ADAMS COUNTY.

Adams County was organised from Pike county, in 1825, and is thirty miles long, with an average width of twenty-four miles – containing about 810 square miles. It is bounded north, by Hancock; east by Schuyler and a corner of Pike; south by Pike; and west, by the Mississippi river. Its streams are Bear creek and branches, Cedar, Tyrer, Mill, Fall, and Pigeon creeks, on the western; and the north and west forks of M’Kees creek on its eastern border. For quality of soil, well proportioned into timber and prairie, it is second to none in the state. Few tracts of country are equal, and none superior to the one on Bear creek. Its productions are similar to other counties in the military district. The people in general are enterprising and industrious farmers. The population is about 8,500. Adams county is attached to the fifth judicial circuit, and sends one senator and two representatives to the legislature. The seat of justice is Quincy.

ALEXANDER COUNTY.

Alexander County lies at the south end of the state, in the forks of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, which wash its western, southern, and a portion of its eastern borders. More than sixty miles of its western side are along the curves and windings of the latter river. It has a fertile soil, covered with a heavy growth of timber, amongst which are oaks of various kinds, especially white oak, cypress, poplar, walnut, hickory, some cherry, elm, etc. and a tract of yellow pine in the northwestern part. A reef of rocks of limestone, intermixed with sand stone, forming the grand chain of the Ohio, six miles above America, is supposed to extend across this county, (below the surface of the earth,) to the Mississippi river. At least one third of the county is alluvion. On Cash river, and near the mouth of the Ohio, the land is inundated in times of-high water. Along the Mississippi is an extensive tract of alluvial land, entirely above high water. The streams in this county are Cash river and branches, Sexton’s creek, and Clear creek. Cash river enters it at the northeastern part, passes in a circuitous course through it, and enters the Ohio six miles above its mouth, at Trinity. Alexander county is about twenty-four miles long, and upon an average width of eighteen miles – containing about 375 square miles. Alexander county is attached to the third judicial circuit, and sends one member to the house of representatives, and, with Union county, one member to the senate. Population about 2350. It was formed from Union county, in 1819. The seat of justice is Unity.

BOND COUNTY.

Bond County was organised from Madison, in 1817. It then embraced an extensive district of country, but has since been reduced to an area of twenty miles long, and eighteen miles wide, or 360 square miles. It has Montgomery on the north, Fayette east, Clinton south, and Madison on the west. Shoal creek and its branches pass through the middle, and Hurricane fork waters the eastern portion of this county. It is duly proportioned into timber and prairie. In some parts the latter is rather too level for convenience, but is good second rate land. The population generally are industrious, frugal, and intelligent farmers. Bond county sends one member to the house of representatives, and with Montgomery one to the senate. It belongs to the second judicial circuit. Population about 3,980. The seat of justice is Greenville.

BOONE COUNTY.

Boone County was formed from Winnebago and McHenry counties in February, 1837. It is bounded north by the Wisconsin territory; east by McHenry; south by Kane, and West by Winnebago county. It is about 24 miles long, and 21 miles wide; containing about 500 square miles. It is watered on the western side by the northern and main branches of the Kishwaukee, and on its eastern side by branches of Fox river. Its timber, scattered over the county, is found chiefly in groves and oak openings, with a large proportion of rich, undulating prairie. Its representative and its judicial connection is with Jo Daviess county. The seat of justice not yet located. Most of the land in this and the adjoining counties is unsurveyed and of course not in market, but is rapidly settling. I estimate its population at 600.

CALHOUN COUNTY

Calhoun County was organised from Pike county, in l825. It is a long and narrow strip of country lying in the forks of the Illinois and Mississippi rivers. It is bounded on three sides by those rivers, and on the northern end, by Pike county, and is thirty-seven and a half miles long, and from three to ten miles in width from one river to the other-making about 260 square miles. The mouth of Bay creek is in the northern part of this county, which affords a harbor and navigation for steam boats seven miles. There are no other creeks worth naming. Several fine prairies lie at the foot of the bluffs on both sides of the county, amongst which are Illinois, Salt, Belleview. On those rivers considerable tracts are subject to inundation, and in the interior are bluffs, ravines and sink holes. Still there are considerable tracts of good land unoccupied. The bottoms furnish excellent range range for stock. Cattle, beef, pork, corn, honey and beeswax are its exports. Formerly honey from the trees was obtained in profuse quantities. It grows more scarce as the population increases. Calhoun belongs to the fifth judicial circuit, and is connected with Greene, in electing a representative, and senator. Population about 1200. Surrounded by rivers and low bottoms, Calhoun county is less healthy than others on the military tract. Coal, in large bodies, is found on the Mississippi in the south part of the county. The seat of justice is Guilford.

CASS COUNTY

Cass County was formed from the north part of the county of Morgan at the late session of the legislature, and decided by the votes of the people of Morgan county on the third Monday of April, 1837, as the law provided. It is bounded north by Sangamon county and river, east by the same county, south by Morgan, and west by the Illinois river which separates it from Schuyler county. It is 27 miles long, and about 12 miles broad, containing about 256 square miles. It is watered by various branches that fall into Sangamon river on the north, with the head branches of Indian and other small creeks that fall into the Illinois river, on the west and south. It is proportionably divided into timber and prairie, the surface undulating, and the soil generally very rich. The population is estimated at 6,500. Its representative and judicial connection is still with Morgan county. The seat of justice is Beardstown.

CHAMPAIGN COUNTY.

Champaign County was organised from the attached part of Vermilion county, in February, 1833. It is bounded, on the north, by a strip of country not belonging to any county; on the east by Vermilion; on the south by Coles; and on the west by Macon and McLean counties. It is 36 miles long, and about 28 miles wide, and contains about 1008 square miles. The streams, are the Salt Fork of the Vermilion of the Wabash; the Vermilion of the Illinois, the Kaskaskia, and the North Fork of the Sangamon; all of which take their rise in this county and run in opposite directions. Here are extensive prairies, indented with beautiful groves of fine timber, of which Big Grove, at the head of Salt Fork, is the largest. Around these groves the prairies are undulating, and very rich soil. The settlements are not yet extensive. As an interior county, it will be further from market than those situated either on the Wabash or Illinois, but is well adapted to the growth of stock, and will be undoubtedly a healthy region. Champaign county belongs to the fourth judicial circuit, and sends one representative and, with Vermilion county, one senator to the legislature. Population about 1250. The seat of justice is Urbanna.

CLARK COUNTY.

Clark County was formed from Crawford county, in 1819; and is bounded on the north by Edgar; on the east by Indiana and the Wabash river; south by Crawford: and west by Coles. It is twenty-four miles long, east and west; and twenty-one miles broad – containing about 500 square miles. Its streams are, the North Fork of the Embarras, which crosses the northwestern part of the county; Mill creek, and Big creek, which cross its northeastern part. Walnut, Union, Dolson, and Parker’s prairies are found in this county. At York, in the southeastern corner of the county, is a steam saw and flouring mill. Its exports are corn, pork, and beef cattle. From 60,000 to 100,000 bushels of corn are sent out annually. Clark county has 4,000 inhabitants, sends one member to the house of representatives, and, with Coles, one member to the senate. It belongs to the fourth judicial circuit. The seat of justice is Darwin.

CLAY COUNTY.

Clay County was formed from portions of Wayne, Lawrence, Crawford, and Fayette, in 1824. It is bounded on the north, by Effingham and Jasper; east, by Lawrence; south, by Wayne, and a corner of Edwards; west, by Marion, and a corner of Fayette. Its medium length is thirty miles; width, twenty-one miles – containing about 620 square miles. It is watered by the Little Wabash, and branches. Probably two thirds of the surface is prairie of an inferior quality. The streams usually overflow their banks in freshets. Clay county belongs to the fourth judicial circuit, and sends one member to the house of representatives, and also with Fayette and Effingham sends one member to the senate. Population, at the last census, 1648; increase since, probably about twenty per cent. Its seat of justice is Maysville.

CLINTON COUNTY.

Clinton County was formed from Washington and a portion of Bond, in December, 1824. It is bounded north by Bond; east by Marion; south by Washington; and west by St. Clair, and a corner of Madison. It is thirty miles long, and eighteen miles wide – containing about fourteen townships, or 504 square miles. It is watered by the Kaskaskia river, which passes through it, and its tributaries – Crooked, Shoal, and Sugar creeks; and is about equally proportioned into timber and prairie. Much of the land in this and the adjacent counties is not equal in quality to that further north. This is true especially of the prairies. The soil is thinner, the surface is less undulating, and farmers are subjected to greater inconvenience from wet seasons. The timber, where it abounds, is generally of a good quality. Clinton county belongs to the second judicial circuit, and sends one member to the house of representatives, and, with Marion, one to the senate. Population about 3,000. The seat of justice is Carlyle.

COLES COUNTY.

