined the Federal army in 1861, as major of the 29th Illinois volunteers, became colonel in the following year, and fought in the battles of Belmont, Fort Donelson, and Shiloh. For especial gallantry at these engagements he was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers. He was in command at Bolivar, Tenn., when General Van Dorns attack was so effectively repulsed. He re-organized the returned Ohio regiments at Camp Dennison; was in command at Natchez from July, 1864, to May, 1865; was appointed presiding officer of the commission which met to examine into the cotton claims, and was mustered out of service with the rank of major-general of volunteers at the close of hostilities, when he revived railroad interests in the south. In 1872-73 he edited the Illinois State Journal; in 1873 he removed to Ripon, Wis., and practised law until 1877, when he was appointed by President Hayes governor of Idaho. At the expiration of his term in 1880 he resumed the practice of his profession at Ripon, Wis. He subsequently settled in Kansas City, Mo., where he died Feb. 27, 1895.


BREESE, Sidney, jurist, was born in Whitesboro, Oneida county, N.Y., July 15, 1800. He graduated at Union college in 1818, studied law, and removed to Illinois in 1821, where he was admitted to the bar. He successively filled the offices of town postmaster, assistant secretary of state, states attorney, and United States attorney for Illinois. He was a commissioned officer in the state militia and served as lieutenant of volunteers, during the Black Hawk war. He was appointed circuit judge in 1835, and judge of the supreme court of the state in 1841. In 1843 he was elected to the United States senate, as a democrat, serving until 1849, and during his senatorship, while chairman of the committee on public lands, he made a report favoring the establishment of a transcontinental railway. He was a member of the house of representatives of Illinois, and in 1850 was elected its speaker. In 1855 he was again appointed judge of the circuit court and was chief of the court. In 1857 he was elected justice of the supreme court of the state, and in 1873 became chief justice, holding the office during his lifetime. He was one of the originators of the Illinois Central railroad, and from 1845 to 1849 regent of the Smithsonian institution. He published a volume of Decisions of the Supreme Court (1829); a work on Illinois (1869); and another on the Origin and History of the Pacific Railroad (1869). He died at Pinckneyville, Ill., June 27, 1878.


BRENTANO, Lorenzo, representative, was born at Mannheim, Baden, Germany, Nov. 4, 1813. He studied law at Heidelberg and Freiburg; was admitted to the bar and engaged in practice in Baden. He became a member of the Chamber of Deputies in 1834, allied himself with the Liberal party and was a member of the Frankfort parliament in 1848. He was chosen president of the provisional republic in 1849, and when the grand duke was re-established fled to the United States. He was a farmer in Kalamazoo county, Mich., for ten years; engaged in the practice of law in Chicago, Ill., in 1860, and served as a representative in the state legislature in 1862. He was a member of the Chicago board of education five years; a presidential elector on the Grant ticket in 1868, and visited Germany in 1869. He edited the Illinois Staats-Zeitung; was U.S. consul at Dresden, 1872-76, and a representative in the 45th congress. He published a full report of the trial of the assassin of President Garfield, and a history of King versus Missouri (United States supreme court reports, 107). He died in Chicago, Ill., Sept. 18, 1891.


BROADHEAD, Garland Carr, geologist, was born in Albemarle county, Va., Oct. 30, 1827. His father was a soldier in the war of 1812, a self-made man, who, educating himself, rose to be a magistrate. In 1836 he settled in St. Charles county, Mo., where the son received his early education, first under his father, afterward under a tutor, while he worked at intervals upon his fathers farm. He early showed a fondness for mathematics, and was familiar with Latin grammar before his tenth year. At the age of twenty-three he entered the University of Missouri, and two years later, the Western military institute at Drennon Springs, Ky. He studied geology under Prof. Richard Owen, formerly of Edinburgh. In 1852 he engaged as a civil engineer and superintendent of construction of a division of the Missouri Pacific railroad. In 1857 he was appointed assistant geologist of Missouri, which position he retained four years. From 1862 to 1864 he was United States deputy collector in St. Louis, and in 1866 he was United States assessor for the 5th Missouri district. In 1868 he was appointed assistant geologist of Illinois, and in 1873 state geologist of Missouri, and he held the office until the survey was suspended in 1875. In 1875 Mr. Broadhead made a collection for the Smithsonian insitution, and for the Missouri department of the Centennial exhibition, and in the following year was one of the jurors at the exhibition, and wrote out the report on petroleum and other hydrocarbons, as well as brief memoirs of state and other exhibits. In 1881 he was appointed special agent of the tenth census for investigating and obtaining data and specimens of rock quarries for the states of Missouri and Kansas. In the same year he visited North Park, Colorado. From November, 1883, to April, 1884, he was engaged in arranging specimens in the museum of the State university at Columbia, Mo. In July, 1884, he was appointed a member of the Missouri river commission. In July, 1885, in company with the other members of the commission, he visited Yellow Stone park and the upper streams tributary to the Missouri. From 1887 until 1897 he was professor of geology and mineralogy in the University of Missouri. He was made a member of various scientific societies, and, besides, the volumes incidental to his geological surveys, he has written several hundred articles of scientific interest, chiefly geological, published in various pamphlets.


BROSS, William, journalist, was born at Montague, Sussex county, N.J., Nov. 4, 1813. He acquired an academic education, was graduated from Williams college in 1838, and taught school until 1848, when he took up his residence in Chicago, Ill., where he was a bookseller and publisher. He was one of the founders of the Daily Democratic Press in 1852, which was consolidated with the Chicago Tribune in 1858, and at the time of his death was president of the Tribune association. From 1865 to 1869 he was lieutenant-governor of Illinois, and in that capacity signed the thirteenth amendment to the constitution of the United States, on behalf of the state, which was the first of all the states to adopt that amendment. He was a staunch adherent of the Republican party and a speaker of some prominence in its behalf. He made generous gifts to Lake Forest university, and was a trustee and at the time of his death president of the council of that institution. He travelled extensively, and was a member of various scientific and other bodies, including the Chicago historical society. He published: A History of Chicago (1876); Immortality (1877); A History of Camp Douglas (1878); Punishment, Chicago, and Her Future Growth (1880); The Winfield Family (1882), and Illinois, and the Thirteenth Amendment (1884). He died in Chicago, Ill., Feb. 22, 1889.