Coles County was organised, in 1830, from Clark and Edgar counties. It lies in the eastern part of the state, and is bounded north by Champaign; east by Edgar and Clark; south by Jasper, and a corner of Effingham; and west by Shelby and Macon counties. It is forty-eight miles long, from north to south; and twenty-six miles wide on a medium; – containing about 1,248 square miles. The Kaskaskia river passes through four townships in its northwestern part; the Embarras runs its whole length, with several branches: and the heads of the Little Wabash afford fine mill streams, and settlements, in its southwestern portion. This county contains much excellent land, equal in quality to the country on the Illinois river. The northern, and a tract through the middle portions of the county are prairies of considerable extent; bat the other parts are duly proportioned into timber and prairie. The timber is similar to the borders of the Kaskaskia; and much of the prairie land is moderately undulating. The southeastern part is rather wet or broken. The streams are not large; they generally run over a bed of sand, and afford many good mill seats. Most of the settlements are of recent formation, but its agricultural productions soon must exceed those of any other county near the Wabash, and will find their way to that river for market. It belongs to the fourth judicial circuit, and sends two members to the house of representatives, and, with Clark, one to the senate. The population is equal to 5800. Pork, beef, cattle, and horses, will be the staple productions. The seat of justice is Charleston.

COOK COUNTY.

Cook County was organised January 15th, 1831, and is bounded north by McHenry county, east by lake Michigan; south by Will county; and west by La Salle. It is about 42 miles long and 36 miles wide, but irregularly shaped on its eastern and southeastern sides. It has about 1330 square miles. It is watered by the Des Plaines, the north and south branches of the Chicago, the Du Page, Hickory creek, and some smaller streams. Its surface is tolerably level, of a rich soil, with large prairies, and the timber in groves. There is a fine body of timber on the north fork of the Chicago, and along the lake shore. This county, and those adjacent, differ in several respects from the country below. The small streams run perennially, over rocky and gravelly beds through the prairies. The timber is not confined to the banks of the streams, but exists in groves and strips, often on the dividing ridges between the water courses. The summers are comparatively cooler, and the winters longer and more severe. Cook county is rapidly settling, chiefly by emigrants from the northern states; and will be both a stock and grain growing region. Its market will be through the lakes to New York and Canada. This county belongs to the seventh judicial circuit, and sends one senator and three representatives to the legislature. The seat of justice is Chicago.

CRAWFORD COUNTY.

Crawford County was formed, in 1816, and lies north of Lawrence, east of Jasper, south of Clark, and west of the Wabash river, that separates it from Indiana. It is twenty two miles long, and twenty miles broad, – containing 426 square miles. Racoon, Hutson, Sugar, and La Motte creeks, are small streams, that rise in this county, and run east into the Wabash; its western border is watered by branches of the Embarras. La Motte prairie is a level and rich tract, admirably adapted to the growth of corn. Its exports are similar to those of other counties along the Wabash, consisting chiefly of corn, beef, pork, and cattle. Crawford county with Jasper sends one member to the house of representatives, and with Lawrence, one to the senate. It is attached to the fourth judicial circuit. The seat of justice is Palestine.

EDGAR COUNTY.

Edgar County was formed from Clark, in 1823, and is bounded north by Vermilion; east, by the state of Indiana; south by Clark; and west by Coles county. It is twenty-seven miles long, from north to south; and twenty-five miles wide, from east to west – containing eighteen townships, or about 648 square miles. Edgar county is watered by Big Clear, and Brulette’s creeks, which are small streams, and enter the Wabash. Little Embarras heads in the western and southwestern parts of this county, and runs southwest into Coles. The south and east sides of this county are well timbered with all the varieties found on the eastern side of the state, including poplar. The soil in general is rich, adapted to the various productions of this state. Pork and beef – especially the former – are its chief exports, which find a ready market at Terre Haute and Clinton, Indiana. It belongs to the fourth judicial circuit, aHd sends two members to the house of representatives, and one to the senate. The seat of justice is Paris.

EDWARDS COUNTY.

Edwards County was organised from Gallatin, in 1814. It lies on the Little Wabash river, and has Lawrence county on the north; Wabash county east; White county south; and Wayne county west. It is twenty-two miles long, from north to south; and an average width of eleven miles – containing about 183 square miles, proportionably divided into timber and prairie. It is the smallest county in the state. The prairies are small, high, undulating, and bounded by heavy timber. The English settlement formed by Messrs. Birbeck and Flowers is in this county. Edwards county is watered by the Little Wabash river which runs along and near its western border; and the Bon Pas, which forms its eastern boundary, and their branches. Its prairies are Boltenhouse, Burnt, Long, Bon Pas, Village, Bush and Mills, in all of which are flourishing settlements. A settlement of about 60 families is in the timbered country, in the south end of this county. Edwards county is attached to the fourth judicial circuit; sends one member to the house of representatives, and, with Wabash and Wayne, one member to the senate. The seat of justice is Albion.

EFFINGHAM COUNTY.

Effingham County was laid off by the legislature from Fayette county, in 1831, but did not become organised by the election of officers and the possession of county privileges till the commencement of 1833. It is bounded north, by Shelby, and a corner of Coles; east by Jasper; south by Clay, and a corner of Fayette; and west by Fayette. It is twenty-four miles long, and about twenty-one broad – containing 486 square miles. It is watered by the Little Wabash river and its branches, and contains good second rate land, tolerably level. The bottom lands on the Little Wabash are rich, and heavily timbered, but are inundated for a day when the river rises so as to overflow its banks. Effingham county, in union with Fayette, sends two members to the house of representatives, and with Fayette and Clay, one to the senate. It belongs to the second judicial circuit. The seat of justice is Ewington.

FAYETTE COUNTY.

Fayette County was formed from Bond, Edwards, Crawford, and Clark, in 1821, embracing a large extent of territory, extending northward to the Illinois river, which has since been formed into several counties. It is situated on the Kaskaskia river, and is bounded north by Shelby; east by Effingham; south by Marion, and a corner of Clinton; and west by Bond and Montgomery. It is about twenty-seven miles long, and twenty-four broad, with additional townships at the southeast and southern corners, and contains about 720 square miles. Vandalia the present seat of government for the state, is situated towards the southwestern part. Besides the Kaskaskia river, which passes through Fayette, it is watered by Hurricane fork, Higgin’s, Ramsey’s and Beck’s creeks on the west, and by Big and Hickory creeks on the east. There is a heavy growth of timber in several parts of this county, especially along the Kaskaskia, and the Hurricane fork. Besides some prairies of convenient size, intersected with points of timber, about twelve miles in width of the eastern side of Fayette is in the Grand prairie. The bottom lands of the Kaskaskia are low, subject to inundation, and contain many small lakes and ponds. The country around Vandalia is undulating and well timbered, and the soil is second rate. The principal settlements in Fayette are Hurricane, Seminary township, Buckmaster’s, Hall’s, Brown’s, Wakefield’s, Haley’s and Big creek. There are several grist mills propelled by water power in the county, and a valuable steam saw mill at Vandalia. Fayette belongs to the second judicial circuit; and with Effingham, sends two members to the house of representatives, and with Effingham and Clay, one to the senate. The population is estimated at 4100. The seat of justice is Vandalia.

FRANKLIN COUNTY.

Franklin County was formed out of Gallatin, White, and an attached part of Jackson county, in 1818, and is situated in the southern part of the state. It is bounded north by Jefferson county; east, by Hamilton and Gallatin; south, by Johnson and Union; and west, by Jackson and Perry counties. It is thirty-six miles long and twenty-four miles wide; making 864 square miles. Franklin county is watered by Big Muddy river and branches, and and the south fork of Saline creek. The prairies are generally small and fertile, but rather too level; the timber is good and in abundance; the soil rather sandy. Its products are similar to those of the counties adjoining, and it is capable of being made a rich agricultural county. Franklin sends two members to the house of representatives, and with Jackson county, one member to the senate. It is attached to the third judicial circuit. The county seat is Frankfort.

FULTON COUNTY.

Fulton County was formed from Pike county, in 1825, and is bounded north, by Knox, and a corner of Peoria; east by Peoria, and the Illinois river; south by the Illinois river, and Schuyler county; and west by Schuyler and McDonough and a corner of Warren counties. The Illinois washes its southeastern side, and gives it an irregular shape. The Spoon river passes through it; and Otter creek waters the southwestern, and Copperas creek the northeastern portions. It is from twenty-four to forty-two miles long, from north to south; and from twelve to thirty miles broad – containing 874 square miles. Nearly one half of Fulton county is heavily timbered with the varieties that abound on the military tract; and much both of its prairie and timbered land, is of an excellent quality. It is in general well watered; the streams usually flow over a gravelly bottom, and furnish many good mill seats. Its productions are and will continue to be similar to this region of country; and the Illinois and Spoon rivers will afford facilities to market. This whole region on the Illinois must shortly become a wealthy agricultural country. Fulton county belongs to the fifth judicial circuit, and, with Knox and Henry, sends two members to the house of representatives, and one member to the senate. Population about 7000. County seat Lewiston.

GALLATIN COUNTY.