BROWN, Egbert Benson, soldier, was born at Brownsville, N. Y., Oct. 24, 1816. He was thrown upon his own resources at an early age, and having acquired the rudiments of an education at Tecumseh, Mich., he was employed first as helper on a whaling voyage around the world, and afterwards in various occupations in Toledo, Ohio, where, in 1849, he was chosen mayor of the city. In 1852 he removed to St. Louis, Mo., and became a railroad manager, resigning his position in 1861 to organize a regiment of infantry. He rendered effective service in saving the state from secession, and in May, 1862, was appointed brigadier-general of Missouri volunteers, becoming brigadier-general of United States volunteers in 1863, after the battle of Springfield, Mo., in which he was severely wounded. The troops under his command were officially complimented by the Missouri legislature for their gallantry at Springfield. He never recovered from the effects of his wounds, served for a time as pension agent at St. Louis, and in 1869 engaged in farming at Hastings, Ill. He was a member of the Illinois board of equalization from 188l to 1884.


BROWNING, Orville Hickman, statesman, was born in Harrison county, Ky., in 1810. He early in life removed to Bracken county, where he was educated. In 1830 he removed to Quincy, Ill., where he was admitted to the bar in 1831. He was a soldier in the Black Hawk war. In 1836 he was elected to the state senate and served two terms, when he was elected to the lower house, serving for three years. He was a delegate of the Bloomington convention, which organized the Republican Party of Illinois in 1856, and to the Chicago convention which nominated Abraham Lincoln to the presidency in 1860. In 1861 he was appointed United States senator by Governor Yates, to succeed Stephen A. Douglas, who died June 3, but the appointment was not confirmed by the legislature of Illinois, and W. A. Richardson was elected to fill the unexpired term. In the senate he served from 1861 to 1863, and actively supported all the war measures of the government, except the confiscation bill. In 1866 he was appointed Secretary of the Interior in the cabinet of President Johnson, and for a time acted also as attorney-general. At the close of Johnsons administration he resumed the practice of the law, which he followed at Quincy, Ill., until his death, Aug. 10, 1881.


BRYAN, Charles Page, diplomatist, was born in Chicago, Ill., in 1856, son of Thomas Barbour Bryan (q. v.). He was educated at the University of Virginia and was graduated at Columbian law school in 1878. He was admitted to the bar in that year and in 1879 removed to Colorado, where he served as a representative in the state legislature and as colonel in the military staff of Governor Eaton. He returned to Chicago in 1883; served four terms in the state legislature and visited Europe twice in the interest of the Worlds Columbian Exposition. He also served as colonel on the staffs of Governors Fifes, Eglesby and Altgeld of Illinois; was appointed envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to China in October, 1897; was transferred to Brazil in January, 1898, and to Switzerland in September, 1902.


BRYAN, William Jennings, statesman, was born at Salem, Marion county, Ill., March 19, 1860; son of Silas Lillard and Mariah Elizabeth (Jennings) Bryan, grandson of John and Nancy (Lillard) Bryan, and great-grandson of William Bryan, born in Culpeper county, Va., about 1765. His grandfather removed from Culpeper county to Point Pleasant in western Virginia shortly after his marriage, and in 1852 his son, Silas Lillard, was married and removed to Salem, Marion county, Ill., where he was a lawyer of high standing, for eight years state senator, and for twelve years a circuit judge. Until his tenth year, William was taught at home, then entering the public schools, and, in 1875, Whipple academy, the preparatory school of Illinois college, at Jacksonville. When fourteen years old he joined the Presbyterian church, and in 1880 made his first appearance as a speaker at a political meeting. In June, 1881, he was graduated at Illinois college with the highest honors, and was also chosen class orator. In 1884, by invitation of the faculty, he delivered the masters oration, and received the degree of M.A. During his college course he won five prizes. Immediately after his graduation from college he entered the Union college of law in Chicago, where he had as a classmate Henry, son of Lyman Trumbull, and thus gained the privilege of the use of Mr. Trumbulls law office for study after school hours. He was admitted to the bar, beginning his law practice July 4, 1883. On Oct. 1, 1884, he was married to Mary Elizabeth Baird of Perry, Ill., who afterwards studied her husbands profession, and won admission to the bar, not for the purpose of practising, but in order to be in intelligent sympathy with Mr. Bryans business life. Until 1887 he practised in Jacksonville, Ill., removing in that year to Lincoln, Neb., where he became a law partner with Mr. Talbot, but did not share in his railroad business. He early took an interest in political affairs, was a student of the science of government, and soon became known for his knowledge of political questions. In 1890 he received the unanimous nomination of the Democratic party as representative from the first Nebraska district to the 52nd Congress. He was elected in an overwhelming Republican district, receiving 6,713 more votes than his chief competitor, a result attributable largely to his exceptional ability as a platform orator and the persistency with which he personally prosecuted the canvass. His reputation had preceded him to Congress, and he was placed on the Ways and Means Committee, one of the youngest members to be ever thus honored. His speech on the tariff, delivered March 16, 1892, was made a campaign document in the canvass of that year, resulting in the second election of Mr. Cleveland, and was universally commended for its lucid statement of the tariff question then at issue. Though a Democrat, and running on a Democratic platform, he was re-elected in 1892 in a district which gave the Republican state ticket a plurality of six thousand at the same election. In the 53rd Congress he was again placed upon the Ways and Means Committee. He also took an active part in the silver debate, which began with the extraordinary session, and on Aug. 16, 1893, made a speech in favor of The gold and silver coinage of the Constitution. In this speech he advocated the free coinage of silver at the ratio of sixteen to one, without waiting for the consent of any other nations, claiming that the adoption of a bimetallic standard by the United States would force the other nations, England only excepted, to adopt the standard as final. On July 4, 1892, he made a notable speech in Tammany Hall, New York city, that greatly increased his reputation as an orator, and on May 30, 1894, he delivered an oration at Arlington cemetery, Virginia, at the memorial services over the soldiers graves, which was listened to by the President and his cabinet, and was widely published as an exceptional oratorical effort. As political editor of the Omaha World Herald he represented his paper at the Republican convention at St. Louis, June 19, 1896, and there was the first newspaper man to obtain a definite acknowledgment of the intention of the leaders to stand for gold, notwithstanding the declaration in their platform in favor of bimetallism. This, to him, radical measure greatly increased his faith in the success of the Democratic party, if it could be induced to adopt the free coinage of silver as the political issue of the campaign. When the convention met at Chicago, July 9, 1896, Mr. Bryan was a delegate, and while awaiting the report of the committee on platform he addressed the assembly. His speech electrified the audience, the different delegations bringing forward their standard, and clustering them around the young orator. One of the oldest conservative and experienced newspaper correspondents of a gold organ telegraphed to his paper: As he (Bryan) spoke I thought I could see the presidential halo about his brow. The next day Mr. Bryan was found to have captured the convention, and after the heroic fight made by the gold standard Democrats to stem the silver tide, Mr. Bryan was nominated as the Democratic standard bearer. At the national convention of the Silver party at St. Louis, July 24, Mr. Bryan received the nomination of that party as he did that of the Peoples party. In the canvass that followed Mr. Bryan took the stump, and in the course of the campaign made 592 speeches in 477 cities and towns, in 27 states of the Union, travelling 18,831 miles between July 12 and Nov. 2, 1896. This was an example of industry and earnestness unprecedented in the history of politics in America. At the general election Nov. 3, 1896, he was defeated in the election, receiving 176 electoral and 6,351,042 popular votes. He became colonel of the 3rd Nebraska volunteers July 13, 1898, and joined the 7th army corps at Jacksonville, Fla., which corps was ordered to Savannah, Ga. He resigned from the army Dec. 10, 1898, and entered actively into the campaign against the annexation of the Philippine Islands, declaring that the United States could not permanently endure half republic and half colony, half free and half vassal. He was nominated a second time for president of the United States by the Democratic party in 1900, and was defeated, receiving 155 electoral and 6,358,133 popular votes. He received the degree LL.D. from McKendree college in 1897, and published The First Battle (1897). In 1901 he established and edited The Commoner, a weekly political journal, at Lincoln, Neb.


BUCKINGHAM, Catharinus Putnam, was born at Springfield, Ohio, March 14, 1808. After his graduation at the United States military academy in 1829, he served for one year on topographical duty, and for another on pedagogical duty at the military academy, when he resigned from the service. From 1833 to 1836 he was professor of mathematics and natural philosophy in Kenyon college, Gambler, Ohio, and he then became engaged in manufacturing pursuits, acquiring a business interest in the Kokosing iron works at Mr. Vernon, Ohio. Upon the outbreak of the civil war he entered the service as assistant adjutant-general of Ohio, May 3, 1861, becoming commissary-general on May 8, and adjutant-general with the rank of brigadier-general in July of the same year. He was detailed to special duty in the war department at Washington, D. C., from July, 1862, to February, 1863, when he resigned his commission, and removing to New York engaged in mercantile pursuits. He built the Illinois central railroad companys grain elevator, 1868-73, and in 1873 became president of the Chicago steel works. He died in Chicago, Ill., Aug. 30, 1888.


BUFFINGTON, Adelbert Rinaldo, soldier, was born at Wheeling, Va., Nov. 22, 1837. He was graduated at the United States military academy in 1861, and was assigned to duty as drill master of volunteers at Washington, D. C. He was on duty at the St. Louis arsenal as assistant ordnance officer and in mustering volunteers in Illinois and Missouri. He defended Pilot Knob, Mo.; was assistant adjutant-general of the 5th division, army of the west; organized a Missouri regiment from the men in the arsenal, of which he was made colonel, and afterwards had charge of the ordnance depot at Wheeling, W. Va. From September, 1863, to July, 1864, he was inspector of rifling seacoast cannon, and from July, 1864, to September, 1865, was in command of the New York arsenal. After the close of the war he was on leave of absence inspecting arms for the Egyptian government until April, 1866, when he was in charge of the ordnance depot at Baton Rouge, La., and then became chief of ordnance, department of the Gulf. After March, 1867, he was in command of the 5th military district, Texas and Louisiana, until 1868, when he commanded the Watertown arsenal. He was at the Detroit arsenal from December, 1870, to February, 1872; was superintendent of southern forts, February, 1872, to May, 1873; in charge at Indianapolis arsenal, 1878 to 75; promoted major of ordnance June 23, 1874, after which he had charge of the Allegheny and Watervliet arsenals until 1881, when he was promoted lieutenant-colonel and placed in charge of the national armory Oct. 3, 1882. He was in command at the Rock Island, Ill., arsenal in 1896. Colonel Buffington made numerous inventions in the line of ordnance attachments and improvements, including a magazine firearm, a rod bayonet, a rear sight with adjustment for fine shooting for military firearms, and carriages for light and heavy guns. He was the first to use gas furnaces for drop forging. He became chief of the ordnance department with the rank of brigadier-general, April 15, 1899, and resigned in 1901.


BUFORD, Napoleon Bonaparte, soldier, was born in Woodford county, Ky., Jan. 13, 1807. He was graduated from West Point in 1827, studied law at Harvard by permission of the government, was assistant professor of natural and experimental philosophy at West Point, 1834-35, and resigned from the army in 1835. He was employed by the state of Kentucky as civil engineer; engaged in the iron business, and became a banker and railroad president in Illinois. He entered the Union army in 1861 as colonel of the 27th Illinois volunteers; was present at the engagement at Belmont, Mo., Nov. 7, 1861; occupied Columbus, Ky., in March, 1862; took Union city, was in command of the garrison at Island 10 after that fort was captured, and was present at Fort Pillow, April, 1862. April 15, 1862, he was promoted brigadier-general, was present at the siege of Corinth, September, 1862; the battle of Corinth, October 3 and 4, 1862; the siege of Vicksburg, 1863; was stationed in command at Cairo, Ill., from March to September, 1863, and from Sept. 12, 1863 to March 9, 1865, at Helena, Ark. He was brevetted major-general of volunteers, March 13, 1865, and was mustered out of the volunteer service the following August. He served as special U. S. Indian commissioner in 1868, having been appointed in 1867 by the government to inspect the Union Pacific railroad, and served until the road was completed in 1869. He died March 28, 1883.


BURRELL, David James, clergyman, was born at Mount Pleasant, Pa., Aug. 1, 1844. His father was one of the early settlers of Illinois, having located at Freeport in 1850. In 1860 he entered Phillips academy, Andover, Mass., and was graduated from Yale college, in 1867 being awarded the De Forest gold medal for oratory. He then entered the Union theological seminary, where he was graduated in 1871 and at once entered upon the work of the ministry in connection with the city missions of Chicago. He accepted the pastorate of the Second Presbyterian church at Dubuque, Iowa, in 1876, where he remained eleven years. He then accepted a call from Westminster Presbyterian church at Minneapolis, Minn., and also the presidency of Macallister college. In 1891 he assumed the pastorship of the Marble collegiate church of New York city. He contributed liberally to current literature, both secular and religious, and published, The Great Religions, The Gospel of Gladness, and The Morning Cometh, and in connection with his brother, Rev. Jos. Dunn Burrell, Hints and Helps, for the years 1892, 93 and 94. He had charge of the international lesson column of the Chicago Interior for eleven years, filled the chairs of Greek and Hebrew in the German theological seminary of the northwest, and had a seat on the board of trustees of the United society of the Dutch reformed churches.