Gallatin County joins the Wabash and the Ohio, in the southeastern corner of the state, and was organised in 1812. It is bounded north by White county; east by the states of Indiana and Kentucky; south by Pope county; and west by Pope, and Franklin counties. It is from thirty to thirty-six miles long, and with a medium width of twenty-seven miles – containing about 760 square miles. Its eastern boundary is washed by the Wabash and Ohio rivers, and the interior watered by the Saline creek and its tributaries. Sand predominates in the soil of this part of the state. The basis rock generally is sandstone, lying probably upon a stratum of clay slate. This county is mostly covered with timber, amongst which are various kinds of oak, walnut, poplar, mulberry, hickory, beech, cypress, and the other kinds found in this part of the state. The salines, in the vicinity of Equality, are sources of wealth; and furnish large quantities of salt for home consumption. Other articles of export, are horses, beef, pork, cattle, lumber, some tobacco, etc. About one half of the salt manufactured at the salines is exchanged for corn, corn meal, flour, beef, pork, potatoes, and every species of produce raised in the country, to support the establishment. This part of the state is well adapted to the growth of stock. Gallatin county contains about 9,750 inhabitants. It is attached to the third judicial circuit, and sends three members to the house of representatives, and one member to the senate. Shawneetown is an important commercial town on the Ohio. The seat of justice is Equality.

GREENE COUNTY.

Greene County was formed from Madison, in January, 1821; and is bounded on the north by Morgan; east by Macoupin; south by Madison and the Mississippi river; and west by the Illinois river, which separates it from Calhoun and Pike counties. Its medium length is thirty-eight miles; width, twenty-four miles; superficial contents 912 square miles. The Illinois and Mississippi washes its western and a portion of its southern borders; Apple and Macoupin creeks pass through it. The banks of the Mississippi in the southern parts of this county are generally composed of perpendicular cliffs, varying in height from 80 to 200 feet, consisting of horizontal strata of lime and sandstone; frequently imbedded with coal. The latter does not show itself at the face of the cliffs, but is found in great abundance a short distance from it. These cliffs commence at Alton, and extend along the Mississippi and Illinois rivers to the northern part of the county; sometimes, however, receding several miles east, leaving a low and fertile alluvion which is usually timbered on the banks of the river, and a prairie surface towards the bluffs. Greene county has much excellent land, both timber and prairie; the surface approaches nearer to a level than the counties further north, with proportionate quantities of timber and prairie. The population about 13,500. Greene county is attached to the first judicial circuit, and sends three members to the house of representatives, and one to the senate, and unites with Calhoun in sending one additional representative and senator. The seat of justice is Carrollton.

HAMILTON COUNTY.

Hamilton County was formed from White county, in 1821, and is bounded north by Wayne; east by White; south by Gallatin; and west by Franklin and Jefferson counties. It is twenty-four miles long, and eighteen broad-area 432 square miles. This county is watered by branches of the Saline creek, and Little Wabash river, and contains a large proportion of timbered land. The soil generally is second and third Tate, with a considerable tract of swamp in the northern part of the county. Hamilton county belongs to the third judicial circuit; sends one member to the house of representatives, and, with Jefferson county, one to the senate. The seat of justice is McLeansboro.

HANCOCK COUNTY.

Hancock County was formed from Pike county, in 1825. It is thirty miles in length, and from twenty-four to thirty miles broad – containing about 775 square miles. It lies north of Adams, west of McDonough, south of Warren, and is washed by the Mississippi on its western side. Hancock prairie, from twelve to twenty miles in width, runs from south to north through this county. On the east, it is watered by the branches of Crooked creek; and on the southwest, by Bear; and on the northwest, by Camp creek. This county in the aggregate is deficient in timber. The banks of Bear creek furnish a supply for that portion of the county. A strip lines the bank of the Mississippi, in some places of considerable width and of excellent quality – in other places narrow and of inferior quality. A tolerably dense settlement extends along the line of this timber. Crooked creek furnishes a due proportion of timber and prairie, and a body of excellent land. Hancock county belongs to the fifth judicial circuit, and sends one representative, and with McDonough one Senator to the legislature. The county seat is Carthage.

HENRY COUNTY.

Henry Connty was formed in 1825, but not organised for judicial purposes till recently. It is bounded north by Whiteside and Rock Island; east by Putnam; south by Knox, and west by Mercer and Rock Island counties. It is thirty miles long east and west, and about the same broad – area 840 square miles. It is watered by Edwards, and some of the head branches of Spoon river. Rock river, Green river and the Winnebago swamp and outlet. About the Big Grove, Fraker’s settlement, and on Edwards river is considerable good land, but in general Henry county is not equal to the counties contiguous. The Winnebago swamp spreads along its northern side; and there is considerable level, wet, swampy land between the waters that fall into the Mississippi and those that flow to the Illinois. There is good land enough within its borders to make a respectable county. It belongs to the fifth judicial circuit, and with Knox and Warren, sends one member to each branch of the legislature. Its county seat not located.

IROQUOIS COUNTY.

This county was laid off by the legislature, in 1833. It is bounded on the north by Will county; east by the state of Indiana; south by Vermilion county; and west by an irregular strip of country, attached to Vermilion county. It is about 42 miles long and thirty-four broad – containing about 1428 square miles. Kankakee, Iroquois, Sugar, Spring and Beaver creeks are its water courses. A large proportion of this county is prairie; the timber is in groves, and strips along the streams. Settlements have been formed to some extent on Iroquois and Sugar creeks. There are many sand ridges and plains in this region, but considerable portions of prairie are very rich. Iroquois is attached to the seventh judicial circuit, and sends one representative, and with La Salle, Kane and Boone, one senator to the legislature. Population about 1800. The seat of justice is not yet established.

JACKSON COUNTY.

Jackson County was formed from Randolph and Johnson, in 1816. It is situated on the Mississippi, and has Randolph county on the north, Franklin east, Union south, and the Mississippi river and a portion of Randolph west. It is twenty-four miles from north to south, and from eighteen to twenty-eight miles from east to west – its area is about 576 square miles. This county is watered by Muddy river and its tributaries. On this stream, near Brownsville, is a saline where considerable quantities of salt are manufactured. Jackson county is generally a timbered tract of country, except towards its northeastern part where are some fine prairies. The timber in this country and along the Muddy, is of the various kinds common to this portion of the state, as oaks of several species, hickory, elm, poplar, walnut, sugar maple, etc. Its exports are salt, coal, pork, beef, horses, etc. Jackson county belongs to the third judicial circuit, and sends one member to the house of representatives, and with Franklin, one member to the senate. Population about 3,150. County seat Brownsville.

JASPER COUNTY.

Jasper County was formed out of Crawford, and small portions of Lawrence and Clay, in 1831. It is bounded north by Coles; east by Crawford; south by Lawrence and Clay; and west by a corner of Clay, and Effingham. It is twenty-three miles long, and twenty-two wide – and contains about 508 square miles. The Embarras runs through it, and the Muddy Fork of the Little Wabash waters its western side. Much of the prairie and timbered land of this county is level, wet, and of an inferior quality. The settlements are small amounting to fifty or sixty families. On the North Fork and the main Embarras are some good tracts of fertile soil. The county seat is called Newton.

JEFFERSON COUNTY.

Jefferson County was organised from Edwards and White counties, in 1819. It is bounded on the north by Marion; east by Wayne and Hamilton; south by Franklin: and west by Perry and Washington. It is twenty-four miles long and the same in width – containing 576 square miles. Jefferson county is watered by several branches of the Big Muddy, which head in this county, and a small branch of the little Wabash. The soil is tolerable second rate land, about one-third prairie; the timbered land is covered with various kinds of oak, hickory, elm, sugar tree, etc. Its productions find their market either at Shawneetown or St. Louis. Its prairies, all of which contain good settlements, are Casey’s, Jordon’s, Moore’s, Walnut Hill, Arm of Grand, and Long prairie. Its streams are East, Middle, and West Forks of Big Muddy river, and Adams’s branch of Skillet Fork. Jefferson county is attached to the third judicial circuit, and sends one member to the house of representatives, and, with Hamilton county, one member to the senate. The seat of justice is Mount Vernon.

JO DAVIESS COUNTY.

Jo Daviess County was formed in 1827, but has since been reduced to about the following extent. From east to west from 12 to 34 miles, and from north to south 37 miles, and extending by the curve of the Mississippi, in a triangular form nearly to a point at its northwestern corner; – containing about 724 square miles. It is bounded by Wisconsin territory on the north, Stephenson on the east, Whiteside county south, and the Mississippi river west. It is watered by Fever river, Apple, Rush, and Plum creeks, and some smaller streams. This county is rich, both for agricultural and mining purposes. Lead and copper are in abundance here. Like all the northern part of Illinois, timber is scarce. The surface is undulating – in some places hilly – well watered, both with springs and mill streams. The timber is in groves, and upon the margins of the streams. The county was named in honor of the late general Joseph H. Daviess, of Kentucky, who gallantly fell, in the disastrous battle of Tippecanoe, in 1811. It was bad taste, however, in the legislature, to affix the appellation of Jo to a name that has received marked respect in the western states. The chief export of this region is lead; but it is a fine country for both grain and stock. Jo Daviess county is attached to the sixth judicial circuit, and, with Mercer and Rock Island, Stephenson, Winnebago, Ogle and Boone, sends two representatives and one senator to the legislature. The seat of justice is Galena.

JOHNSON COUNTY.

Johnson County was organised from Randolph in 1812, and is situated in the southern part of the state. It is bounded north by Franklin; east by Pope; south by the Ohio river; and west by Union and Alexander counties. It is from twenty-five to thirty miles long; breadth, eighteen; its area, about 486 square miles. The interior of the county is watered by Cash river and Big Bay creek. Between these streams and ten or twelve miles from the Ohio river, which washes its southern boundary, is a line of ponds, interspersed with ridges and islands of rich land; and at high water, a large current passes out of Big Bay into Cash river. On the south side of these ponds is very rich land with a string of settlements; but an unhealthy region. Between this tract and the Ohio river, is a tract of barrens and timber, with a tolerably good soil, but not much population. A line of settlements contiguous to the Ohio river extends through the county. Johnson county contains considerable quantities of good land tolerably level, well timbered, and inclining to a sandy soil. The principal timber in this region, is cypress, sugar maple, oaks of various species, hickory, sweet gum, with some poplar, elm, walnut, and cedar. Johnson county sends one member to the house of representatives; and with Pope, one to the senate. It belongs to third judicial circuit, The seat of justice is Vienna.

KANE COUNTY.

Kane County was formed from the attached portion of La Salle, January, 1836. It is bounded north by Boone and McHenry, east by Cook, south by La Salle, and west by Ogle county. It is thirty-six miles square, and contains 1296 square miles. It is watered by Fox river in its southeastern parts, and Indian creek, Somonauk, Rock and Blackberry, Wabonsie, Morgan and Mill creeks that enter Fort river, and on its western and northwestern portion, several small streams, and the south and main branches of the Kishwaukee or Scyamore, that enters Rock river. These are all excellent mill streams, and already saw and flouring mills are built or in progress. The timber is in groves, of which Au Sable, Big-woods, Little-woods and various others are thickly settled around. There is white, black, red, yellow and bur oaks, sugar maple, linden or basswood, black and white walnut, hickory, ash of various species, white poplar, ironwood, elm, some cherry, and occasional clumps of cedar along the cliffs that overhang Fox river, and other streams. Population from twelve to fifteen hundred and rapidly increasing. Kane county belongs to the seventh judicial circuit and is represented in connection with La Salle, and Iroquois. The seat of justice is not permanently located.

KNOX COUNTY.

Knox County is bounded north by Henry; east by Peoria, and a corner of Putnam; south by Fulton; and west by Warren, and a corner of Mercer. It is thirty miles long, and from twenty-four to thirty miles broad – containing 792 square miles. It is watered by Henderson and Spoon rivers, and their tributaries. The prairies in this county are large and generally of the best quality; and there are several large and excellent tracts of timber on the water courses. The soil in general is of the first quality. Knox county was laid off by the legislature in a general distribution of counties on the military tract, in January, 1825, though not organised for judicial purposes till about five years after. It belongs to the fifth judicial circuit, and with Warren and Henry sends one member to each branch of the legislature. Population about 2000. Seat of justice, Knoxville.

LA SALLE COUNTY.

La Salle County was formed in 1831. It is bounded north by Kane, east by Will, south by Livingston and M’Lean, and west by Putnam. It is 48 miles long from east to west, and 36 miles wide, with an addition of four townships projecting south from its southwest corner-containing about 1864 square miles. Besides the Illinois river, which passes through it, Fox river, Big and Little Vermilion, Crow creek, Au Sable, Indian creek, Mason, Tomahawk, and several smaller streams water this county. In general, the streams in this part of the state run over a rocky or gravelly bed, and have but few alluvial bottoms near them. Like the adjacent counties, La Salle is deficient in timber; but contains abundance of rich, undulating, dry prairie, fine mill streams, extensive coal beds, and must eventually become a rich county. Its situation will enable the population to send off their produce either by the Illinois river to a southern market, or by the lakes to the north. La Salle county belongs to the seventh judicial circuit and with Kane sends one representative, and, with the addition of Iroquois, one senator to the legislature. The seat of justice is Ottawa.

LAWRENCE COUNTY.

Lawrence County was formed in 1821, from a part of Edwards and Crawford, and is situated on the eastern side of the state, opposite Vincennes. It is bounded north by Crawford, and a corner of Jasper; east by the Wabash river; south by Wabash and Edwards counties; and west by Clay. It is twenty miles across, north and south, and a medium length of twenty-eight miles-containing about 560 square miles. It is watered by the Embarras river, and Racoon creek, which pass through it, and Fox river on its western border. The banks of these streams are low and subject to inundation. In the low prairies, near the Wabash, are swamps and sloughs, known by the name of “purgatory,” which, in a wet season, are miry, and extremely unpleasant to the traveler. Over someof these, bridges and levees are now constructed. In a dry season, the water evaporates, and the ground becomes firm. Lawrence county contains about an equal proportion of timber and prairie, some of which is inferior land, and other portions of an excellent quality. Its exports are corn, beef, pork, cattle, etc., much of which is sent down the Big Wabash in flat boats to New Orleans. This county belongs to the fourth judicial circuit, and sends two members to the house of representatives, and, with Crawford and Jasper one to the senate. The county seat is Lawrenceville.

LIVINGSTON COUNTY.

Livingston County was formed from La Salle, McLean, and an attached portion of Vermilion county, in February, 1837. It is 36 miles long, and about 30 miles wide; containing about 1040 square miles. It is bounded north by La Salle, east by a strip of country attached to Vermilion, south by the same tract, and McLean, and west by McLean and La Salle counties. It contains some rich tracts of timbered land, and a large quantity of fine rich undulating prairie. It is watered by the Mackinau and its branches, and by the Muddy Fork, Otter Fork, and other small streams. Limestone and coal are its principal minerals. Livingston county belongs to the first judicial circuit, while one portion is represented in the legislature by the representation of La Salle, and the other by that of McLean. Its seat of justice is not yet established.

MACON COUNTY.

Macon County was formed from the attached part of Shelby, in 1829, and is bounded north by McLean; east by Champaign and Coles; south by Shelby; and west by Sangamon. It is thirty-nine miles long, and thirty-six broad-containing 1,404 square miles. The southeastern portion is watered by the Kaskaskia and its tributaries; the middle and northern portions by the North Fork of the Sangamon; and the northwestern part by Salt creek. There is much first rate land in Macon county. Some of the prairies are large, and, in the interior, level and wet; but generally dry, rich, and undulating near the timber. Macon county is attached to the first judicial circuit and sends one representative, and with McLean county, one senator. The population is estimated at 3,600. The county seat is Decatur.

MADISON COUNTY.

Madison County was organised from St. Clair county, in 1812, and then embraced a large portion of the state. It now bounded north by Greene Macoupin and a corner of Montgomery counties; east, by Bond, and a corner of Clinton south by St. Clair; and west by the Mississippi. It is 24 miles from north to south; and from 28 to 36 miles from east to west-and contains about 750 square miles. It is watered by Silver and Cahokia creeks, and Wood river, and their branches. A portion of this county lies in the American bottom, but much of it is high, undulating, and proportionably divided into timber and prairie. Settlements were formed in this county about thirty-five years since. Coal, and building stone, are abundant. Around Alton, and along Wood river, and Cahokia creek, is one of the finest bodies of timber in this part of the state. The prairies are very advantageously situated for settlements, and will soon be covered with well cultivated farms. Wheat, corn, beef, pork, horses, cattle, and almost every production of Illinois, are raised in this county, and find a ready market. Madison county belongs to the second judicial circuit, and sends one senator and two representatives to the legislature, and unites with St. Clair and Monroe in another senator. The seat of justice is Edwardsville.

MACOUPIN COUNTY.

Macoupin County was organised from the attached portion of Greene county, in 1829. It is bounded north by Sangamon and Morgan; east by Montgomery; south by Madison; and west by Greene. It is thirty-six miles long, from north to south; and twenty-four miles broad – containing 864 square miles. The Macoupin creek and its branches water the middle and western parts, the Cahokia creek the southeastern, and the heads of Wood river and Piasau, the southwestern parts of the county. Some of the prairies on the eastern side are large, level, and wet; but a large portion of the county is excellent soil, and well proportioned into timber and prairie, and rapidly settling. About one-third of the county is timbered land. It is an excellent agricultural county, and will soon produce large quantities of pork, beef, wheat, etc., which will naturally reach the market at Alton. Macoupin county sends one member to the house of representatives, and one to the senate. The county seat is Carlinville.

MARION COUNTY.

Marion County lies in the interior of the state, and is bounded north by Fayette; east by Clay, and a corner of Wayne; south by Jefferson; and West by Clinton, and a corner of Fayette. It was formed from Jefferson and Fayette counties, in 1823 is twenty-four miles in extent, and contains 576 square miles. Marion county embraces the southern part of the Grand prairie, and is watered by Crooked creek, and the East Fork of the Kaskaskia, on its western, and Skillet Fork on its eastern side. It has considerable land of second quality; about one third timber, and the rest prairie. Considerable post oak timber is found in this county. Marion county is attached to the third judicial circuit, sends one member to the house of representatives, and, with Clinton, one member to the senate. The county seat is Salem. Population, 3,000.

MCDONOUGH COUNTY.