BURRILL, Thomas Jonathan, naturalist, was born at Pittsfield, Mass., April 25, 1839. In 1867 he went with Maj. J. W. Powell on his famous Rocky Mountain expedition. He was graduated from the State Normal university, Normal, Ill., in 1868. In 1871 he was elected to the chair of botany and horticulture in the university; in 1877 was made dean of the department of natural sciences, and held the office seven years, meanwhile making important investigations and discoveries. In 1882 was elected its vice-president, and was acting president 1891-4. He served as president of the Illinois state horticultural society, vice-president of the American horticultural society, vice-president of the biology department of the American association for the advancement of science, and from 1885 to 1886 as president of the American society of microscopists. He is the author of Uredine�, or Parasitic Fungi of Illinois (1885) and many periodical articles, addresses and papers.


BUSEY, Samuel Thompson, soldier, was born at Greencastle, Ind., Nov. 16, 1835. When but a child he was taken by his parents to Urbana, Ill., where he labored on a farm, attended a district school at intervals, and was clerk in a store. In 1862, as 2nd lieutenant in the recruiting service, he organized a company of volunteers, of which he was elected captain, and on the organization of the 76th Illinois regiment was commissioned lieutenant-colonel; in the ensuing January he succeeded to the command of the regiment, and in May was mustered in as colonel. He was on several occasions mentioned in general orders for meritorious services and distinguished bravery, and was brevetted brigadier-general for leading the assault on Fort Blakeley, Ala., on April 9, 1865, when he scaled the enemys works alone, and engaged, unsupported, in a hand-to-hand encounter with a gun squad, killing the gunner and wounding two others of the squad. Though severely wounded himself, he received in person the surrender of the Confederate officer and his staff. He was mustered out of service in August, 1865, with the rank of brevet brigadier-general. In 1867 he organized Buseys bank at Urbana, which he successfully managed for twenty-one years, when he retired from business in 1888. In 1880 he was elected mayor, and president of the board of education of the city of Urbana, by five successive elections held those offices for nine years, and in 1890 was elected a representative to the 52nd Congress as a Democrat, defeating Joseph G. Cannon, the Republican incumbent, in a district that had been Republican for years, and had been represented by Mr. Cannon continuously from 1873.


BUTLER, Nathaniel, educator, was born at Eastport, Me., May 22, 1853. He was graduated from Colby university A.B., 1873, A.M., 1876, and taught school in Illinois, 1873-83. He was professor of rhetoric and English literature in the University of Chicago, 1884-86; professor of Latin and of rhetoric and English literature in the University of Illinois, 1886-91; associate professor of English literature and subsequently director of the university extension department of the University of Chicago, 1892-95, which he represented at the university extension congress in London in 1894. He was president of Colby university, 1896-1900, received the degree D.D. from there in 1896, and returned to the University of Chicago in 1900. He was an editor of Johnsons Cyclop�dia, and published a Latin text book.


CALDWELL, Ben Franklin, representative, was born in Greene county, Ill., Aug. 2, 1848; son of John Caldwell. He was educated in the public schools and in 1853 removed to Sangamon county, and subsequently engaged in farming. He was married, May 27, 1873, to Julia F. Cloyd. He served four terms in both branches of the Illinois legislature; became president of the State bank at Chatham, and was elected a representative in the 56th, 57th and 58th congresses as a Democrat.


CANNON, Joseph G., representative, was born at Guilford, N. C., May 7, 1836. He was educated for the bar in the schools of his native state, and commenced practice at Tuscola, Ill., removing subsequently to Danville. He served as states attorney from March, 1861, to December, 1868, and as a representative from the fifteenth district of Illinois to the 43rd and every successive Congress, including the 55th, except the 52nd Congress, to which he failed of an election by reason of an ill-advised speech, which was made the instrument of his defeat. On the organization of the 54th, 55th, 56th and 57th Congresses he was made chairman of the committee on appropriations.


CARLIN, William Passmore, soldier, was born in Greene county, Ill., Nov. 24, 1829. He was graduated at West Point with the rank of brevet 2nd lieutenant of infantry in 1850, and assigned to duty at Fort Snelling, Minn. He was in active service during the Sioux expedition, and also in the Cheyenne and Utah campaigns, as 1st lieutenant, which rank he received in March, 1855. In 1858 he marched to California, where he remained in service for two years. In 1861 he received the rank of captain, and entered the volunteer service as colonel of the 38th Illinois volunteers. He was present at the defeat of Gen. Jeff Thompson at Frederickton, Mo., after which he commanded the district of southeastern Missouri. In October, 1862, he won, at Perryville, Ky., the promotion to brigadier-general of volunteers. He took part in the Tullahoma campaign, and the battles of Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge. In November, 1863, he was brevetted lieutenant-colonel for distinguished service at Chattanooga; and in February, 1864, as major of the 16th United States infantry, was engaged in the Georgia campaign and at the surrender of Atlanta. On Sept. 1, 1864, at Jonesboro, Georgia, he won the brevet of colonel in the regular army; and for his faithful and efficient service in the march to the sea, the surrender of Savannah, and the invasion of the Carolinas, he was made, in March, 1865, brevet major-general U. S. volunteers, and in the same month received the rank of brevet brigadier-general U. S. army. At the close of the war he was brevetted major-general of the regular army. He left the volunteer service in August, 1865, and was engaged in frontier duty during the Indian troubles, and in April, 1882, was made colonel. He was retired as brigadier-general, 1893. He died on a train in Montana, Oct. 4, 1903.


CARTWRIGHT, Peter, clergyman, was born in Amherst county, Va., Sept. 1, 1785. About 1790 his father, who was a soldier in the revolutionary army, moved to Logan county, Ky., then a wild and unsettled region. He received a meagre education, was converted at the age of sixteen, and became a local preacher. In 1803 he became a regular preacher, and was ordained an elder in 1806 by Bishop Asbury. In 1823 he moved to Illinois, where he settled in Sangamon county, being twice elected to represent that district in the state legislature. He was a delegate at all the conferences for many years. He was a Democrat in politics and opposed slavery. In 1846 he was a Democratic candidate for representative in Congress, but was defeated by Abraham Lincoln. He was for fifty years a presiding elder of the Methodist church, his quaint and forcible style of preaching was suited to the times and to the people among whom he labored, and he was both feared and beloved. He published several pamphlets, of which his Controversy with the Devil (1853), and an Autobiography of Rev. Peter Cartwright were the most notable. He died near Pleasant Plains, Sangamon county, Ill., Sept. 25, 1872.