McDonoush County was formed from Pike county, in 1805 but not organised till 1829. It is situated in the centre of the military tract; is bounded north by Warren; east by Fulton; south by Schuyler; and west by Hancock. It is twenty-four miles square, with an area of sixteen townships, 576 square miles, and 368,640 acres. Crooked creek and its branches water most of this tract. The eastern side of McDonough county for eight or ten miles in width is prairie; the remainder is suitably proportioned into timber and prairie of the richest quality. A tract of country, fifteen or twenty miles square, taken from the eastern side of Hancock and the western half of McDonough, is not excelled for agricultural purposes by any portion of the great valley. Most of the streams have good mill seats for a portion of the year. McDonough county is attached to the fifth judicial circuit, sends one representative, and, with Hancock, one senator to the legislature. The seat of justice is Macomb.

MCHENRY COUNTY.

McHenry County was formed from Cook county, January, 1836, and is bounded north by Wisconsin Territory; east by lake Michigan; south by Cook; and west by Boone county. It is about forty miles long and twenty-four miles wide, containing about 960 square miles. This includes only its land area. Its legal boundary extends east to the middle of Lake Michigan. It is watered by the north branch of the Chicago, Des Plaines, Fox river and branches, together with Cache M – re, Crystal and other small lakes. Some of these lakes have limpid water, gravelly beds, with ridges of gravel and sand around them. East side of Fox river, the soil approaches to a clay, while on the western side it is a rich, sandy loam. Timber abounds along the lake shore, and near the streams, with many beautiful groves and oak openings in the interior. It is similar in quality to Kane and Ogle counties. Limestone is plenty. McHenry belongs to the seventh judicial circuit, and is connected with Cook and Will counties in its representation. The seat of justice is not yet located.

McLEAN COUNTY.

McLean County has Livingston and La Salle on the north; an irregular strip of country, and a corner of Champaign county, east; Macon, south; Sangamon touches it on the southwest; and Tazewell lies west. It is from twenty-eight to forty-eight miles long, and forty-two to twelve broad, having 1,675 square miles. One third of the eastern, and a portion of the northern side of this county is one vast prairie, and yet it has large tracts of the finest timbered land in the state. The timber is beautifully arranged in groves of various shapes and sizes, from those of fifteen or eighteen square miles, down to those of a few acres. McLean county is watered by the Kickapoo, Sugar creek, and Salt creek, all which take their rise in the prairies of this county. The heads of the Vermilion river of the Illinois are found in the northeastern corner and those of Sangamon are on the eastern skirts. These streams furnish good mill seats when the water is not too low. The country is elevated, moderately undulating, and of a rich soil. Where timber exists it is usually of excellent quality. Here are to be found oak of various species, walnut, hickory, ash, sugar maple, elm, hackberry, linden, cherry, and many other kinds. Papaw is frequently amongst the smaller growth. Of the minerals, limestone is found on the branches of the Vermilion. Granite, in detached masses, or boulders, called by the settlers “lost rocks,” and used for mill stones, are plentifully scattered over the country. Coal is found in several settlements. McLean county sends two representatives, and, with Macon, one senator to the legislature. The seat of justice is Bloomington.

MERCER COUNTY.

Mercer County lies north of Warren; west of Henry; and south of Rock Island counties, and has the Mississippi on its western side. It is about thirty-two miles long and eighteen miles wide, containing about 550 square miles. It is watered by Edwards and Pope rivers, and the northern branches of Henderson river, along which are excellent tracts of timber, as there is on the borders of the Mississippi. Its middle and eastern parts have extensive tracts of prairie. It is said that the seasons are more uniform, the winters more severe, and the summers more pleasant than in the counties further south; but the frosts of spring do not injure the labours of the husbandman. The soil is rich, undulating and excellent for farming. Mercer is attached to the sixth judicial circuit, and unites with Rock Island and Jo Daviess counties, in sending two representatives and one senator to the legislature. The seat of justice is New Boston.

MONROE COUNTY.

Monroe County was formed out of Randolph and St. Clair counties, in 1816. It is bounded north by St. Clair; east by St. Clair and Randolph; south by Randolph; and west by the Mississippi. Its shape is quite irregular; its average length is twenty miles; average width eighteen miles, containing about 360 square miles. It is watered by Horse, Prairie de Long and Eagle creeks. Tha American bottom, which is alluvion, runs through the county adjacent to the Mississippi, and is divided into timber and prairies. On the bluffs, the country is hilly and broken, with sink holes. Around Waterloo, and New Design, and on the eastern border of the county, is considerable good land, and a mixture of timber and prairie. Monroe county is attached to the second judicial circuit, and sends one member to the house of representatives, and one to the senate. The seat of justice is Waterloo.

MONTGOMERY COUNTY.

Montgomery Countywas formed from Bond, in 1821. It is bounded north by Sangamon; east by Shelby and Fayette; south by Bond; and west by Madison and Macoupin counties. It is thirty-four miles long, with an average width of twenty-seven miles, and has about 960 square miles. It is watered by Shoal creek and its branches, some of the heads of the Macoupin, a branch of the South Fork of the Sangamon, and the Hurricane Fork, and is proportionally divided into timber and prairie. The surface is generally high and undulating. Montgomery county belongs to the second judicial circuit, and sends one member to the house of representatives, and, in connection with Bond one to the senate. The seat of justice is Hillsboro.

MORGAN COUNTY.

Morgan County, one of the most flourishing counties in the state, lying on the east side of the Illinois river, was formed from the attached part of Greene, in January, 1823. It is bounded north by Cass; east by Sangamon; south by Macoupin and Greene; and west by the Illinois river which separates it from Pike and Schuyler. It is thirty-four miles long; medium width, twenty-seven; area 918 square miles. The Illinois river washes its western border; Indian, Mauvaiseterre, Apple, Sandy, and several smaller creeks rise within its borders, and pass through it, furnishing many good mill seats. Morgan county is destined to become one of the richest agricultural counties in the state. In 1821, the tract of country embraced within the limits of this county, contained only twenty families. In 1825, its population was 4,052; in 1830, it was 13,281; and now, is estimated at 20,000, without Cass county. It is well proportioned into timber and prairie, well watered, and contains many extensive and well cultivated farms. In this county are more than thirty mills for sawing and grinding, propelled by animal or water power. Seven large steam mills are in operation, and two more have been commenced, and will be finished the present year. Improved farms, in the populous parts of the county, sell for from ten to twenty dollars per acre; several towns and villages have been commenced besides Jacksonville, which are in a thriving condition. Emigration, attended with industry and enterprise, in a few fleeting years, has changed a region that we have seen in all the wildness of uncultivated nature, into smiling villages and luxuriant fields, and rendered it the happy abode of intelligence and virtue. Morgan county belongs to the first judicial circuit, sends six members to the house of representatives, and three to the senate. The seat of justice is Jacksonville.

OGLE COUNTY.

Ogle County was formed from Jo Daviess, and a part of the attached portion of La Salle, January, 1836. It is from 36 to 42 miles long, and 36 miles wide; – containing about 1440 square miles. Rock river passes diagonally through its northwestern portion, Winnebago Swamp and Inlet, and several other swamps are in its southern part. Pine, Leaf, and Kite rivers, and several smaller streams, all of which empty themselves into Rock river, furnish good mill seats. The timber is chiefly in groves, many of which are peculiarly beautiful, and of various shapes and sizes. Much of the surface is undulating, the soil calcareous, deep and rich, and the country is rapidly settling. The present population may be estimated at 1,200. Ogle county belongs to the sixth judicial circuit; – its representative connection is with Jo Daviess and several other counties. Its courts are held temporarily at Oregon city, but its seat of justice is not permanently established.

PEORIA COUNTY.

Peoria County lies on the west side of the Illinois river, about two hundred miles by water, and a hundred and fifty by land, above the junction of the Mississippi. This county contains considerable tracts of excellent land. Its principal settlements are Peoria, Kickapoo creek, La Salle prairie, Senatchwine, Prince’s and Harkness’ settlements. It is watered by the Kickapoo, the heads of Spoon river, Copperas creek and the Senatchwine. On the Kickapoo, and on the shore of Peoria lake, for several miles, the timber is good but the prairie predominates. Peoria county was formed from Pike county, in 1825, and is bounded north by Putnam; east by Tazewell; south by Fulton; and west by Knox. It is about twenty-seven miles long, and has an average width of twenty-four miles – containing about 648 square miles. One of the principal roads to Galena passes through this county. The surface of the land is moderately rolling; on the Kickapoo it degenerates into bluffs and ravines. In the western and northwestern portion there is a scarcity of timber. Between Peoria and La Salle prairie is heavy timber, from two to five miles in width, and in places beyond the bluffs. In the bottom land adjoining the lake, are spots that overflow; but, in general, it is fit for cultivation. The bottom timber consists of oaks of various species, white and black walnut, ash, hackberry, locust and some hickory, buckeye, coffee nut, and grape vines. Peoria County belongs to the sixth judicial circuit, and sends one representative, and with Putnam, one senator to the legislature. The seat of justice is Peoria.

PERRY COUNTY.

Perry County was organised from Randolph and Jackson counties, in 1827, and is bounded north by Washington; east by Jefferson and Franklin; south by Jackson; and west by Randolph. It is twenty-five miles long, from east to west, and eighteen miles wide – containing 447 square miles. The Big Beaucoup and its tributaries run through the middle of this county, from north to south, and the Little Muddy touches its eastern border. About one third of Perry county is prairie, tolerably level, good soil, and susceptible of immediate cultivation. Its productions are corn, beef cattle, pork, tobacco, and some cotton. This little county has sent to market many fat steers and fat hogs per annum. Perry sends one member to the house of representatives, and with Washington, one member to the senate. It belongs to the third judicial circuit. Pinckneyville is the seat of justice.

PIKE COUNTY.

Pike County is the oldest county on the military tract, and was erected from Madison and other counties, in 1821. It then embraced the whole country north and west of the Illinois river; but by the subsequent formation of new counties, it is now reduced to ordinary size, containing about twenty-two townships, or 800 square miles. It is bounded north, by Adams; east, by Schuyler, and the Illinois river; south, by that river and Calhoun; and west by the Mississippi. Besides the Mississippi and Illinois rivers, which wash two sides, it has the Snycartee slough running the whole length of its western border, which affords steamboat navigation to Atlas at a full stage of water. Pike county is watered by the Pigeon, Hadley, Keys, Black, Dutch, Church, Six Mile, and Bay creeks, which fall into the Mississippi; and Big and Little Blue, and the North and West forks of McKee’s creeks, which enter the Illinois. Good mill seats are furnished by these streams. The land is various. The section of country, or rather island between the Snycartee slough and the Mississippi, is a sandy soil, but mostly inundated land at the spring floods. It furnishes a great summer and winter range for stocks, affording considerable open prairies; with skirts of heavy bottom timher near the streams. Along the bluffs, and for two or three miles back, the land is chiefly timbered but cut up with ravines, and quite rolling. In the interior, and towards Schuyler county, excellent prairie and timbered uplands are found especially about the Blue rivers and McKee’s creek. This must eventually become a rich and populous county. In Pleasant Vale, on Key’s creek, is a salt spring, twenty feet in diameter, which boils from the earth, and throws off a stream of some size forming a salt pond in its vicinity. Salt has been made here though not in great quantities. Pike county is connected with Adams and Hancock, and sends two representatives and one senator to the legislature, and belongs to the fifth judicial circuit. The seat of justice is Pittsfield.

POPE COUNTY.

Pope County was formed from Gallatin and Johnson counties, and is situated in the southern part or the state, and is bounded north by Gallatin, east and south by the Ohio river; and west by Johnson county. It was organised as a county, in 1816, by the territorial government; and, after having been subsequently reduced, is now thirty-six miles long, with a medium width of about sixteen miles, and an area of 576 square miles. The Ohio makes a bend so as to wash its eastern and southern sides, and project into the interior. Big Bay creek rises towards its northwestern corner, and, after entering Johnson county, turns again into Pope, and runs a southeastern course to the Ohio. Lusk’s creek, and some smaller streams, give it the character of a well watered county. It is generally well timbered with the varieties that abound on that side of the state; the surface is tolerably level; the soil of a good quality, but rather sandy. Corn, beef, pork, oats, potatoes, horses, etc., are articles of exportation in considerable quantities. Pope county sends one member to the house of representatives, and with Johnson, one to the senate. It belongs to the third judicial circuit. The seat of justice is Golconda.

PUTNAM COUNTY.

Putnam County was formed from Pike county in 1825, but not organised for judicial purposes till 1831, when the boundaries were altered. It is now situated on both sides of the Illinois river, and is bounded north by Ogle, and Whiteside counties; east by La Salle; south by Tazewell and Peoria; and west by Henry and a portion of Knox counties. It is thirty-six miles long, and thirty six miles broad, besides a fractional portion in its south eastern part – and contains about 1,340 square miles. The Illinois river enters this county on its eastern border, makes a large bend and passes out at its southern side. The Bureau, Crow, and some smaller streams enter the Illinois within this county, and Spoon river waters its western border. Some of the finest lands in the state are in this county; beautiful groves of timber, and rich, undulating, and dry prairies. There are a number of large settlements of industrious and thrifty farmers, amongst which are Bureau Grove, Ox Bow Prairie, Knox’s settlement, Spoon river settlement, and Strawn’s settlement. Population about 4,800. There are many fine springs in the county, and excellent mill seats on the streams. Besides oaks of several species, there are most of the varieties of timber common to the state, as black and white walnut, sugar maple, blue, white, and hoop ash, elm, cherry, aspen, iron wood, buckeye, linden, locust, mulberry, etc. Lime stone, sand stone, free stone and bituminous coal, are its principal mineral productions, and in sufficient quantities. Produce will be sent down the Illinois river in steam boats from Hennepin. A few tracts of prairie in this country are level and wet, and there are some small ponds and swamps in the northern part. In this county are three Presbyterian, two Baptist, one Congregational, and three or four Methodist societies, a county Bible society that has twice supplied all the destitute with Bibles, a temperance society, a county Sunday School Union, ten Sunday schools, a county lyceum, and several other philanthropic societies. Putnam county belongs to the sixth judicial circuit, and sends one representative, and with Peoria one senator to the legislature. The seat of justice is Hennepin.

RANDOLPH COUNTY.

Randolph County was formed before the organization of the territory of Illinois, and is the oldest county, except St. Clair, in the state. It is bounded north by Monroe, St Clair, and Washington counties; east by Perry; south by the Mississippi river and a corner of Jackson county; and west by the Mississippi. Its medium length and breadth is about twenty-four miles, though from curvatures of the Mississippi, it contains but about 540 square miles. It is watered by the Kaskaskia river, and St. Mary, Horse, and some smaller creeks. The soil is of various kinds; from first rate to indifferent, and has a diversity of surface, from the low alluvion, and the undulating prairie, to the rugged bluffs and abrupt precipices. Randolph county belongs to the second judicial circuit, sends two members to the house of representatives, and one to the senate. County seat, Kaskaskia.

ROCK ISLAND.

Rock Island is a small irregularly shaped county, formed from portions of Mercer and Jo Daviess counties, in 1831, but subsequently organised by the judge of the fifth judicial circuit. The boundaries of this county, as defined by law, begin “at the middle of the main channel of the Mississippi, where the north line of township fifteen north intersects the same; thence east, to the fourth principal meridian; thence north, with said meridian, to the middle of the main channel of Rock river; thence up said channel to the confluence of the Marais d’Ogee slough or creek; thence along said slough to the middle of the Mississippi river, and down that channel to the place of beginning.” It contains about 400 square miles. Rock river, and some minor streams, water this county. Rock Island, in the Mississippi, is included in this county. The soil along the Mississippi for twenty-five miles is alluvion, sandy, and rich, including the site of the old Sauk village. There is much good land in the interior of the county, between the rivers. This county elects a senator and representative in conjunction with Jo Daviess and Mercer. The county seat is Stephenson.

SANGAMON COUNTY.

Sangamon County is one of the largest and most flourishing, counties in the state. It is bounded on the north by Tazewell; east, by Macon; south by Montgomery and Macoupin; and west by Cass and Morgan counties. The northwestern corner runs down between the Sangamon river, which separates it from Cass county, and Tazewell county, to the Illinois river. It is forty-eight miles long, besides the corner mentioned; and forty-five miles wide – containing, in the whole, an area of about 1,270 square miles. Sangamon county is watered by the Sangamon river and its numerous branches. Those which take their rise within the limits of the county are Clary’s, Rock, Richland, Prairie, Spring, Lick, Sugar, Horse, and Brush creeks, on the south side, proceeding upward in the arrangement; and Crane, Indian, Cantrill’s, Fancy, Wolf, and Clear creeks, which enter from the opposite side. Those branches which rise without the county, and yet run a considerable distance within it, are Salt creek and branches, North Fork, and South Fork. These streams not only furnish this county with an abundance of excellent water and a number of good mill seats, but are lined with extensive tracts of first rate timbered land. Here are oaks of various species, walnut, sugar maple, elm, linden, hickory, ash, hackberry, honey locust, mulberry, sycamore, cotton wood, sassafras, etc., together with the various shrubs, common to the country. The size of the prairies in Sangamon county is seized upon as an objection, by persons who are not accustomed to a prairie country. But were the timber a little more equally distributed with prairie surface, its supply would be abundant. The prairies vary in width from one to eight or ten miles, and somewhat indefinite in length, being connected at the heads of the streams. Much of the soil in this county is of the richest quality, being a calcareous loam, from one to three feet deep, intermixed with fine sand. The point of land that lies between the Sangamon and the Illinois rivers, which is chiefly prairie, is divided betwixt inundated land, dry prairie, and sand ridges. A stranger to observations upon the surface of Illinois, upon first sight, would pronounce most parts of Sangamon county a level or plane. It is not so. With the exception of the creek bottoms and the interior of large prairies, it has an undulating surface, quite sufficient to render it one of the finest agricultural districts in the United States. These remarks are not meant exclusively for Sangamon. They apply with equal propriety to many other counties on both sides of the Illinois river. What has been heretofore known to persons abroad as the Sangamon country, may now be included in a large district, containing a number of large and populous counties. This county contains a larger quantity of rich land than any other in the state, and therefore can maintain a larger agricultural population, which is the great basis of national wealth. A distinguished writer, speaking of the state of Illinois, and particularly of this portion of it, remarks in a letter to a friend from Springfield, Illinois, – of March 2d: “Our ‘far west’ is improving rapidly, astonishingly. It is five years since I visited it, and the changes within that period are like the work of enchantment. Flourishing towns have grown up, farms have been opened, comfortable dwellings, fine barns and all appurtenances, in a country in which the hardy pioneer had at that time sprinkled a few log cabins. The conception of Coleridge may be realised sooner than he anticipated. The possible destiny of the U. States as a nation of a hundred millions of freemen – stretching from the Atlantic to the Pacific, living under the laws of Alfred, and speaking the language of Shakspeare and Milton, is an august conception – why should we not wish to see it realized! On the subject of internal improvements the young giant of the west is making Herculean efforts – a bill passed the legislature last winter appropriating eight millions of dollars for railroads, canals, &c, works which, when completed, will cost twenty millions. A bill also passed transferring the seat of government from Vandalia, in Fayette county, to this place, Springfield, which is in the fertile district of Sangamon county, and as near as may be to the geographical centre of the state, and soon will be the centre of population. “The state of Illinois has probably the finest body of fertile land of any state in the Union, and the opportunities for speculation are numerous – property will continue to advance – admirable, farms and town lots may be purchased with a certainty of realising large profits. The country here is beautiful – equal in native attractions though not in classic recollections to the scenes I visited and admired in Italy. The vale of Arno is not more beautiful than the valley of Sangamon, with its lonely groves and murmuring brooks and flowing meads. – ‘Oh Italy, sweet clime of song, where oft The bard hath sung thy beauties, matchless deemed, Thou hast a rival in this western land.'” The first settlement on the waters of the Sangamon, made by white people for a permanent abode, was in 1819; the county was organised in 1821, and then embraced a tract of country 125 miles long, and seventy-five broad. The public lands were first offered for sale in November, 1823, by which time, however, farms of considerable size, even to 100 acres of cultivated land, had been made. At the present time, the borders of the prairies are covered with hundreds of smiling farms, and the interior animated with thousands of domestic animals. The rough and unseemly cabin is giving place to comfortable framed or brick tenements, and plenty every where smiles upon the labors of the husbandman. This county is in the geographical centre of the state, and will eventually be in the centre of population. Its river market and deposit is Beardstown; but much of its imports will be received and its exports sent off by its own river, which has already been navigated by steam to the vicinity of Springfield, and when some of its obstructions are removed, will afford convenient navigation for steamboats of the smaller class. Its exports now are beef cattle, pork, wheat, flour, corn meal, butter, cheese, etc. and soon will include almost every article of a rich, agricultural country. Sangamon county belongs to the first judicial circuit, sends seven members to the house of representatives, and two members to the senate. Its population, at the last census, was 17,573, its number now would exceed 20,000. Villages and towns are springing up, some of which may become places of note, as Athens, New Salem, Richland, Salisbury, Greenfield, Rochester, etc. The seat of justice is Springfield.