CATHERWOOD, Mary Hartwell, author, was born at Luray, Licking county, Ohio, Dec. 16, 1847, daughter of Dr. Marcus and Phoebe (Thompson) Hartwell. She was graduated from the Granville (Ohio) female college in 1868. She was married Dec. 27, 1887, to James S. Catherwood, of Hoopeston, near Chicago, Ill. In January, 1891, she became editorially connected with The Graphic, a weekly Chicago paper. Among her published books are: The Dogberry Bunch (1881); Rocky Fork (1882); Old Caravan Days (1884); The Secret at Roseladies (1888); The Romance of Dollard (1889); The Bells of St. Anne (1889); The Story of Tonty (1890); The Lady of Fort St. John (1891); Old Kaskaskia (1893); The White Islander (1893); The Chase of St. Castin, and Other Stories of the French in the New World (1894); Days of Jeanne dArc (1897); and The Spirit of an Illinois Town and The Little Renault (1897). She died in Chicago, Ill., Dec. 27, 1902.


CATON, John Dean, jurist, was born in Monroe, N. Y., March 19, 1812; son of Robert and Hannah (Dean) Caton. He attended the district school for a few years, and in 1829 entered the academy at Utica, where he paid especial attention to mathematics and surveying. In 1833 he went to Chicago and established himself in his profession, being the second lawyer to practise in that city. In 1841 he was appointed judge of the supreme court of Illinois, and remained on the bench until his resignation in 1864, holding the chief-justiceship from April to June, 1855, and from 1857 to 1864. From 1852 to 1867 he was president of the Illinois and Mississippi telegraphic company. He travelled widely and devoted much time to natural history. In 1866 Hamilton college conferred upon him the degree of LL. D. He is the author of: A Summer in Norway (1875); The Last of the Illinois and a Sketch of the Pottawatomies (1876); Origin of the Prairies (1876); and The Antelope and Deer of America (1877). He died in Chicago, Ill., July 30, 1895.


CHAMBERLIN, McKendree Hypes, educator, was born in Lebanon, Ill., Nov. 17, 1838; son of the Rev. David and Susan (Rankin) Chamberlin. He was graduated from McKendree college, A.B., in 1859, and from Harvard LL. B. in 1861. He practised law in Kansas City. Mo., and at Beardstown, Ill., 1864-67, subsequently engaging in promoting the construction of railroads in Illinois, Iowa and Kentucky; was secretary of the Illinois state railway commission, 1877-81. He was elected president of McKendree college and professor of mental and moral science in 1894. He was a delegate to the quadrennial session of the general conference of the Methodist Episcopal church, in 1896, and in 1900. He received the degree of LL. D. from U. S. Grant university in 1896.


CHASE, Philander, 1st bishop of Ohio, 1819-31, 1st bishop of Illinois, 1835-52, and 18th in succession in the American episcopate, was born at Cornish, N. H., Dec. 14, 1775; son of Dudley and Alice (Corbett) Chase, and lineally descended through Samuel and Mary (Dudley) Chase; Daniel and Sarah (March) Chase; Moses and Ann (Follansbee) Chase, from Aquila and Ann Chase, who came from England and settled in New Hampshire in 1640. He was graduated at Dartmouth college in 1796, was admitted to the diaconate of the P. E. church by bishop Provoost in St. Pauls chapel, New York city, June 10, 1798, and advanced to the priesthood by the same prelate, Nov. 10, 1799. He first labored as a missionary in northern and western New York, where he organized parishes at Utica, Canandaigua, and Auburn. In 1800 he assumed charge of the Poughkeepsie, and Fishkill churches. In 1805 he removed to New Orleans, La., where he organized Christ church and became its rector. In 1811 he became rector of Christ church, Hartford, Conn. He then resolved to transfer his labors to the missionary district west of the Alleghanies, held his first service at Salem, Ohio, March 16, 1817, and in June of the same year, assumed charge of the church at Worthington, Ohio, and of the outlying parishes of Delaware and Columbus, serving also as a principal of the academy at Worthington. His marked success in missionary work caused him to be chosen as bishop of the newly formed diocese of Ohio, and on Feb. 11, 1819, he was consecrated at St. James church, Philadelphia. He was president of Cincinnati college, 1821-23, and during that time took measures which resulted in the founding and partial endowment of Kenyon college, of which he was president, 1828-31. He was also president of the theological seminary at Gambier, Ohio, 1825-31. Bishop Chase later visited England for the purpose of obtaining funds to carry out the enterprise, which resulted in a generous response to his appeal. In 1831, his disposition of the funds obtained in England being questioned by his clergy, he resigned the presidency of Kenyon college and Gambier theological seminary, as well as his episcopate. In 1832 he removed to Michigan, where he was occupied in missionary work. In 1835 he was chosen bishop of Illinois. With the help of money which he obtained on a second visit to England, he founded Jubilee college, at a place to which he gave the name, Robins Nest, Peoria, Ill. A charter, placing the college entirely under the jurisdiction of the church, was obtained in 1847. On the death of Bishop Griswold in 1843, Bishop Chase became presiding bishop. He received the degree of D.D. from Columbia college in 1819, and that of LL. D from Cincinnati college in 1823. He published: A Plea for the West (1826); The Star in the West (1828); Defence of Kenyon College (1831); A Plea for Jubilee (1835); Reminiscences, and Autobiography (1847); the Pastoral Letters of the House of Bishops from 1844 to 1850, inclusive. His life has been written, as well as a vindication of his course in regard to Kenyon college. He died at Jubilee college, Robins Nest, Ill., Sept. 20, 1852.


CHETLAIN, Augustus Louis, soldier, was born in St. Louis, Mo., Dec. 26, 1824; son of Swiss parents who emigrated from Neuchatel, Switzerland, to Red River, British America, in 1823. Two years later they removed to the United States, lived in St. Louis during 1825, and early in 1826 settled at Galena, Ill., where the son received a common-school education, and entered mercantile life. At a meeting held in Galena in response to President Lincolns call for volunteers in 1861, he was the first to enlist, and was chosen captain of a company which became a part of the 12th Illinois regiment, of which he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel, April 16, 1862. From September, 1861, to January, 1862, he was in command at Smithland, Ky.; he then rejoined his regiment and led it in the Tennessee campaign. He participated in the capture of Fort Henry and at the battle of Fort Donelson. He was promoted colonel and led his regiment at Shiloh, April 6, 1862, and at the siege of Corinth, May, 1862. After the battle of Corinth, in which he distinguished himself, he was left in command of Corinth by General Rosecrans. While in this service he recruited the first colored regiment raised in the west. He was relieved in 1863, was promoted brigadier-general and given charge of the organization of colored troops in Tennessee and Kentucky. He was successful in raising a force of seventeen thousand men, for which service he received special commendation in General Thomass report to the department of war. During 1864-65 he was in command of the post of Memphis, and in June of the latter year was brevetted major-general for meritorious service. In the fall of 1865 he was given command of the central district of Alabama, and in February, 1866, was mustered out. In 1867 President Johnson appointed him collector of internal revenue for Utah and Wyoming, and in 1869 General Grant gave him the appointment of U. S. consul-general at Brussels, which office he resigned in 1872. On his return to the United States he took up his residence in Chicago, where he was made president of the Home bank on its organization in 1872, and of the Industrial bank of Chicago in 1891. He published Recollections of Seventy Years (1900).