SCHUYLER COUNTY.

Schuyler County was formed from Pike county, in 1825, and lies on the Illinois river, opposite Morgan county. It is bounded north by McDonough, and a corner of Fulton; east by Fulton, and the Illinois river; south by the Illinois river, and Pike; and west by Adams and a corner of Hancock. The southeastern side is washed by the Illinois, the interior is watered by Crooked and Crane creeks, the south western by McKee’s creek, and the northeastern part by Sugar creek. Schuyler county is of an irregular shape, thirty miles long, and from eighteen to thirty broad – containing about 864 square miles. Along the Illinois river is considerable land inundated at high floods, generally heavily timbered, as is more than one half of the county. The middle and northern portions are divided into timber and prairie of an excellent quality. Along Crooked creek is an extensive body of fine timber. Sugar creek also furnishes another body of timber eight or ten miles wide. Schuyler county is attached to the fifth judicial circuit, and sends two members to the house of representatives, and one member to the senate. Rushville is the county seat.

SHELBY COUNTY.

Shelby County was formed from Fayette, in 1827, and is bounded on the north by Macon; east by Coles; south by Effingham and Fayette; and west by Montgomery, and a corner of Sangamon. It is thirty-six miles long and thirty broad – area, 1,080 square miles. It is watered by the Kaskaskia and tributaries. Shelby county contains a large amount of excellent land, both timber and prairie, and is one of the best inland agricultural counties in the state. Shelby sends one member to the house of representatives, and one to the senate. It belongs to the second judicial circuit. The population is about 5,500. The seat of justice is Shelbyville.

ST. CLAIR COUNTY.

St. Clair County is the oldest county in the state, and was formed by the legislature of the Northwestern Territory in 1794 or ’95, and then included all the settlements on the eastern side of the Mississippi. It now lies on that river opposite St. Louis, and is bounded north by Madison county; east by Clinton and Washington; and south by Randolph and Monroe counties – containing 1,030 square miles. The land is various, much of which is good first and second rate soil, and is proportionably divided into timber, prairie, and barrens. The prairies are distinguished as Looking Glass, Twelve Mile, Ogle’s, Ridge, Bottom, and Du Pont prairies. The streams are Cahokia, Prairie du Pont, Ogle’s creek, Silver creek, Richland creek, Prairie de Long, and the Kaskaskia river. Its timber comprises the varieties found on the western side of the state. The exports are beef, pork, flour, and all the varieties in the St. Louis market. Extensive coal banks exist in this county, along the bluffs, from which St. Louis is partially supplied with fuel. The quantity hauled there in wagons, in 1836, amounted to about 300,000 bushels. A railroad is now making from these mines to the river, opposite St. Louis, by a private company. There are five steam mills in this county, besides a number propelled by water and animal power. Belleville and Lebanon are its principal towns. Cahokia and Illinois are small villages. The people of this county are a mixture of Americans, French, and Germans, about 10,000 in number. St. Clair county belongs to the second judicial circuit, and sends one senator and two representatives to the legislature, and, with Madison and Monroe, an additional senator. The seat of justice is Belleville.

STEPHENSON COUNTY.

Stephenson County was formed from Jo Daviess and Winnebago counties, in February, 1837, and is bounded north by Wisconsin Territory, east by Winnebago county, south by Ogle and Jo Daviess, and west by Jo Daviess county. It is 27 miles long, and 21 miles wide, containing about 560 square miles. It is watered by the Peekatonokee and its tributaries on the north, and the heads of Plum river and smaller streams in the southwestern part. The timber is mostly in groves; the prairies generally undulating and rich, with tracts of hilly barrens and oak openings. The population is not large, but rapidly settling, as are all the northern counties. For judicial and representative purposes it is attached to Jo Daviess county.

TAZEWELL COUNTY.

Tazewell County was formed from Peoria county, in 1827. It is bounded north by Putnam; east by McLean; south by Sangamon; and has the Illinois river along its northwestern border, which gives it a triangular form. Its extreme length is forty-eight miles, and its extreme width forty-two miles-containing about 1,160 square miles. It is watered by the Illinois river, which extends the whole length of its northwestern side, Mackinaw and its branches Ten Mile, Farm, and Blue creeks, all which enter the Illinois, with some of the head branches of the Sangamon. A strip of this county, consisting mostly of sandy prairies, puts down the Illinois river, and between that and Sangamon. On the bluffs of the Mackinau and the other streams, the land is broken, and the timber chiefly oak; in other portions of the county it has an undulaung appearance and has much good land. Below Pekin, and towards Havanna, are swamps, ponds, and sand ridges. The south eastern portion of the county is watered by Sugar creek and its branches. This will soon be a rich agricultural county. Pleasant Grove and the adjacent country is delightful. Tazewell county belongs to the first judicial circuit, and sends one senator and two representatives to the legislature. The county seat is Tremont.

UNION COUNTY.

Union County was formed from Johnson county, in 1818, and is bounded north by Jackson; east by Franklin; south by Alexander; and west by the Mississippi river. It is twenty-four miles long, and from twenty to twenty-six miles broad, containing above 396 square miles, and is watered by Clear creek, some of the south branches of Big Muddy, and the heads, of Cash river. A large bend of the Big Muddy projects a few miles into the county towards its northwestern portion, and some sloughs and ponds are found on the Mississippi bottom. Much of this county is high, rolling, timbered land. Here are found oaks of various kinds, hickory, white and black walnut, poplar, some beech, and other species of timber common to the country. There is considerable German population in this county. Union county belongs to the third judicial circuit, and sends one member to the house of representatives, and, with Alexander, one to the senate. The exports from this county are corn, beef, pork, hordes, etc. Large quantities of produce from this county go down the river to New Orleans in flat boats. The county seat is Jonesboro.

VERMILION COUNTY.

Vermilion County was formed from Edgar, in 1826, and lies north of Edgar and Coles; east of Champaign; south of Iroquois, and west of the state of Indiana. It is forty-two miles long, and about twenty-four miles wide, containing about 1,000 square miles. Vermilion county is watered by the Big and Little Vermilion rivers and tributaries, and contains large bodies of excellent land. In the eastern part of the county the timber predominates, amongst which is the poplar and beech. Along the streams are oaks of various species, hickroy, walnut linden, hackberry, ash, elm, and various other kinds common to Illinois. The soil of the prairies is a calcareous loam, from one to three feet deep. Iheir surface is generally dry and undulating. The exports are pork, beef, corn, salt, etc., which find a convenient market at the towns on the Wabash, and down that river to New Orleans. In due time much of the produce of the Vermilion country will pass by the way of Chicago and the lakes; and up the Wabash, and through a canal to Lake Erie. It would be no difficulty matter to open a water communication between the Wabash and Illinois rivers, and thus furnish an outlet for the productions of this part of the state in every direction. Population about 9,500. It is attached to the fourth judicial circuit, and sends three members to the house of representatives, and, with Champaign, one to the senate. The seat of justice is Danville.