CHOUTEAU, Berenice, pioneer, was born in Kaskaskia, Ill., in 1801, daughter of Col. Peter Menard, first territorial governor of Illinois. The official position of her father afforded her educational and social advantages beyond those of the average young women of her locality and time. She was married when eighteen years old to Francis F., son of Pierre Chouteau, Jr., and partner in the firm of P. Chouteau, Jr., & Co., fur traders. The newly married couple decided to make their home at a point on the Missouri river near Black Snake Hills, which location became the site of the city of St. Joseph, Mo. The journey was made on a flat-boat, and after living there two years they removed to the present site of Kansas City, Mo., where they established the first trading post and built in the woods the first log house erected in that section. Here her husband acquired title to large tracts of land and extended his domain to the mouth of the Kansas river, making it to include all the valuable farming land in the vicinity. The city of Kansas City was subsequently built upon a portion of this property, and squatters located on other sections and gave title to new settlers. The question of ownership in this way became much involved, and long and expensive litigation ensued, in which Mrs. Chouteau after her husbands death sought to recover possession, her claims amounting to over $5,000,000. The statutes of limitation operated to deprive her of her rights, the decision being made by the highest courts, in November, 1888, but two weeks before her death. She was a liberal benefactress and distributed her large fortune in promoting the interests of the Roman Catholic church, of which she was a devout member. She built in Kansas City the first church edifice, and her liberality during her life expanded with the growth of the church and its institutions in that locality. She lived to witness Kansas City created a diocese, and a cathedral take the place of her first little chapel. She died in Kansas City, Mo., Nov. 20, 1888.


CLARK, John, pioneer preacher, was born at Petty, near Inverness, Scotland, Nov. 29, 1758; son of Alexander Clark. In 1778 he shipped as sailor on a transport, transferred his services to a privateer, and in 1779 sailed as mate on a merchantman. He. was pressed for the British navy and promoted quartermaster, but deserted and shipped on the merchantman Hero, which was captured by the Spanish, and he was imprisoned at Havana for nineteen months. On being released he was again pressed but escaped by swimming to shore, a distance of two miles, finding himself near Charleston, S. C. He taught school in Georgia, and joined the Methodist church. Subsequently he visited his old home in Scotland, and returned to Georgia about 1789, where he preached, and was ordained a deacon by Bishop Asbury in 1794. He refused to accept his salary of $60 on one occasion, because it was the fruit of slave labor. In 1796 he travelled on foot from Georgia to Kentucky, where he preached and taught school, and in 1798 settled in Illinois. The Lemens, early Baptist ministers in Illinois, were trained by him in languages and theology. About 1807 he made a missionary excursion to Louisiana, making the journey of 1200 miles in a canoe, and in 1820 visited the Boones in Lick county, Mo., being the first preacher to go so far west. He died near Coldwater, Mo., Oct. 11, 1833.


CLEMENTS, Isaac, representative, was born in Franklin county, Ind., March 31, 1837; son of Isaac and Nancy (Burt) Clements; grandson of James Clements, and a descendant of James Clements, who came from England with Lord Baltimore. Isaac Clements was graduated at Asbury, afterward De Pauw university, in 1859, and studied law. In July, 1861, he joined the Union army as second lieutenant, being promoted first lieutenant, and captain of Company G, 9th Illinois volunteers, in 1863. He was three times wounded in battle and was mustered out of the service Aug. 20, 1864. He was appointed registrar in bankruptcy in 1867, and was a representative from Illinois in the 43rd congress, 1873-75. In 1877 he was made a penitentiary commissioner, and in 1890 U.S. pension agent. In 1899 he resided at Normal, Ill.


CLEVENGER, Shobal Vail, physician, was born in Florence, Italy March 24, 1843; son of Shobal Vail and Elizabeth (Wright) Clevenger. His early education was acquired at New Orleans and he was graduated from the Chicago medical college. In 1861 he enlisted in the engineer corps of the U.S. army and at the close of the war had reached the rank of first lieutenant. He was U.S. deputy surveyor in Montana and Dakota, built the first telegraph line in Dakota and was chief engineer of the Dakota southern railroad. He was meteorologist of the U.S. signal service, and settled in Chicago in 1879 as a specialist in nervous and mental disorders. He was physician to several hospitals and asylums, medical director of the Illinois state insane asylum and professor of anatomy in the Chicago art institute. His published works include, besides numerous contributions to scientific and medical publications: Treatise on Government Surveying (1874); Comparative Physiology and Psychology (1885); Lectures on Artistic Anatomy and the Sciences Useful to the Artist (1887); Spinal Concussion (1889); Medical Jurisprudence of Insanity (1898).


COLES, Edward, governor of Illinois, was born in Albemarle county, Va., Dec. 15, 1786; son of Col. John and Rebecca (Tucker) Coles. His father was a Revolutionary officer. He was educated at Hampden-Sidney college and at William and Mary college, finishing the prescribed course at the latter in 1807, but not graduating on account of illness. In 1809 he was appointed private secretary to President Madison and he remained in that position until 1815, when the President sent him to Russia to settle a misunderstanding between the Emperor and the U.S. government, in which undertaking he was successful. In 1819 he removed with his negroes to Edwardsville, Ill., where he freed them and gave to the head of each family 160 acres of land. He was appointed by President Monroe registrar of the land office at Edwardsville, and in 1822 he was elected governor of Illinois and served until 1826. About 1832 he removed to Philadelphia, Pa. Coles county, Ill., was named in his honor. He was married in 1833 to Sally Logan, daughter of Hugh and Sarah (Smith) Roberts, and his son Edward was graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 1856 and became a lawyer in Philadelphia. See Sketch of Edward Coles, Second Governor of Illinois (1882), by E. B. Washburne. He died in Philadelphia, Pa., July 7, 1868.


CONLEY, John Dykeman, scientist, was born at Brockport, N.Y., Sept. 14, 1843; son of John Ward and Pamelia Elizabeth (Johnson) Conley; grandson of Thomas and Margaret (Warner) Conley, and of William F. and Lucy (Hamlin) Johnson. His maternal grandfather was the son of Edmund Johnson, a soldier in the war of 1812, and grandson of a Revolutionary soldier. John Dykeman Conley received his preparatory education at Canastota, N.Y., was graduated at the Albany state normal school in 1863, and taught school at Roslyn, N.Y., until 1865. He was graduated at Hamilton college in 1869, and until 1876 was principal of the preparatory department of Blackburn university, Illinois. He was also professor of chemistry and natural science in that institution from 1871 to 1887, when he was elected to the chair of geology, chemistry and physics in the state University of Wyoming. During his connection with the university he was its vice-president, and for nearly one year its acting president. In 1896 he resigned his position and in 1897 was elected to the chair of physical sciences in Blackburn university. He was married in 1873 to Virginia C., daughter of S. T. and Elizabeth (Palmer) Mayo of Carlinville, Ill., and niece of Senator John M. Palmer. He is the author of two large geological charts, and five bulletins on geology, artesian wells and meteorology.


CONNOLLY, James Austin, representative, was born in Newark, N. J., March 8, 1843; son of William and Margaret (Maguire) Connolly. In 1850 he removed to Ohio where he was assistant clerk of the state senate, 1858-59. He was admitted to the Ohio bar in 1861 and the same year removed to Springfield, Ill. In 1862 he enlisted as a private in the 123rd Illinois volunteers, and was afterward captain, major and brevet lieutenant-colonel. He was a representative in the Illinois legislature 1872-76; was U.S. attorney for the southern district of Illinois 1876-85, and again 1889-93; and was appointed and confirmed solicitor of the treasury in 1886, but declined to serve. He was a Republican representative from the 17th Illinois district in the 54th and 55th congresses, 1895-99, serving as a member of the judiciary committee, and declined to be a candidate for the 56th congress.


COOK, Daniel Pope, representative, was born in Scott county, Ky., in 1795. He practised law in Kaskaskia, Ill., 1815-16, and was editor of the Illinois Intelligencer in 1816, the only paper then published in the territory. He removed to Edwardsville and was the first attorney-general of the state, serving from March 15 to Oct. 15, 1819, and was subsequently judge of the western circuit. He was the representative from Illinois in the 16th, 17th, 18th and 19th congresses, 1819-27, and first introduced in the state the custom of stump speaking in his canvass of 1818. In the 19th congress he was acting chairman of the committee on ways and means. He was married to Julia Catherine, daughter of Ninian Edwards. Cook county was named in his honor in 1831. He died in Scott county, Ky., Oct. 16, 1827.


COOK, John, soldier, was born in Belleville, Ill., June 12, 1825; son of Daniel Pope and Julia Catharine (Edwards) Cook; grandson of Ninian Edwards, governor of Illinois, 1826-33; and great-grandson of Benjamin and Margaret (Beall) Edwards, in whose home in Maryland William Wirt was brought up and educated. John Cook was left an orphan in 1827; was brought up by his maternal grandfather, Governor Edwards, and was educated by a clergyman who prepared him for Illinois college. Failing eyesight obliged him to discontinue his studies and he entered mercantile business at Springfield, Ill., in 1846. In 1855 he was elected mayor of Springfield and in 1856 sheriff of Sangamon county. He served as quartermaster of the state and on April 24, 1861, he was commissioned colonel of the 1st Illinois volunteer regiment, the first commission issued by Governor Yates. He commanded a brigade under Gen. Charles F. Smith, and after the capture of Fort Donelsen, for gallantry there, he was made brigadier-general, March 21, 1862. Governor Yates, on behalf of the people of the state, presented him a handsome sword. He was ordered with his brigade to the army of the Potomac and in the operations of that army he commanded three brigades, eleven batteries of artillery, and two regiments of cavalry. After Popes defeat he was relieved at his own request and was ordered to report to General Pope, commanding the military district of the northwest, and on Oct. 9, 1864, he was assigned to the command of the military district of Illinois and was mustered out Aug. 24, 1865, a major-general of volunteers by brevet. He was elected to the Illinois legislature in 1868, and as chairman of the house committee on public grounds and buildings was influential in securing the appropriation for the erection of the new state capitol at Springfield. He subsequently made his home in Ransom, Mich.



COOPER, Job Adams
, governor of Colorado, was born near Greenville, Ill., Nov. 6, 1843; son of Charles and Maria (Hadley) Cooper. His father was born in Maidstown, Kent county, England, came to America and settled in Newark, N. J., in 1806, learned the trade of carriage making and in 1840 removed to Bond county, Illinois, where he engaged in farming and died in 1865. Job was graduated at Knox college, A.B. in 1865, and A.M. in 1868. He served in the civil war, 1864-65, with the 137th Illinois volunteers. He was admitted to the bar in 1867 and practised in Greenville, Ill. He was circuit clerk and recorder of Bond county, 1868-72; removed to Denver, Col., in 1872, where he practised law, engaged in insurance business, in banking and in stock raising. In 1888 he was elected governor of Colorado as a Republican, serving 1889-91. He was president of the National bank of commerce, 1891-99. He was married Sept. 17, 1867, to Jane O., daughter of the Rev. Romulus E. Barnes of Galesburg, Ill., and their son Charles J. (Knox college, 1897) succeeded to the management of the banking and mining business of his father who died in Denver, Col., Jan. 20, 1899.


CORWIN, Franklin, representative, was born in Lebanon, Ohio, Jan. 12, 1818; son of Matthias and Minerva (Brown) Corwin; grandson of Matthias and Patience (Halleck) Corwin, and a nephew of the Hon. Thomas Corwin. He attended the public schools, was admitted to the bar in 1839, represented the towns of Fayette and Clinton in the 45th general assembly of Ohio, 1846-47, and was a state senator, 1847-49. In 1857 he removed to Peru, Ill., and subsequently served in the 24th, 25th and 26th general assemblies of Illinois, acting as speaker during the last two terms. He represented his district as a Republican in the 43rd congress, 1873-75.


Crebs, John M., representative, was born in Middleburg, Loudoun county, Va., April 9, 1830. At the age of seven he was taken to Illinois where he was educated and in 1852 received admission to the White county bar, practising in Carmi, Ill. He entered the Federal army in 1862 as lieutenant-colonel of the 87th Illinois volunteer. He was promoted brigadier-general, served with distinction throughout the war, was mustered out June 16, 1865, and returned to his law practice. He was a Democratic representative in the 41st and 42d congresses, 1869-73. He died in Carmi, Ill., June 26, 1890.