WABASH COUNTY.

Wabash County was formed from Edwards county, in 1824, and is bounded north by Lawrence; east by the Wabash river; south it terminates in a point between the Bon Pas which divides it from Edwards county, and Wabash river; and west by Edwards county. It is eighteen miles long, and from ten to fifteen miles broad, with the eastern side irregularly curvated by the Wabash river. It has about 180 square miles. Wabash county is watered by the Wabash river on its eastern, and Bon Pas creek on its western border, and Crawfish, Jordan, and Coffee creeks, from its interior. It contains considerable good land, both timber and prairie, and a full proportion of industrious and thriving farmers. This county sends one member to the house of representatives, and, with Edwards and Wayne, one to the senate. It belongs to the fourth judicial circuit. The seat of justice is Mount Carmel.

WARREN COUNTY.

Warren County was formed from Pike county, in 1825, but not organised till 1830. It contains extensive tracts of first rate land, and several fine settlements. It lies on the Mississippi, north of Hancock and McDonough, west of Knox, and south of Mercer. Its prominent stream is Henderson river and branches; Ellison, Honey, and Camp creeks are in Warren. The land on these streams is generally a little undulating, rich, and where timber exists, it is excellent. A number of good mill seats exist. Much of the bottom in this county that lies on the river is low, subject to inundation, and has a series of sand ridges back of it, with bold and pointed bluffs further in the rear. North of Henderson river is an extensive prairie, which divides it from Pope and Edwards rivers. Warren county is about thirty miles in extent, and contains about 900 square miles. It belongs to the fifth judicial circuit, and, with Knox and Henry counties, sends one member to each branch of the legislature. The seat of justice is Monmouth.

WASHINGTON COUNTY.

Washington County was formed from St. Clair, in January, 1818, and is bounded north by Clinton; east by Jefferson; south by Perry, and a corner of Randolph, and west by St. Clair. It is thirty miles long and from fifteen to twenty miles broad, containing about 656 square miles. The Kaskaskia river runs along the northwestern side for eighteen miles, Elkhorn creek waters its western, Beaucoup and Little Muddy its southeastern, and Crooked creek, and some smaller streams, its northern portions. Considerable prairie, especially the southern points of the Grand prairie, is found in this county, some if which is rather level and wet, and of an inferior quality. A large body of timber lines the banks of the Kaskaskia river. The produce of this county is pork, beef cattle, and other articles common to the adjacent parts. The timber is oak of various kinds, hickory, elm, ash, and the timber common to the Kaskaskia river. Washington county is attached to the second judicial circuit, and sends two members to the house of representatives, and unites also with Perry in sending one to the senate. The county seat is Nashville.

WAYNE COUNTY.

Wayne County was formed from Edwards, in 1819, and is situated in the southeastern part of the state, and is bounded on the north by Clay; east by Edwards; south by Hamilton, and a corner of White; and west by Jefferson and Marion. It is thirty miles long, twenty-four miles wide, and contains 720 square miles. The Little Wabash passes through its eastern part, and Elm river and Skillet fork water the northern portions of the county. It is proportionably interspersed with prairie and woodland, generally of a second quality. The productions of this county for exportation are beef, pork, cattle, and some peltry, which are sent down the Little Wabash in flat boats to New Orleans, or find a market over land to Shawneetown. Wayne county belongs to the fourth judicial circuit, and sends one member to the house of representatives, and, with Edwards and Wabash, one member to the senate. County seat Fairfield.

WHITE COUNTY.

White County was organised from Gallatin county, in 1815. It is situated in the south eastern side of the state. Its form is nearly square, about twehty-two miles in extent, – containing an area of nearly 480 square miles. It is bounded north by Wabash, Edwards, and Wayne counties; east by the Big Wabash river, south by Gallatin, and west by Hamilton counties. The eastern side of this county is washed by the Big Wabash, along which is a low bottom, subject to inundation; the interior is watered by the Little Wabash and its tributaries,. The banks of these streams are heavily timbered, among which are oaks of several species, hickory, walnut, hackberry, elm, ash, and poplar. Between the streams are fine prairies most of which are cultivated; the principal of which are the Big, Burnt, and Seven Mile. The exports of White county are pork, beef, and beef cattle, corn, flour, venison hams, horses, and some tobacco. Horses and cattle are sent in droves to the south, and produce descends the river to New Orleans from this and the adjacent counties, in large quantities. There are three water mills in this county for flouring and sawing, which do good business. White county is attached to the fourth judicial circuit, has a population of between six and seven thousand inhabitants, and sends two members to the house of representatives, and one to the senate. The seat of justice is Carmi.

WHITESIDE COUNTY.

Whiteside County was formed from Jo Daviess in January, 1836, and is bounded north by that county; east by Ogle; south by Henry and Putnam, and west by Rock Island county, and the Mississippi river. It is from 27 to 36 miles long, and about 24 miles wide – containing about 770 square miles. It is watered by Rock river, which passes diagonally through it, Little Rock, Marais d’ Ogee lake and Swamp that divide it from Rock Island county, Cat-tail swamp, and several small streams. It has some tracts of heavy timber along Rock river and Little Rock, besides groves, copses, and brushy swamps. Some of its prairie land is flat, while other portions are beautifully undulating and rich. Its population is yet small, and in its judicial and representative connections, it is attached to Jo Daviess county.

WILL COUNTY.

Will County was formed from portions of Cook and Iroquois counties in January, 1836, rather irregularly shaped on its northern side, and is bounded north by Cook; east by the state of Indiana; south by Iroquois, and west by La Salle. It is from 30 to 24 miles from north to south and from 12 to 38 miles from west to east; and contains about 1228 square miles. Its timber is in detached portions in groves and along the water courses of the streams;-in some parts are large bodies; in other parts are extensive prairies. Much of Will county is excellent, first rate land. It is watered by the Kankakee and branches, the Des Plaines, Du Page, Hickory, Forked, Rock, Soldier, Hawkins and Dennis creeks, and some of the tributaries of the Calumet. The Illinois and Michigan Canal will pass along the Valley of the Des Plaines. Will county belongs to the seventh judicial circuit and is united with Cook county in its representation to the legislature. The seat of justice is Juliet.

WINNEBAGO COUNTY.

Winnebago County was formed from Jo Daviess and the attached portion of La Salle county in January, 1836, from which parts of Stephenson and Boone counties have since been detached. It is bounded north by Wisconsin territory, east by Boone, south by Ogle, and west by Stephenson. It is 24 miles long and 21 miles broad, having about 504 square miles. Rock river passes through it from north to south; the Peekatonokee comes in on its western border and enters Rock river in township 46 north; Kishwaukee waters its southeastern part and enters Rock river in township 43 north, besides some smaller streams. There is much excellent land in Winnebago county; – the timber is in groves and detached portions, and the prairies undulating and abundantly rich. Rock river furnishes immense water power, especially at Rockford, and all the streams abound in good mill seats. The Polish emigrants receive their lands, granted by Congress, in this county. Winnebago county belongs to the sixth judicial circuit and is attached to Jo Daviess county in its representation. The county seat is not yet permanently located.

NEW COUNTIES

Besides several new counties formed at the last session of the legislature, and which are placed in alphabetical order, provision was made by law for the formation of the following counties on condition that a majority of the voters in the counties from which they were detached, at an election provided to be held subsequently, should decide in favour of such organization.

Coffee County to be formed chiefly from Putnam with two townships from Knox, and one from Henry county, and will be bounded on the north by Putnam and Henry; east by Putnam; south by Peoria, and west by Knox and Henry; being 18 miles square, and containing 324 square miles. It is watered by Spoon river and its branches, and contains excellent land – valuable timber on the large streams and in groves, and rich, undulating prairies. Much of the county will admit of a dense population.

DeKalb County, to be formed from the western part of Kane county, will be bounded north by Boone; east by Kane; south by La Salle, and west by Ogle county. It will be 36 miles long, and 18 broad, containing 648 square miles. It is watered by the south branches of the Kishwaukee, Wabonsie, Morgan and Blackberry creeks, and some smaller streams. The timber resembles that of the adjacent counties, and is in groves, and scattered portions of oak openings. The surface generally is undulating, and the soil rich.

Michigan County, to be formed from the western part of Cook county, will be bounded north by McHenry; east by Cook; south by Will, and west by Kane county. It will be 30 miles long, and 24 miles broad, with an additional township at its southeastern corner. Fox river and its branches will water its western and northwestern portions, the heads of the Du Page its southwestern, Des Plaines will run through its southeastern corner, and Salt creek and Flag creek its eastern side. The southern portion of this county is a superior region with some large groves of timber and rich, undulating prairie. Along Fox river are cedar cliffs, and in the northeastern and middle portions are extensive prairies.

Source: Peck, J. M. A Gazetteer of Illinois; in Three Parts. Part Second. General View Of Each County In The State Of Illinois. Arranged In Alphabetical Order. Philadelphia: 1837.