Crittenden, John Jordan, statesman, was born near Versailles, Woodford county, Ky., Sept. 10, 1787; son of Maj. John. Crittenden, and a direct descendant of Thomas Jefferson. His father, an officer in the Continental army, removed from Virginia to Kentucky about 1784, became a successful planter and died in 1809. The son was graduated at William and Mary college, Williamsburg, Va., in 1806, studied law under the Hon. George M. Bibb and was licensed to practise. He was attorney-general of the territory of Illinois, 1809-10, and served in the war of 1819-13. He was married in 1811 to Sallie O., daughter of Maj. John Lee of Woodford county, Ky. He located at Russellville, Ky., where he practised law and represented Logan county in the state legislature, 1811-17, serving during the last term as speaker. In 1817 he was elected to the U.S. senate and served through the 15th congress, 1817-19, then resigned and was succeeded by Richard M. Johnson. In 1819 he removed to Frankfort in order to practise in the higher courts. He afterward represented Franklin county in the state legislature for several years during the time of the court controversy, and championed the old court. In 1827 he was U.S. district attorney, and in 1829 was removed by President Jackson. He was again elected to the U.S. senate in 1835, and was reflected in 1841, but resigned when he was appointed by President Harrison attorney-general in his cabinet, March 4, 1841. He resigned from the attorney-generalship upon the death of the President, and on March 31, 1842, upon the resignation of Henry Clay as U.S. senator, he became his successor by appointment of Governor Letcher, and in 1843 was elected for a full term. He resigned from the senate in 1848 upon being elected governor of Kentucky, and resigned the governorship in 1850 to accept the position of attorney-general in the cabinet of President Fillmore. As attorney-general he wrote an opinion on the constitutionality of the fugitive slave law. At the close of the administration the legislature of Kentucky again returned him to the U.S. senate and he served, 1855-61. He opposed the repeal of the Missouri compromise, took issue with the policy of Presidents Pierce and Buchanan, and in 1860 favored the election of Bell and Everett. He was then elected a representative from Kentucky to the 37th congress. He was opposed to the secession of the southern states and made strenuous efforts to effect a compromise that would avert civil war. In the 37th congress, July, 1861, he offered a resolution that was adopted with but two dissenting votes: declaring the war to be waged only to defend and maintain the supremacy of the constitution and preserve the Union and that when this was accomplished the war should cease. He opposed the admission of West Virginia as a separate state and the employment of colored men as soldiers. His last speech in congress was delivered when he was seventy-six years old. The state of Kentucky erected a monument to his memory. He received the degree of LL.D. from Centre college, Ky., in 1860. See his Life by Mrs. Chapman Coleman. He died near Frankfort, Ky., July 23, 1863.


Cullom, Shelby Moore, senator, was born in Monticello, Ky., Nov. 22, 1829; son of Richard Northcraft and Elizabeth (Coffey) Cullom. His father was a farmer, legislator and statesman and in 1830 removed to Tazewell county, Ill., where Shelby was brought up on the farm and inured to manual labor. He spent two years at Rock River seminary, Mount Morris, Ill., paying his tuition by teaching school. He located in Springfield, Ill., in 1853, studied law, and in 1855 was admitted to the bar, establishing himself at Springfield where he was elected city attorney. In 1856 he was presidential elector and the same year was elected to the Illinois house of representatives. In 1860 he was again elected a state representative and was chosen speaker in 1861. In 1862 President Lincoln appointed him a commissioner with George S. Boutwell and Charles A. Dana to pass upon the accounts of the U.S. quartermastermasters and commissary officers. He was a representative in the 39th, 40th and 41st congresses, 1865-71, and in his last term was chairman of the committee on territories, taking a prominent part in national legislation. In 1872 he was chairman of the Illinois delegation at the Republican national convention at Philadelphia and placed General Grant in nomination for the presidency. He was again a state representative in 1873 and 1874 and was speaker of the house in 1873. In 1876 he was elected governor of Illinois and was re-elected in 1880. In 1884 he was again chosen chairman of the Illinois delegation at the Republican national convention, at Chicago. In 1883 the legislature of the state elected him U.S. senator, re-electing him in 1889, 1895 and 1901. In 1892 he was a third time chosen chairman of the Illinois delegation to the Republican national convention, at Minneapolis. In the senate he was chairman of the committee on interstate commerce, a member of the committees on appropriations, census, foreign relations and additional accommodations for the library of congress and also a regent of the Smithsonian institution. He was married Dec. 12, 1855, to Hanna M. Fisher, who died in March, 1861, and on May 5, 1863, he was married to Julia Fisher.


Curtis, William Stanton, educator, was born in Burlington, Vt., Aug. 3, 1820; son of Lewis and Abigail (Camp) Curtis; grandson of Gabriel and Susanah (North) Curtis; and a descendant of Thomas Curtis (b. 1598, d. 1681), of Wethersfield, Conn. His father removed to Missouri in 1820 and subsequently to Wisconsin Territory. He was graduated at Illinois college in 1838, studied theology in New Haven, Conn., 1838-41; was stated supply in the First Congregational church, Rockford, Ill., 1841; pastor of the First Presbyterian church at Ann Arbor, Mich., 1842-55; acting professor of moral and intellectual philosophy in the University of Michigan, 1851-52; professor of moral philosophy and college pastor at Hamilton college, 1855-63; and president of Knox college, Galesburg, Ill., 1863-68. He resigned in 1868 and was pastor of Westminster Presbyterian church, Rockford, Ill., 1869-75; travelled in Europe, Palestine and Egypt, 1876-77, and on his return supplied vacant churches in the vicinity of his home. He was for many years director of the McCormick theological seminary. He received the degree of D.D. from Madison university, N.Y., in 1857. He died in Rockford, Ill., June 30, 1885.


Cutler, Hannah Maria Tracy (Conant), reformer, was born in Becket, Mass., Dec. 25, 1815; daughter of John and Orpha (Johnson) Conant. She was married in 1834 to the Rev. J.M. Tracy. After his death in 1843 she prepared herself as a teacher and was matron of the Columbus, Ohio, deaf and dumb asylum, 1848-49. In 1851 she visited England as a newspaper correspondent at the London World’s fair and as a delegate from the United States to the peace congress. She was married to Samuel Cutler in 1852 and upon removing to Illinois became an advocate of woman’s rights. In the civil war she was president of the Western Union aid commission. She was graduated at the Homoeopathic college, Cleveland, Ohio, in 1869, and practised medicine in Cobden, Ill. She accompanied her son, J. M. Tracy, an artist, to France and was there during the years 1873-75. She wrote: Woman as She Was, Is, and Should Be (1846); Phillipia, or a Woman’s Question (1886); and The Fortunes of Michael Doyle (1886). She died in Ocean Springs, Miss., in February, 1896.